Abstract

Silicon nitride waveguides provide low propagation loss but weak mode confinement due to the relatively small refractive index contrast between the Si3N4 core and the SiO2 cladding. On the other hand, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic waveguides offer strong mode confinement but large propagation loss. In this work, MIM-like plasmonic waveguides and passive devices based on horizontal Cu-Si3N4-Cu or Cu-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2-Cu structures are integrated in the conventional Si3N4 waveguide circuits using standard CMOS backend processes, and are characterized around 1550-nm telecom wavelengths using the conventional fiber-waveguide-fiber method. The Cu-Si3N4(~100 nm)-Cu devices exhibit ~0.78-dB/μm propagation loss for straight waveguides, ~38% coupling efficiency with the conventional 1-μm-wide Si3N4 waveguide through a 2-μm-long taper coupler, ~0.2-dB bending loss for sharp 90° bends, and ~0.1-dB excess loss for ultracompact 1 × 2 and 1 × 4 power splitters. Inserting a ~10-nm SiO2 layer between the Si3N4 core and the Cu cover (i.e., the Cu-SiO2(~10 nm)-Si3N4(~100 nm)-SiO2(~10 nm)-Cu devices), the propagation loss and the coupling efficiency are improved to ~0.37 dB/μm and ~52% while the bending loss and the excess loss are degraded to ~3.2 dB and ~2.1 dB, respectively. These experimental results are roughly consistent with the numerical simulation results after taking the influence of possible imperfect fabrication into account. Ultracompact plasmonic ring resonators with 1-μm radius are demonstrated with an extinction ratio of ~18 dB and a quality factor of ~84, close to the theoretical prediction.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
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  5. R. Halir, Y. Okawachi, J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation in a CMOS-compatible platform,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1685–1687 (2012).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Phase modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express21(7), 8320–8330 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  23. L. A. Sweatlock and K. Diest, “Vanadium dioxide based plasmonic modulators,” Opt. Express20(8), 8700–8709 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013504 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Z. Han, V. Van, W. N. Herman, and P. T. Ho, “Aperture-coupled MIM plasmonic ring resonators with sub-diffraction modal volumes,” Opt. Express17(15), 12678–12684 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Experimental demonstration of horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide-ring resonators with submicrometer radius,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(24), 1896–1898 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013

2012

M. S. Kwon, J. S. Shin, S. Y. Shin, and W. G. Lee, “Characterizations of realized metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal waveguides and nanochannel fabrication via insulator removal,” Opt. Express20(20), 21875–21887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Experimental demonstration of vertical Cu-SiO2-Si hybrid plasmonic waveguide components on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1224–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Performance of ultracompact copper-capped silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express20(14), 15232–15246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Lee, C. Awada, S. Boutami, F. Charra, L. Douillard, and R. E. de Lamaestre, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons propagating on a smooth polycrystalline Cu surface,” Opt. Express20(8), 8974–8981 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. T. Kong, W. G. Yan, Z. B. Li, and J. G. Tian, “Optical properties of metal-multi-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express20(11), 12133–12146 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, Ph. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salva, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 251117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, Y. Okawachi, J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation in a CMOS-compatible platform,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1685–1687 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmon filters and resonators in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express20(4), 3408–3423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Sweatlock and K. Diest, “Vanadium dioxide based plasmonic modulators,” Opt. Express20(8), 8700–8709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Components for silicon plasmonic nanocircuits based on horizontal Cu-SiO₂-Si-SiO₂-Cu nanoplasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express20(6), 5867–5881 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Experimental demonstration of horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide-ring resonators with submicrometer radius,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(24), 1896–1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, K. Preston, G. Hendry, N. Sherwood-Droz, J. Chan, J. S. Levy, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Photonic network-on-chip architectures using multilayer deposited silicon materials for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” ACM J. Emerging Techn. Computing Sys.7(2), article no. 7 (2011).

