Abstract

We present results on direct mode-locking of a doubly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (DRO) using an electro-optic phase modulator with low resonant frequency of 80 MHz as the single mode-locking element. Pumped by a cw laser at 532 nm and based on MgO:sPPLT as the nonlinear material, the DRO generates 533 ps pulses at 80 MHz and 471 ps pulses at 160 MHz. Stable train of mode-locked pulses is obtained at a modulation depth of 1.83 radians when the modulation frequency is precisely tuned and the cavity length is carefully adjusted. The effects of frequency detuning, modulation depth, input laser pump power, crystal temperature and position of modulator inside the cavity, on pulse duration and repetition rate have been studied. Operating at degeneracy, under mode-locked condition, the signal-idler spectrum exhibits a bandwidth of ~31 nm, and the spectrum has been investigated for different phase-matching temperatures. Mode-locked operation has been confirmed by second-harmonic-generation of the DRO output in a β-BaB2O4 crystal, where a 4 times enhancement in green power is observed compared to cw operation.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. K. Gurs and R. Muller, “Breitband-modulation durch steurung der emission eines optischen masers (Auskopple-modulation),” Phys. Lett.5(3), 179–181 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. W. Smith, “Mode-locking of lasers,” Proc. IEEE58(9), 1342–1357 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. J. Duarte, Tunable laser applications (CRC, 2009).
  5. J. F. Ready, Industrial applications of lasers (Academic, 1997).
  6. S. C. Kumar, G. K. Samanta, K. Devi, S. Sanguinetti, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Single-frequency, high-power, continuous-wave fiber-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt.51(1), 15–20 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. G. Durfee, T. Storz, J. Garlick, S. Hill, J. A. Squier, M. Kirchner, G. Taft, K. Shea, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and S. Backus, “Direct diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express20(13), 13677–13683 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I. T. Sorokina, eds., Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, 1st ed. (Springer, 2007).
  9. M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and G. K. Samanta, “Breakthroughs in Photonics 2012: Breakthroughs in Optical Parametric Oscillators,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 0700105 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Efficient Ultrafast Frequency Conversion Sources for the Visible and Ultraviolet Based on BiB3O6,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 679–691 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Forget, S. Bahbah, C. Drag, F. Bretenaker, M. Lefèbvre, and E. Rosencher, “Actively mode-locked optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.31(7), 972–974 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Khurgin, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, M. Lefebvre, and E. Rosencher, “Passive mode locking of optical parametric oscillators: an efficient technique for generating sub-picosecond pulses,” Opt. Express16(7), 4804–4818 (2008).
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  13. J.-M. Melkonian, N. Forget, F. Bretenaker, C. Drag, M. Lefebvre, and E. Rosencher, “Active mode locking of continuous-wave doubly and singly resonant optical parametric oscillators,” Opt. Lett.32(12), 1701–1703 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  15. E. O. Ammann, B. J. McMurtry, and M. Oshman, “Detailed experiments on Helium-Neon FM lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.1(6), 263–272 (1965).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. G. T. Maker and A. I. Ferguson, “Frequency-modulation mode locking of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett.14(15), 788–790 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  19. R. Nagar, D. Abraham, N. Tessler, A. Fraenkel, G. Eisenstein, E. P. Ippen, U. Koren, and G. Raybon, “Frequency-modulation mode locking of a semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett.16(22), 1750–1752 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Esteban-Martin, G. K. Samanta, K. Devi, S. C. Kumar, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Frequency-modulation-mode-locked optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.37(1), 115–117 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. A. Diddams, L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Broadband optical frequency comb generation with a phase-modulated parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.24(23), 1747–1749 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. S. T. Wong, T. Plettner, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. Urbanek, M. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Self-phase-locked degenerate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.33(16), 1896–1898 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. V. Ramaiah-Badarla, A. Esteban-Martin, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Self-phase-locked degenerate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator based on BiB3O6,” Laser & Photon. Rev. doi: .
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. S. C. Kumar, G. K. Samanta, K. Devi, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “High-efficiency, multicrystal, single-pass, continuous-wave second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express19(12), 11152–11169 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. G. W. Hong and J. R. Whinnery, “Switching of phase-locked states in the intracavity phase-modulated He-Ne laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.5(7), 367–376 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA, 1986).
  32. N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Broadband degenerate OPO for mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Opt. Express 19, 6296–6302 (2011).
  33. K. Devi, S. C. Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Antiresonant ring output-coupled continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Express20(17), 19313–19321 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and G. K. Samanta, “Breakthroughs in Photonics 2012: Breakthroughs in Optical Parametric Oscillators,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 0700105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

S. C. Kumar, G. K. Samanta, K. Devi, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “High-efficiency, multicrystal, single-pass, continuous-wave second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express19(12), 11152–11169 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Broadband degenerate OPO for mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Opt. Express 19, 6296–6302 (2011).

