Abstract

We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  23. M. A. T. Figueiredo, R. D. Nowak, and S. J. Wright, “Gradient Projection for Sparse Reconstruction: Application to Compressed Sensing and Other Inverse Problems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Signal Process.1, 586–597 (2007).
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  29. O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, G. A. Howland, M. Malik, J. C. Howell, and R. W. Boyd, “Compressive object tracking using entangled photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 231104 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

G. A. Howland and J. C. Howell, “Efficient high-dimensional entanglement imaging with a compressive-sensing double-pixel camera,” Phys. Rev. X3, 011013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, G. A. Howland, M. Malik, J. C. Howell, and R. W. Boyd, “Compressive object tracking using entangled photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 231104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express21, 8904–8915 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

L. Li, L. Wu, X. Wang, and E. Dang, “Gated viewing laser imaging with compressive sensing,” Appl. Opt.51, 2706–2712 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Flammia, D. Gross, Y.-K. Liu, and J. Eisert, “Quantum tomography via compressed sensing: error bounds, sample complexity and efficient estimators,” New J. Phys.14, 095022 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D ladar imaging,” Proc. SPIE8375, 83750D (2012).

2011 (6)

M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Comparison of 32 × 128 and 32 × 32 geiger-mode APD FPAS for single photon 3D ladar imaging,” Proc. SPIE8033, 80330G (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Donoho, A. Maleki, and A. Montanari, “The Noise- Sensitivity Phase Transition in Compressed Sensing”, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory57, 6920 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Foix, G. Alenya, and C. Torras, “Lock-in time-of-flight (TOF) cameras: A survey,” IEEE Sensors J.11, 1917–1926 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Kirmani, A. Colaço, F. N. C. Wong, and V. K. Goyal, “Exploiting sparsity in time-of-flight range acquisition using a single time-resolved sensor,” Opt. Express19, 21485–21507 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Howland, P. B. Dixon, and J. C. Howell, “Photon-counting compressive sensing laser radar for 3D imaging,” Appl. Opt.50, 5917–5920 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Babbitt, Z. W. Barber, and C. Renner, “Compressive laser ranging,” Opt. Lett.36, 4794–4796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

B. Schwarz, “Mapping the world in 3D,” Nat. Photonics4, 429–430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

C. Mallet and F. Bretar, “Full-waveform topographic lidar: State-of-the-art,” ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing64, 1–16 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussmann and T. Liepert, “Three-dimensional TOF robot vision system,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.58, 141–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. Bobin, J.-L. Starck, and R. Ottensamer, “Compressed sensing in astronomy,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Signal Process.2, 718–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Duarte, M. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. Laska, T. Sun, K. Kelly, and R. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag.25, 83–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

M. Vaidyanathan, S. Blask, T. Higgins, W. Clifton, D. Davidsohn, R. Carson, V. Reynolds, J. Pfannenstiel, R. Cannata, R. Marino, J. Drover, R. Hatch, D. Schue, R. Freehart, G. Rowe, J. Mooney, C. Hart, B. Stanley, J. McLaughlin, E. I. Lee, J. Berenholtz, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, A. Vasile, P. Ramaswami, K. Ingersoll, T. Amoruso, I. Khan, W. Davis, and R. Heinrichs, “Jigsaw phase III: a miniaturized airborne 3-D imaging laser radar with photon-counting sensitivity for foliage penetration,” Proc. SPIE6550, 65500N (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Candés and J. Romberg, “Sparsity and incoherence in compressive sampling,” Inverse Probl.23, 969 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Lustig, D. Donoho, and J. M. Pauly, “Sparse MRI: The application of compressed sensing for rapid MR imaging,” Magn. Reson. Med58, 1182–1195 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. T. Figueiredo, R. D. Nowak, and S. J. Wright, “Gradient Projection for Sparse Reconstruction: Application to Compressed Sensing and Other Inverse Problems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Signal Process.1, 586–597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. L. Donoho, “Compressed Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory52, 1289–1306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Richard and W. Davis, “Jigsaw: A foliage-penetrating 3D imaging laser radar system,” Lincoln Laboratory Journal15, 1 (2005).

2001 (1)

M. C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng.40, 10–19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alenya, G.

S. Foix, G. Alenya, and C. Torras, “Lock-in time-of-flight (TOF) cameras: A survey,” IEEE Sensors J.11, 1917–1926 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M. C.

M. C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng.40, 10–19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Amoruso, T.