N. Sherwood-Droz and M. Lipson, “Scalable 3D dense integration of photonics on bulk silicon,” Opt. Express19(18), 17758–17765 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express19(9), 8888–8902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater.22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Han, “Ultracompact plasmonic racetrack resonators in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Photon. and Nanostructures – Fundament. and Appl.8(3), 172–176 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, V. Van, W. N. Herman, and P. T. Ho, “Aperture-coupled MIM plasmonic ring resonators with sub-diffraction modal volumes,” Opt. Express17(15), 12678–12684 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. D. Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gondarenko, J. S. Levy, and M. Lipson, “High confinement micron-scale silicon nitride high Q ring resonator,” Opt. Express17(14), 11366–11370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. D. Negro, “Metal-dielectric slot-waveguide structures for the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at 1.55 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.43(6), 479–485 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

1960

S. Roberts, “Optical properties of copper,” Phys. Rev.118(6), 1509–1518 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, Ph. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salva, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 251117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augendre, E.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, Ph. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salva, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 251117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Awada, C.

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

A. Biberman, K. Preston, G. Hendry, N. Sherwood-Droz, J. Chan, J. S. Levy, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Photonic network-on-chip architectures using multilayer deposited silicon materials for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” ACM J. Emerging Techn. Computing Sys.7(2), article no. 7 (2011).

Biberman, A.

A. Biberman, K. Preston, G. Hendry, N. Sherwood-Droz, J. Chan, J. S. Levy, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Photonic network-on-chip architectures using multilayer deposited silicon materials for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” ACM J. Emerging Techn. Computing Sys.7(2), article no. 7 (2011).

Borghs, G.

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmon filters and resonators in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express20(4), 3408–3423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. D. Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boutami, S.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, Ph. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salva, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 251117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater.22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. D. Negro, “Metal-dielectric slot-waveguide structures for the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at 1.55 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.43(6), 479–485 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater.22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, J.

A. Biberman, K. Preston, G. Hendry, N. Sherwood-Droz, J. Chan, J. S. Levy, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Photonic network-on-chip architectures using multilayer deposited silicon materials for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” ACM J. Emerging Techn. Computing Sys.7(2), article no. 7 (2011).

Charra, F.

Chen, L.

Chu, S.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Lamaestre, R. E.

de Salva, B.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, Ph. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salva, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 251117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Delacour, C.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, Ph. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salva, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 251117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Diest, K.

L. A. Sweatlock and K. Diest, “Vanadium dioxide based plasmonic modulators,” Opt. Express20(8), 8700–8709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douillard, L.

Duchesne, D.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Emboras, A.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, Ph. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salva, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 251117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Espiau de Lamaestre, R.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, Ph. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salva, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 251117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater.22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedeli, J. M.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, Ph. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salva, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 251117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feigenbaum, E.

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, N. N.

N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. D. Negro, “Metal-dielectric slot-waveguide structures for the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at 1.55 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.43(6), 479–485 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferrera, M.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gondarenko, A.

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, Ph.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, Ph. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salva, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 251117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Halir, R.

Han, Z.

Z. Han, “Ultracompact plasmonic racetrack resonators in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Photon. and Nanostructures – Fundament. and Appl.8(3), 172–176 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, V. Van, W. N. Herman, and P. T. Ho, “Aperture-coupled MIM plasmonic ring resonators with sub-diffraction modal volumes,” Opt. Express17(15), 12678–12684 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendry, G.

A. Biberman, K. Preston, G. Hendry, N. Sherwood-Droz, J. Chan, J. S. Levy, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Photonic network-on-chip architectures using multilayer deposited silicon materials for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” ACM J. Emerging Techn. Computing Sys.7(2), article no. 7 (2011).

Herman, W. N.

Ho, P. T.

Kong, X. T.

Kwon, M. S.

Kwong, D. L.

