Abstract

We report generation of femtosecond-laser-induced shockwaves at an air-water interface by millijoule femtosecond laser pulses. We document and discuss the main processes accompanying this phenomenon, including light emission, development of the ablation plume in the air, formation of an ablation cavity, and, subsequently, a bubble developing in water. We also discuss the possibility of remotely controlling the characteristics of laser-induced sound waves in water through linear acoustic superposition of sound waves that results from millijoule femtosecond laser-pulse interaction with an air-water interface, thus opening up the possibility of remote acoustic applications in oceanic and riverine environments.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  59. G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Chemical and physical side effects at application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.2(1), 59–64 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]

2013

2012

A. A. Ilyin, E. B. Sokolova, S. S. Golik, O. A. Bukin, and K. A. Shmirko, “Time evolution of emission spectra from plasmas produced by irradiation of seawater surfaces by a femtosecond laser,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.78(6), 861–866 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Sarpe, J. Köhler, T. Winkler, M. Wollenhaupt, and T. Baumert, “Real-time observation of transient electron density in water irradiated with tailored femtosecond laser pulses,” New J. Phys.14(7), 075021 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

C. Phipps, M. Birkan, W. Bohn, H.-A. Eckel, H. Horisawa, T. Lippert, M. Michaelis, Y. Rezunkov, A. Sasoh, W. Schall, S. Scharring, and J. Sinko, “Review: Laser-ablation propulsion,” J. Propul. Power26(4), 609–637 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. E. Geints, A. M. Kabanov, G. G. Matvienko, V. K. Oshlakov, A. A. Zemlyanov, S. S. Golik, and O. A. Bukin, “Broadband emission spectrum dynamics of large water droplets exposed to intense ultrashort laser radiation,” Opt. Lett.35(16), 2717–2719 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Anija and R. Philip, “Recombination emissions and spectral blueshift of pump radiation from ultrafast laser induced plasma in a planar water microjet,” Opt. Commun.282(18), 3770–3774 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Takita and Y. Hayasaki, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced breakdowns in water,” Proc. SPIE7201, 72010J (2009).

A. Takita and Y. Hayasaki, “Interference measurement of superposition of laser-induced shock waves in water,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(9), 09LD04 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Thoroddsen, K. Takehara, T. G. Etoh, and C.-D. Ohl, “Spray and microjets produced by focusing a laser pulse into a hemispherical drop,” Phys. Fluids21(11), 112101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. V. Oshemkov, L. P. Dvorkin, and V. Y. Dmitriev, “Jet formation upon ultrafast laser induced breakdown in the vicinity of liquid-gas interface,” Tech. Phys. Lett.34(5), 408–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, N. Linz, S. Freidank, and G. Paltauf, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanocavitation in water: implications for optical breakdown threshold and cell surgery,” PRL100(3), 038102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Queißer, M. Fechner, and L. Wöste, “Relative merit of χ(3) and χ(2) SHG by charged water microdroplets – Implications for LIDAR,” Opt. Commun.281(4), 797–802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Liu, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, X. Y. Peng, and Z. Jin, “Absorption and second harmonic emission from interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with microspherical droplets,” Opt. Commun.281(5), 1244–1250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. B. Agranat, S. I. Anisimov, S. I. Ashitkov, V. V. Zhakhovskii, N. A. Inogamov, K. Nishihara, Y. V. Petrov, V. E. Fortov, and V. A. Khokhlov, “Dynamics of plume and crater formation after action of femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(15), 6276–6282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Sinko, L. Kodgis, S. Porter, J. Lin, A. V. Pakhomov, C. W. Larson, and F. B. Mead., “An analysis of force generation in TEA CO2 laser ablation of liquids,” Proc. SPIE6261, 62611W (2006).
[CrossRef]