M. Vaidyanathan, S. Blask, T. Higgins, W. Clifton, D. Davidsohn, R. Carson, V. Reynolds, J. Pfannenstiel, R. Cannata, R. Marino, J. Drover, R. Hatch, D. Schue, R. Freehart, G. Rowe, J. Mooney, C. Hart, B. Stanley, J. McLaughlin, E. I. Lee, J. Berenholtz, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, A. Vasile, P. Ramaswami, K. Ingersoll, T. Amoruso, I. Khan, W. Davis, and R. Heinrichs, “Jigsaw phase III: a miniaturized airborne 3-D imaging laser radar with photon-counting sensitivity for foliage penetration,” Proc. SPIE6550, 65500N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aull, B.

M. Vaidyanathan, S. Blask, T. Higgins, W. Clifton, D. Davidsohn, R. Carson, V. Reynolds, J. Pfannenstiel, R. Cannata, R. Marino, J. Drover, R. Hatch, D. Schue, R. Freehart, G. Rowe, J. Mooney, C. Hart, B. Stanley, J. McLaughlin, E. I. Lee, J. Berenholtz, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, A. Vasile, P. Ramaswami, K. Ingersoll, T. Amoruso, I. Khan, W. Davis, and R. Heinrichs, “Jigsaw phase III: a miniaturized airborne 3-D imaging laser radar with photon-counting sensitivity for foliage penetration,” Proc. SPIE6550, 65500N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Babbitt, W. R.

Baraniuk, R.

M. Duarte, M. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. Laska, T. Sun, K. Kelly, and R. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag.25, 83–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baraniuk, R. G.

V. Cevher, A. Sankaranarayanan, M. F. Duarte, D. Reddy, R. G. Baraniuk, and R. Chellappa, “Compressive sensing for background subtraction,” in Computer Vision - ECCV 2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2008) pp. 155–168.

Barber, Z. W.

Berenholtz, J.

M. Vaidyanathan, S. Blask, T. Higgins, W. Clifton, D. Davidsohn, R. Carson, V. Reynolds, J. Pfannenstiel, R. Cannata, R. Marino, J. Drover, R. Hatch, D. Schue, R. Freehart, G. Rowe, J. Mooney, C. Hart, B. Stanley, J. McLaughlin, E. I. Lee, J. Berenholtz, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, A. Vasile, P. Ramaswami, K. Ingersoll, T. Amoruso, I. Khan, W. Davis, and R. Heinrichs, “Jigsaw phase III: a miniaturized airborne 3-D imaging laser radar with photon-counting sensitivity for foliage penetration,” Proc. SPIE6550, 65500N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blask, S.

M. Vaidyanathan, S. Blask, T. Higgins, W. Clifton, D. Davidsohn, R. Carson, V. Reynolds, J. Pfannenstiel, R. Cannata, R. Marino, J. Drover, R. Hatch, D. Schue, R. Freehart, G. Rowe, J. Mooney, C. Hart, B. Stanley, J. McLaughlin, E. I. Lee, J. Berenholtz, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, A. Vasile, P. Ramaswami, K. Ingersoll, T. Amoruso, I. Khan, W. Davis, and R. Heinrichs, “Jigsaw phase III: a miniaturized airborne 3-D imaging laser radar with photon-counting sensitivity for foliage penetration,” Proc. SPIE6550, 65500N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bobin, J.

J. Bobin, J.-L. Starck, and R. Ottensamer, “Compressed sensing in astronomy,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Signal Process.2, 718–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bosch, T.

M. C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng.40, 10–19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, G. A. Howland, M. Malik, J. C. Howell, and R. W. Boyd, “Compressive object tracking using entangled photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 231104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bretar, F.

C. Mallet and F. Bretar, “Full-waveform topographic lidar: State-of-the-art,” ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing64, 1–16 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G. S.

Candés, E.

E. Candés and J. Romberg, “Sparsity and incoherence in compressive sampling,” Inverse Probl.23, 969 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cannata, R.

M. Vaidyanathan, S. Blask, T. Higgins, W. Clifton, D. Davidsohn, R. Carson, V. Reynolds, J. Pfannenstiel, R. Cannata, R. Marino, J. Drover, R. Hatch, D. Schue, R. Freehart, G. Rowe, J. Mooney, C. Hart, B. Stanley, J. McLaughlin, E. I. Lee, J. Berenholtz, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, A. Vasile, P. Ramaswami, K. Ingersoll, T. Amoruso, I. Khan, W. Davis, and R. Heinrichs, “Jigsaw phase III: a miniaturized airborne 3-D imaging laser radar with photon-counting sensitivity for foliage penetration,” Proc. SPIE6550, 65500N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carson, R.