2008

2007

J.-M. Melkonian, N. Forget, F. Bretenaker, C. Drag, M. Lefebvre, and E. Rosencher, “Active mode locking of continuous-wave doubly and singly resonant optical parametric oscillators,” Opt. Lett.32(12), 1701–1703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Efficient Ultrafast Frequency Conversion Sources for the Visible and Ultraviolet Based on BiB3O6,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 679–691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2000

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

S. Longhi and P. Laporta, “Time-domain analysis of frequency modulation laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(6), 720–722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1991

1989

1971

D. J. Kuizenga, “Mode locking of the cw Dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.19(8), 260–263 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

D. J. Kuizenga and A. E. Siegman, “FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser. Pt.I:Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.6(11), 694–708 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Smith, “Mode-locking of lasers,” Proc. IEEE58(9), 1342–1357 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

G. W. Hong and J. R. Whinnery, “Switching of phase-locked states in the intracavity phase-modulated He-Ne laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.5(7), 367–376 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965

E. O. Ammann, B. J. McMurtry, and M. Oshman, “Detailed experiments on Helium-Neon FM lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.1(6), 263–272 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964

S. E. Harris and R. Targ, “FM oscillation of the He-Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.5(10), 202–204 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963

K. Gurs and R. Muller, “Breitband-modulation durch steurung der emission eines optischen masers (Auskopple-modulation),” Phys. Lett.5(3), 179–181 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, D.

Ammann, E. O.

E. O. Ammann, B. J. McMurtry, and M. Oshman, “Detailed experiments on Helium-Neon FM lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.1(6), 263–272 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

Bahbah, S.

Barr, J. R. M.

Bennett, C. V.

Bretenaker, F.

Byer, R. L.

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Broadband degenerate OPO for mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Opt. Express 19, 6296–6302 (2011).

S. T. Wong, T. Plettner, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. Urbanek, M. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Self-phase-locked degenerate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.33(16), 1896–1898 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaitanya Kumar, S.

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and G. K. Samanta, “Breakthroughs in Photonics 2012: Breakthroughs in Optical Parametric Oscillators,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 0700105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Devi, S. Chaitanya Kumar, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Mode-locked, continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.37(18), 3909–3911 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devi, K.

Diddams, S. A.

Digonnet, M.

Douillet, A.

Drag, C.

Durfee, C. G.

Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and G. K. Samanta, “Breakthroughs in Photonics 2012: Breakthroughs in Optical Parametric Oscillators,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 0700105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Kumar, G. K. Samanta, K. Devi, S. Sanguinetti, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Single-frequency, high-power, continuous-wave fiber-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt.51(1), 15–20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Esteban-Martin, G. K. Samanta, K. Devi, S. C. Kumar, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Frequency-modulation-mode-locked optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.37(1), 115–117 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Devi, S. Chaitanya Kumar, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Mode-locked, continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.37(18), 3909–3911 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Devi, S. C. Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Antiresonant ring output-coupled continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Express20(17), 19313–19321 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kumar, G. K. Samanta, K. Devi, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “High-efficiency, multicrystal, single-pass, continuous-wave second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express19(12), 11152–11169 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Efficient Ultrafast Frequency Conversion Sources for the Visible and Ultraviolet Based on BiB3O6,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 679–691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramaiah-Badarla, A. Esteban-Martin, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Self-phase-locked degenerate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator based on BiB3O6,” Laser & Photon. Rev. doi: .
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

Esteban-Martin, A.