E.-A. Brujan and A. Vogel, “Stress wave emission and cavitation bubble dynamics by nanosecond optical breakdown in a tissue phantom,” J. Fluid Mech.558, 281–308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zemlyanov, Y. E. Geints, and D. V. Apeksimov, “Gas-dynamic explosion of water microparticles under action high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE6160, 61601G (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, “Plasma dynamics of water breakdown at a water surface induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 261109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, C. Favre, S. C. Hill, and J.-P. Wolf, “Plasma formation dynamics within a water microdroplet on femtosecond time scales,” Opt. Lett.28(3), 206–208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 213–215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Flettner, T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “High-harmonic generation and plasma radiation from water micro-droplets,” Appl. Phys. B77(8), 747–751 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” PRL89(3), 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, N. Nishimura, E. N. Glezer, A. M.-T. Kim, and E. Mazur, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in water from femtoseconds to microseconds,” Opt. Express10(3), 196–203 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Fan, J. Sun, and J. P. Longtin, “Breakdown threshold and localized electron density in water induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.91(4), 2530–2536 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Chemical and physical side effects at application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.2(1), 59–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Abraham, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in water: time-resolved shadow imaging and two-color interferometric imaging,” Opt. Commun.176(4-6), 441–452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B68(2), 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer, C. B. Schaffer, N. Nishimura, and E. Mazur, “Minimally disruptive laser-induced breakdown in water,” Opt. Lett.22(23), 1817–1819 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, and A. J. Welch, “Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs,” Appl. Opt.36(22), 5630–5640 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Ostrovskaya and E. V. Shedova, “Optical studies of shock and acoustic waves generated due to absorption of CO2 radiation in water,” Izv. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Fiz.61, 1342–1352 (1997).

G. V. Ostrovskaya, I. I. Komissarova, V. N. Philippov, and E. N. Shedova, “Shock waves induced by pulsed CO2 laser radiation focused on a free surface of a liquid,” Proc. SPIE3093, 146–151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. L. Chin and S. Lagace, “Generation of H2, O2, and H2O2 from water by the use of intense femtosecond laser pulses and the possibility of laser sterilization,” Appl. Opt.35(6), 907–911 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.100(1), 148–165 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Noack and A. Vogel, “Streak-photographic Investigation of shock wave emission after laser-induced plasma formation in water,” Proc. SPIE2391, 284 (1995).

1987

L. M. Lyamshev, “Lasers in acoustics,” Sov. Phys. Usp.30(3), 252–279 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981

L. M. Lyamshev and K. A. Naugol’nykh, “Optical generation of sound: nonlinear effects (review),” Sov. Phys. Acoust.27(5), 357–371 (1981).

1980

F. V. Bunkin and M. I. Tribel’skii, “Nonresonant interaction of high-power optical radiation with a liquid,” Sov. Phys. Usp.23(2), 105–133 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977

P. H. Rogers, “Weak-shock solution for underwater explosive shock waves,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.62(6), 1412–1419 (1977).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Teslenko, “Investigation of photoacoustic and photohydrodynamic parameters of laser breakdown in liquids,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow)4, 1732–1737 (1977).

1976

F. V. Bunkin and A. M. Prokhorov, “Use of a laser energy source in producing a reactive thrust,” Usp. Fiziol. Nauk119(7), 425–446 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Emmony, M. Siegrist, and F. K. Kneubühl, “Laser-induced shock waves in liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett.29(9), 547–549 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Emmony, B. M. Geerken, and A. Straaijer, “The interaction of 10.6 μm laser radiation with liquids,” Infrared Phys.16(1-2), 87–92 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

1973

F. V. Bunkin and V. M. Komissarov, “Optical excitation of sound waves,” Sov. Phys. Acoust.19(3), 203–211 (1973).

1971

F. V. Bunkin, N. V. Karlov, V. M. Komissarov, and G. P. Kuz’min, “Excitation of sound when a surface layer of a liquid absorbs a laser pulse,” ZhETF Pis. Red.13(9), 479–483 (1971).

1964

R. G. Brewer and K. E. Rieckhoff, “Stimulated scattering in liquids,” PRL13(11), 334–336 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963

G. A. Askar’yan, A. M. Prokhorov, G. F. Chanturiya, and G. P. Shipulo, “The effects of a laser beam in a liquid,” Sov. Phys. JETP17(6), 1463–1465 (1963).

1959

M. Greenspan and C. E. Tschiegg, “Tables of the speed of sound in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.31(1), 75–76 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, E.

E. Abraham, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in water: time-resolved shadow imaging and two-color interferometric imaging,” Opt. Commun.176(4-6), 441–452 (2000).
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D. C. Emmony, M. Siegrist, and F. K. Kneubühl, “Laser-induced shock waves in liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett.29(9), 547–549 (1976).
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C. H. Fan, J. Sun, and J. P. Longtin, “Breakdown threshold and localized electron density in water induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.91(4), 2530–2536 (2002).
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F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, C. Favre, S. C. Hill, and J.-P. Wolf, “Plasma formation dynamics within a water microdroplet on femtosecond time scales,” Opt. Lett.28(3), 206–208 (2003).
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C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” PRL89(3), 035002 (2002).
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Geerken, B. M.