M. Vaidyanathan, S. Blask, T. Higgins, W. Clifton, D. Davidsohn, R. Carson, V. Reynolds, J. Pfannenstiel, R. Cannata, R. Marino, J. Drover, R. Hatch, D. Schue, R. Freehart, G. Rowe, J. Mooney, C. Hart, B. Stanley, J. McLaughlin, E. I. Lee, J. Berenholtz, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, A. Vasile, P. Ramaswami, K. Ingersoll, T. Amoruso, I. Khan, W. Davis, and R. Heinrichs, “Jigsaw phase III: a miniaturized airborne 3-D imaging laser radar with photon-counting sensitivity for foliage penetration,” Proc. SPIE6550, 65500N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cevher, V.

V. Cevher, A. Sankaranarayanan, M. F. Duarte, D. Reddy, R. G. Baraniuk, and R. Chellappa, “Compressive sensing for background subtraction,” in Computer Vision - ECCV 2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2008) pp. 155–168.

Chellappa, R.

V. Cevher, A. Sankaranarayanan, M. F. Duarte, D. Reddy, R. G. Baraniuk, and R. Chellappa, “Compressive sensing for background subtraction,” in Computer Vision - ECCV 2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2008) pp. 155–168.

Chen, J.

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D ladar imaging,” Proc. SPIE8375, 83750D (2012).

Clifton, W.

M. Vaidyanathan, S. Blask, T. Higgins, W. Clifton, D. Davidsohn, R. Carson, V. Reynolds, J. Pfannenstiel, R. Cannata, R. Marino, J. Drover, R. Hatch, D. Schue, R. Freehart, G. Rowe, J. Mooney, C. Hart, B. Stanley, J. McLaughlin, E. I. Lee, J. Berenholtz, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, A. Vasile, P. Ramaswami, K. Ingersoll, T. Amoruso, I. Khan, W. Davis, and R. Heinrichs, “Jigsaw phase III: a miniaturized airborne 3-D imaging laser radar with photon-counting sensitivity for foliage penetration,” Proc. SPIE6550, 65500N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Colaço, A.

Dang, E.

Davenport, M.

M. Duarte, M. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. Laska, T. Sun, K. Kelly, and R. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag.25, 83–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davidsohn, D.

M. Vaidyanathan, S. Blask, T. Higgins, W. Clifton, D. Davidsohn, R. Carson, V. Reynolds, J. Pfannenstiel, R. Cannata, R. Marino, J. Drover, R. Hatch, D. Schue, R. Freehart, G. Rowe, J. Mooney, C. Hart, B. Stanley, J. McLaughlin, E. I. Lee, J. Berenholtz, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, A. Vasile, P. Ramaswami, K. Ingersoll, T. Amoruso, I. Khan, W. Davis, and R. Heinrichs, “Jigsaw phase III: a miniaturized airborne 3-D imaging laser radar with photon-counting sensitivity for foliage penetration,” Proc. SPIE6550, 65500N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, W.

M. Vaidyanathan, S. Blask, T. Higgins, W. Clifton, D. Davidsohn, R. Carson, V. Reynolds, J. Pfannenstiel, R. Cannata, R. Marino, J. Drover, R. Hatch, D. Schue, R. Freehart, G. Rowe, J. Mooney, C. Hart, B. Stanley, J. McLaughlin, E. I. Lee, J. Berenholtz, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, A. Vasile, P. Ramaswami, K. Ingersoll, T. Amoruso, I. Khan, W. Davis, and R. Heinrichs, “Jigsaw phase III: a miniaturized airborne 3-D imaging laser radar with photon-counting sensitivity for foliage penetration,” Proc. SPIE6550, 65500N (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Richard and W. Davis, “Jigsaw: A foliage-penetrating 3D imaging laser radar system,” Lincoln Laboratory Journal15, 1 (2005).

Diepold, K.

M. Sarkis and K. Diepold, “Depth map compression via compressed sensing,” in Proceedings of 16th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, (IEEE, 2009), pp. 737–740.

Dixon, P. B.

Donoho, D.