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Phase modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express21(7), 8320–8330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Experimental demonstration of vertical Cu-SiO2-Si hybrid plasmonic waveguide components on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1224–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Components for silicon plasmonic nanocircuits based on horizontal Cu-SiO₂-Si-SiO₂-Cu nanoplasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express20(6), 5867–5881 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Performance of ultracompact copper-capped silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express20(14), 15232–15246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express19(9), 8888–8902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Experimental demonstration of horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide-ring resonators with submicrometer radius,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(24), 1896–1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Experimental demonstration of integrated horizontal Cu-Si3N4-Cu plasmonic waveguide and passive components,” Photonic Global Conf (PGC), Singapore, Dec. 13 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lagae, L.

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmon filters and resonators in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express20(4), 3408–3423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. D. Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

Lee, W. G.

Levy, J. S.

R. Halir, Y. Okawachi, J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation in a CMOS-compatible platform,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1685–1687 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, K. Preston, G. Hendry, N. Sherwood-Droz, J. Chan, J. S. Levy, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Photonic network-on-chip architectures using multilayer deposited silicon materials for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” ACM J. Emerging Techn. Computing Sys.7(2), article no. 7 (2011).

A. Gondarenko, J. S. Levy, and M. Lipson, “High confinement micron-scale silicon nitride high Q ring resonator,” Opt. Express17(14), 11366–11370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z. B.

Liow, T. Y.

Lipson, M.

Little, B. E.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Phase modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express21(7), 8320–8330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Components for silicon plasmonic nanocircuits based on horizontal Cu-SiO₂-Si-SiO₂-Cu nanoplasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express20(6), 5867–5881 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Experimental demonstration of vertical Cu-SiO2-Si hybrid plasmonic waveguide components on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1224–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Performance of ultracompact copper-capped silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express20(14), 15232–15246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Experimental demonstration of horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide-ring resonators with submicrometer radius,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(24), 1896–1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express19(9), 8888–8902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Experimental demonstration of integrated horizontal Cu-Si3N4-Cu plasmonic waveguide and passive components,” Photonic Global Conf (PGC), Singapore, Dec. 13 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Najar, A.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, Ph. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salva, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 251117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nambiar, S.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, Ph. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salva, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 251117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Negro, L. D.

N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. D. Negro, “Metal-dielectric slot-waveguide structures for the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at 1.55 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.43(6), 479–485 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neutens, P.

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmon filters and resonators in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express20(4), 3408–3423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. D. Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Okawachi, Y.

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Preston, K.

A. Biberman, K. Preston, G. Hendry, N. Sherwood-Droz, J. Chan, J. S. Levy, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Photonic network-on-chip architectures using multilayer deposited silicon materials for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” ACM J. Emerging Techn. Computing Sys.7(2), article no. 7 (2011).

Qiu, M.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S.

S. Roberts, “Optical properties of copper,” Phys. Rev.118(6), 1509–1518 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

A. Biberman, K. Preston, G. Hendry, N. Sherwood-Droz, J. Chan, J. S. Levy, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Photonic network-on-chip architectures using multilayer deposited silicon materials for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” ACM J. Emerging Techn. Computing Sys.7(2), article no. 7 (2011).

N. Sherwood-Droz and M. Lipson, “Scalable 3D dense integration of photonics on bulk silicon,” Opt. Express19(18), 17758–17765 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, J. S.

Shin, S. Y.

Shin, W.

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater.22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L. A.

Tian, J.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J. G.

Van, V.

Van Dorpe, P.

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmon filters and resonators in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express20(4), 3408–3423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. D. Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vlaminck, I. D.

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. D. Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W. G.

Yu, S.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. Y.