D. C. Emmony, B. M. Geerken, and A. Straaijer, “The interaction of 10.6 μm laser radiation with liquids,” Infrared Phys.16(1-2), 87–92 (1976).
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F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, C. Favre, S. C. Hill, and J.-P. Wolf, “Plasma formation dynamics within a water microdroplet on femtosecond time scales,” Opt. Lett.28(3), 206–208 (2003).
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C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” PRL89(3), 035002 (2002).
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C. Phipps, M. Birkan, W. Bohn, H.-A. Eckel, H. Horisawa, T. Lippert, M. Michaelis, Y. Rezunkov, A. Sasoh, W. Schall, S. Scharring, and J. Sinko, “Review: Laser-ablation propulsion,” J. Propul. Power26(4), 609–637 (2010).
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A. A. Ilyin, E. B. Sokolova, S. S. Golik, O. A. Bukin, and K. A. Shmirko, “Time evolution of emission spectra from plasmas produced by irradiation of seawater surfaces by a femtosecond laser,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.78(6), 861–866 (2012).
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Y. E. Geints, A. A. Zemlyanov, A. M. Kabanov, E. E. Bykova, D. V. Apeksimov, O. A. Bukin, E. B. Sokolova, S. S. Golik, and A. A. Ilyin, “Angular diagram of broadband emission of millimeter-sized water droplets exposed to gigawatt femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Opt.50(27), 5291–5298 (2011).
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M. B. Agranat, S. I. Anisimov, S. I. Ashitkov, V. V. Zhakhovskii, N. A. Inogamov, K. Nishihara, Y. V. Petrov, V. E. Fortov, and V. A. Khokhlov, “Dynamics of plume and crater formation after action of femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(15), 6276–6282 (2007).
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Jin, Z.

Y. Q. Liu, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, X. Y. Peng, and Z. Jin, “Absorption and second harmonic emission from interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with microspherical droplets,” Opt. Commun.281(5), 1244–1250 (2008).
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Kabanov, A. M.

Karlov, N. V.

F. V. Bunkin, N. V. Karlov, V. M. Komissarov, and G. P. Kuz’min, “Excitation of sound when a surface layer of a liquid absorbs a laser pulse,” ZhETF Pis. Red.13(9), 479–483 (1971).

Kasparian, J.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 213–215 (2003).
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Khokhlov, V. A.

M. B. Agranat, S. I. Anisimov, S. I. Ashitkov, V. V. Zhakhovskii, N. A. Inogamov, K. Nishihara, Y. V. Petrov, V. E. Fortov, and V. A. Khokhlov, “Dynamics of plume and crater formation after action of femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(15), 6276–6282 (2007).
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Kim, A. M.-T.

Kim, D.

D. Jang, J.-G. Park, and D. Kim, “Enhancement of airborne shock wave by laser-induced breakdown of liquid column in laser shock cleaning,” J. Appl. Phys.109(7), 073101 (2011).
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D. C. Emmony, M. Siegrist, and F. K. Kneubühl, “Laser-induced shock waves in liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett.29(9), 547–549 (1976).
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J. Sinko, L. Kodgis, S. Porter, J. Lin, A. V. Pakhomov, C. W. Larson, and F. B. Mead., “An analysis of force generation in TEA CO2 laser ablation of liquids,” Proc. SPIE6261, 62611W (2006).
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Köhler, J.

C. Sarpe, J. Köhler, T. Winkler, M. Wollenhaupt, and T. Baumert, “Real-time observation of transient electron density in water irradiated with tailored femtosecond laser pulses,” New J. Phys.14(7), 075021 (2012).
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F. V. Bunkin and V. M. Komissarov, “Optical excitation of sound waves,” Sov. Phys. Acoust.19(3), 203–211 (1973).

F. V. Bunkin, N. V. Karlov, V. M. Komissarov, and G. P. Kuz’min, “Excitation of sound when a surface layer of a liquid absorbs a laser pulse,” ZhETF Pis. Red.13(9), 479–483 (1971).

Komissarova, I. I.

G. V. Ostrovskaya, I. I. Komissarova, V. N. Philippov, and E. N. Shedova, “Shock waves induced by pulsed CO2 laser radiation focused on a free surface of a liquid,” Proc. SPIE3093, 146–151 (1997).
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F. V. Bunkin, N. V. Karlov, V. M. Komissarov, and G. P. Kuz’min, “Excitation of sound when a surface layer of a liquid absorbs a laser pulse,” ZhETF Pis. Red.13(9), 479–483 (1971).

Lagace, S.