M. Lustig, D. Donoho, and J. M. Pauly, “Sparse MRI: The application of compressed sensing for rapid MR imaging,” Magn. Reson. Med58, 1182–1195 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Donoho and I. Johnstone, “Threshold selection for wavelet shrinkage of noisy data,” in Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, (IEEE1994), 1A24–A25

Donoho, D. L.

D. L. Donoho, A. Maleki, and A. Montanari, “The Noise- Sensitivity Phase Transition in Compressed Sensing”, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory57, 6920 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Donoho, “Compressed Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory52, 1289–1306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dorenbos, S. N.

Drover, J.

M. Vaidyanathan, S. Blask, T. Higgins, W. Clifton, D. Davidsohn, R. Carson, V. Reynolds, J. Pfannenstiel, R. Cannata, R. Marino, J. Drover, R. Hatch, D. Schue, R. Freehart, G. Rowe, J. Mooney, C. Hart, B. Stanley, J. McLaughlin, E. I. Lee, J. Berenholtz, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, A. Vasile, P. Ramaswami, K. Ingersoll, T. Amoruso, I. Khan, W. Davis, and R. Heinrichs, “Jigsaw phase III: a miniaturized airborne 3-D imaging laser radar with photon-counting sensitivity for foliage penetration,” Proc. SPIE6550, 65500N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duarte, M.

M. Duarte, M. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. Laska, T. Sun, K. Kelly, and R. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag.25, 83–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duarte, M. F.

V. Cevher, A. Sankaranarayanan, M. F. Duarte, D. Reddy, R. G. Baraniuk, and R. Chellappa, “Compressive sensing for background subtraction,” in Computer Vision - ECCV 2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2008) pp. 155–168.

Eisert, J.

S. T. Flammia, D. Gross, Y.-K. Liu, and J. Eisert, “Quantum tomography via compressed sensing: error bounds, sample complexity and efficient estimators,” New J. Phys.14, 095022 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Entwistle, M.

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D ladar imaging,” Proc. SPIE8375, 83750D (2012).

M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Comparison of 32 × 128 and 32 × 32 geiger-mode APD FPAS for single photon 3D ladar imaging,” Proc. SPIE8033, 80330G (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, J.

M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Comparison of 32 × 128 and 32 × 32 geiger-mode APD FPAS for single photon 3D ladar imaging,” Proc. SPIE8033, 80330G (2011).
[CrossRef]

Figueiredo, M. A. T.

M. A. T. Figueiredo, R. D. Nowak, and S. J. Wright, “Gradient Projection for Sparse Reconstruction: Application to Compressed Sensing and Other Inverse Problems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Signal Process.1, 586–597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Flammia, S. T.

S. T. Flammia, D. Gross, Y.-K. Liu, and J. Eisert, “Quantum tomography via compressed sensing: error bounds, sample complexity and efficient estimators,” New J. Phys.14, 095022 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Foix, S.

S. Foix, G. Alenya, and C. Torras, “Lock-in time-of-flight (TOF) cameras: A survey,” IEEE Sensors J.11, 1917–1926 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Freehart, R.

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M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Comparison of 32 × 128 and 32 × 32 geiger-mode APD FPAS for single photon 3D ladar imaging,” Proc. SPIE8033, 80330G (2011).
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M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Comparison of 32 × 128 and 32 × 32 geiger-mode APD FPAS for single photon 3D ladar imaging,” Proc. SPIE8033, 80330G (2011).
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M. Vaidyanathan, S. Blask, T. Higgins, W. Clifton, D. Davidsohn, R. Carson, V. Reynolds, J. Pfannenstiel, R. Cannata, R. Marino, J. Drover, R. Hatch, D. Schue, R. Freehart, G. Rowe, J. Mooney, C. Hart, B. Stanley, J. McLaughlin, E. I. Lee, J. Berenholtz, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, A. Vasile, P. Ramaswami, K. Ingersoll, T. Amoruso, I. Khan, W. Davis, and R. Heinrichs, “Jigsaw phase III: a miniaturized airborne 3-D imaging laser radar with photon-counting sensitivity for foliage penetration,” Proc. SPIE6550, 65500N (2007).
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M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Comparison of 32 × 128 and 32 × 32 geiger-mode APD FPAS for single photon 3D ladar imaging,” Proc. SPIE8033, 80330G (2011).
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M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Comparison of 32 × 128 and 32 × 32 geiger-mode APD FPAS for single photon 3D ladar imaging,” Proc. SPIE8033, 80330G (2011).
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M. Duarte, M. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. Laska, T. Sun, K. Kelly, and R. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag.25, 83–91 (2008).
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