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Phase modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express21(7), 8320–8330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Components for silicon plasmonic nanocircuits based on horizontal Cu-SiO₂-Si-SiO₂-Cu nanoplasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express20(6), 5867–5881 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Experimental demonstration of vertical Cu-SiO2-Si hybrid plasmonic waveguide components on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1224–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Performance of ultracompact copper-capped silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express20(14), 15232–15246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express19(9), 8888–8902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Experimental demonstration of horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide-ring resonators with submicrometer radius,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(24), 1896–1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Experimental demonstration of integrated horizontal Cu-Si3N4-Cu plasmonic waveguide and passive components,” Photonic Global Conf (PGC), Singapore, Dec. 13 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater.22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, Ph. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salva, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 251117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. D. Negro, “Metal-dielectric slot-waveguide structures for the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at 1.55 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.43(6), 479–485 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Experimental demonstration of vertical Cu-SiO2-Si hybrid plasmonic waveguide components on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1224–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Experimental demonstration of horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide-ring resonators with submicrometer radius,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(24), 1896–1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. D. Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Performance of ultracompact copper-capped silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express20(14), 15232–15246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Lee, C. Awada, S. Boutami, F. Charra, L. Douillard, and R. E. de Lamaestre, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons propagating on a smooth polycrystalline Cu surface,” Opt. Express20(8), 8974–8981 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. T. Kong, W. G. Yan, Z. B. Li, and J. G. Tian, “Optical properties of metal-multi-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express20(11), 12133–12146 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sherwood-Droz and M. Lipson, “Scalable 3D dense integration of photonics on bulk silicon,” Opt. Express19(18), 17758–17765 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gondarenko, J. S. Levy, and M. Lipson, “High confinement micron-scale silicon nitride high Q ring resonator,” Opt. Express17(14), 11366–11370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express19(9), 8888–8902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Components for silicon plasmonic nanocircuits based on horizontal Cu-SiO₂-Si-SiO₂-Cu nanoplasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express20(6), 5867–5881 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Phase modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express21(7), 8320–8330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kwon, J. S. Shin, S. Y. Shin, and W. G. Lee, “Characterizations of realized metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal waveguides and nanochannel fabrication via insulator removal,” Opt. Express20(20), 21875–21887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmon filters and resonators in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express20(4), 3408–3423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Sweatlock and K. Diest, “Vanadium dioxide based plasmonic modulators,” Opt. Express20(8), 8700–8709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Han, V. Van, W. N. Herman, and P. T. Ho, “Aperture-coupled MIM plasmonic ring resonators with sub-diffraction modal volumes,” Opt. Express17(15), 12678–12684 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Photon. and Nanostructures – Fundament. and Appl.

Z. Han, “Ultracompact plasmonic racetrack resonators in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Photon. and Nanostructures – Fundament. and Appl.8(3), 172–176 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Photonic network-on-chip architectures using multilayer deposited silicon materials for high-performance chip multiprocessors

A. Biberman, K. Preston, G. Hendry, N. Sherwood-Droz, J. Chan, J. S. Levy, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Photonic network-on-chip architectures using multilayer deposited silicon materials for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” ACM J. Emerging Techn. Computing Sys.7(2), article no. 7 (2011).

Phys. Rev.

S. Roberts, “Optical properties of copper,” Phys. Rev.118(6), 1509–1518 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Experimental demonstration of integrated horizontal Cu-Si3N4-Cu plasmonic waveguide and passive components,” Photonic Global Conf (PGC), Singapore, Dec. 13 (2012).
[CrossRef]

http://www.lumerical.com .