Lambrecht, H.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” PRL89(3), 035002 (2002).
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J. Sinko, L. Kodgis, S. Porter, J. Lin, A. V. Pakhomov, C. W. Larson, and F. B. Mead., “An analysis of force generation in TEA CO2 laser ablation of liquids,” Proc. SPIE6261, 62611W (2006).
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Lin, J.

J. Sinko, L. Kodgis, S. Porter, J. Lin, A. V. Pakhomov, C. W. Larson, and F. B. Mead., “An analysis of force generation in TEA CO2 laser ablation of liquids,” Proc. SPIE6261, 62611W (2006).
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Lindinger, A.

Linz, N.

A. Vogel, N. Linz, S. Freidank, and G. Paltauf, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanocavitation in water: implications for optical breakdown threshold and cell surgery,” PRL100(3), 038102 (2008).
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C. Phipps, M. Birkan, W. Bohn, H.-A. Eckel, H. Horisawa, T. Lippert, M. Michaelis, Y. Rezunkov, A. Sasoh, W. Schall, S. Scharring, and J. Sinko, “Review: Laser-ablation propulsion,” J. Propul. Power26(4), 609–637 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Q. Liu, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, X. Y. Peng, and Z. Jin, “Absorption and second harmonic emission from interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with microspherical droplets,” Opt. Commun.281(5), 1244–1250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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C. H. Fan, J. Sun, and J. P. Longtin, “Breakdown threshold and localized electron density in water induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.91(4), 2530–2536 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lubatschowski, H.

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Chemical and physical side effects at application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.2(1), 59–64 (2000).
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G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Chemical and physical side effects at application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.2(1), 59–64 (2000).
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Maccabee, B. S.

Matsumoto, H.

E. Abraham, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in water: time-resolved shadow imaging and two-color interferometric imaging,” Opt. Commun.176(4-6), 441–452 (2000).
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Matvienko, G. G.

Mazur, E.

Mead, F. B.

J. Sinko, L. Kodgis, S. Porter, J. Lin, A. V. Pakhomov, C. W. Larson, and F. B. Mead., “An analysis of force generation in TEA CO2 laser ablation of liquids,” Proc. SPIE6261, 62611W (2006).
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Méjean, G.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 213–215 (2003).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for probing phenomena induced by 800 nm, 35 fs pump pulses with millijoule energies incident upon an air-water interface. The tower can be pivoted through an angle θ, which is also the angle of incidence of the pump pulse with respect to the water surface normal. WP = half wave plate, ND = neutral density filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Outline of events induced by femtosecond laser pulses of few millijoule energies incident on an air-water interface. The red scale bars in the lower right corners are 200 μm in length. The white lines show the approximate position of the air-water interface, with air above and water below. Each picture is shown to be associated with an approximate time scale on which the phenomenon may first begin to be observed. (a) Ionization, plasma generation, and electron-ion thermalization at and beneath the surface, corresponding to the slightly darker region of about 200 μm width in the center of the picture. (b) Plasma expansion from the surface and emission of light. This image was taken without the use of the 532 nm probe pulse. (c) Generation of shockwaves both above and below the surface. Notice the two shock fronts generated within the water sample. (d) Cavity formation at the surface. (e) Cavity closure and bubble formation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal evolution of shockwaves in air and water using pulses with about 2.2 mJ energy and 1.25× 10 15 W/cm2 peak on-axis intensity. The red scale bar in the upper left corner is 200 μm in length.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Femtosecond-laser-induced shockwaves in water 490 ns after the pump pulse has propagated through the air-water interface for different angles of incidence: (a) 0°, (b) 30°, (c) 45°. The red scale bar is 200 μm in length. Cavitation bubbles are visible below the crater.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Shock front position as a function of time after the pump pulse has propagated across the air-water interface. The black triangles denote shock front position of shockwaves in air generated by 2.20 mJ pulses. The red squares, blue circles (mostly hidden by the red squares), and green diamonds depict shock front positions generated by pulses with 2.25 mJ, 1.49 mJ, and 0.72 mJ energies.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured positions at 490 ns of the first (black circles) and second (black triangles) shock fronts as a function of pulse energy and peak on-axis intensity. The red line indicates the pulse energy value below which no light emission from plasma formation is observed (see Fig. 2(b)). Also below this energy the width of the crater just below the surface decreases.

Equations (3)

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c s = c 0 +βu/2,
p= ρ 0 c 0 u,
P P 0 = 7 6 [ ( c s c 0 ) 2 1 ],

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