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication processes of horizontal Cu-dielectric-Si3N4-dielectric-Cu plasmonic waveguides using standard Si-CMOS backend processes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Microscope picture of one of the fabricated devices; (b) Schematic layout of the horizontal Cu-dielectric-Si3N4-dielectric-Cu waveguide inserted in the conventional Si3N4 waveguide through taper couplers with length of LC; and (c) XTEM image of one of the fabricated horizontal Cu-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2-Cu plasmonic waveguides.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) XTEM image of the fabricated Si3N4 rib waveguide; (b) Electric field |Ex| distribution of the fundamental 1550-nm TE mode in the waveguide, calculated using the EME method; and (c) Propagation loss versus wavelength, measured using six laser sources operating at different wavelengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Output spectra measured on a set of straight Cu-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2-Cu plasmonic waveguides with the same Si3N4 core but different LPs, normalized by that measured on the reference Si3N4 waveguide without the plasmonic area; and (b) Output power (normalized by that of the reference Si3N4 waveguide) at 1550 nm versus LP for Cu-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2-Cu and Cu-Si3N4-Cu waveguides. Each data point is averaged from 3 identical waveguides and the standard deviation is presented as the error bar.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Electric field (|Ex|); (b) Magnetic field (|Hy|); and (c) Energy density distributions of the 1550-nm fundamental TE mode in the Cu-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2-Cu plasmonic waveguide; (d)-(f) Figures for the corresponding Cu-Si3N4-Cu plasmonic waveguide; (g) Propagation loss and (h) Real part of the modal index (neff) versus the width and height of the Si3N4 core for waveguides having ideal rectangular Si3N4 core cross sections; (i) Propagation loss and (h) neff versus the bottom width of the Si3N4 core for waveguides having real core cross sections, which are trapezoid-shaped with ~326-nm height when width > ~110 nm and are triangle-shaped with a reduced height when width < ~110 nm, as shown schematically in the inset.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Top view; and (b) Cross sectional view of the absolute value of Poynting vector of the 1550-nm TE mode in- and out-coupling between the 1-μm-wide Si3N4 waveguide and the Cu-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2-Cu plasmonic waveguide through 2-μm-long taper couplers; (c) Output spectra measured on Cu-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2-Cu plasmonic waveguides with LP = 15 nm and LC ranging from 0 to 5 μm, normalized by that measured on the reference Si3N4 waveguide; (d) The measured coupling loss at 1550 nm versus LC for Cu-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2-Cu and Cu-Si3N4-Cu waveguides. Each data point is averaged from 4 identical waveguides and the standard deviation is presented as the error bar.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) SEM image of Si3N4 core of a 90° bend with R ~0; (b)-(c) The absolute value of Poynting vector in Cu-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2-Cu and Cu-Si3N4-Cu 90° bends with R = 0, obtained from the 3D FDTD simulation; (d)-(f) Corresponding figures for 90° bends with R = 0.5 μm; (g) Experimental bending loss spectra measured on Cu-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2-Cu bends after subtracting that measured on the corresponding 3-μm-long straight pasmonic waveguide; and (h) Experimental spectra for Cu-Si3N4-Cu bends.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) SEM image of the Si3N4 core of 1 × 2 splitter; (b)-(c) The absolute value of Poynting vector in Cu-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2-Cu and Cu-Si3N4-Cu splitters, obtained from the 3D FDTD simulation; (d) Spectra measured on two output ports of the Cu-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2-Cu 1 × 2 splitter, normalized by that measured on the corresponding 3-μm-long straight plasmonic waveguide, and (e) Experimental spectra for the Cu-Si3N4-Cu 1 × 2 splitter.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) SEM image of the Si3N4 core of 1 × 4 splitter; (b)-(c) The absolute value of Poynting vector in Cu-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2-Cu and Cu-Si3N4-Cu splitters, obtained from the 3D FDTD simulation; (d) Spectra measured on four output ports of the Cu-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2-Cu 1 × 4 splitter, normalized by that measured on the corresponding 3-μm-long straight plasmonic waveguide, and (e) Experimental spectra for the Cu-Si3N4-Cu 1 × 4 splitter.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) SEM image of the Si3N4 core of a plasmonic waveguide ring resonator with radius of 1 μm; (b) Theoretical (obtained from 3D FDTD simulation) and experimental transmission spectra of a plasmonic WRR, normalized by that of the corresponding 7-μm-long straight plasmonic waveguide; (c) The absolute value of Poynting vector distribution in the off-state; and (d) The absolute value of Poynting vector distribution in the on-state.

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