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and G. K. Samanta, “Breakthroughs in Photonics 2012: Breakthroughs in Optical Parametric Oscillators,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 0700105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Esteban-Martin, G. K. Samanta, K. Devi, S. C. Kumar, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Frequency-modulation-mode-locked optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.37(1), 115–117 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Devi, S. C. Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Antiresonant ring output-coupled continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Express20(17), 19313–19321 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ramaiah-Badarla, A. Esteban-Martin, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Self-phase-locked degenerate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator based on BiB3O6,” Laser & Photon. Rev. doi: .
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, A. I.

Forget, N.

Fraenkel, A.

Garlick, J.

Godard, A.

Gurs, K.

K. Gurs and R. Muller, “Breitband-modulation durch steurung der emission eines optischen masers (Auskopple-modulation),” Phys. Lett.5(3), 179–181 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Hanna, D. C.

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris and R. Targ, “FM oscillation of the He-Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.5(10), 202–204 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S.

Hong, G. W.

G. W. Hong and J. R. Whinnery, “Switching of phase-locked states in the intracavity phase-modulated He-Ne laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.5(7), 367–376 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, D. W.

Ippen, E. P.

Isaenko, L.

Kapteyn, H.

Khurgin, J.

Kirchner, M.

Kolner, B. H.

Koren, U.

Kuizenga, D. J.

D. J. Kuizenga, “Mode locking of the cw Dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.19(8), 260–263 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kuizenga and A. E. Siegman, “FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser. Pt.I:Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.6(11), 694–708 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S. C.

Laporta, P.

S. Longhi and P. Laporta, “Time-domain analysis of frequency modulation laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(6), 720–722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lefebvre, M.

Lefèbvre, M.

Leindecker, N.

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Broadband degenerate OPO for mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Opt. Express 19, 6296–6302 (2011).

Lobanov, S.

Longhi, S.

S. Longhi and P. Laporta, “Time-domain analysis of frequency modulation laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(6), 720–722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

Maker, G. T.

Marandi, A.

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Broadband degenerate OPO for mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Opt. Express 19, 6296–6302 (2011).

McMurtry, B. J.

E. O. Ammann, B. J. McMurtry, and M. Oshman, “Detailed experiments on Helium-Neon FM lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.1(6), 263–272 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Melkonian, J.-M.

Muller, R.

K. Gurs and R. Muller, “Breitband-modulation durch steurung der emission eines optischen masers (Auskopple-modulation),” Phys. Lett.5(3), 179–181 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M.

Nagar, R.

Oshman, M.

E. O. Ammann, B. J. McMurtry, and M. Oshman, “Detailed experiments on Helium-Neon FM lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.1(6), 263–272 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Plettner, T.

Ramaiah-Badarla, V.

V. Ramaiah-Badarla, A. Esteban-Martin, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Self-phase-locked degenerate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator based on BiB3O6,” Laser & Photon. Rev. doi: .
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

Rosencher, E.

Samanta, G. K.

Sanguinetti, S.

Scott, R. P.

Shea, K.

Siegman, A. E.

D. J. Kuizenga and A. E. Siegman, “FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser. Pt.I:Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.6(11), 694–708 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

P. W. Smith, “Mode-locking of lasers,” Proc. IEEE58(9), 1342–1357 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J. A.

Storz, T.

Taft, G.

Targ, R.

S. E. Harris and R. Targ, “FM oscillation of the He-Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.5(10), 202–204 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

Urbanek, K.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Broadband degenerate OPO for mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Opt. Express 19, 6296–6302 (2011).

S. T. Wong, T. Plettner, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. Urbanek, M. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Self-phase-locked degenerate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.33(16), 1896–1898 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whinnery, J. R.

G. W. Hong and J. R. Whinnery, “Switching of phase-locked states in the intracavity phase-modulated He-Ne laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.5(7), 367–376 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S. T.

Ye, J.

Yelisseyev, A.

Zondy, J.-J.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Longhi and P. Laporta, “Time-domain analysis of frequency modulation laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(6), 720–722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and R. Targ, “FM oscillation of the He-Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.5(10), 202–204 (1964).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kuizenga, “Mode locking of the cw Dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.19(8), 260–263 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Broadband degenerate OPO for mid-infrared frequency comb generation

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Broadband degenerate OPO for mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Opt. Express 19, 6296–6302 (2011).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. W. Hong and J. R. Whinnery, “Switching of phase-locked states in the intracavity phase-modulated He-Ne laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.5(7), 367–376 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kuizenga and A. E. Siegman, “FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser. Pt.I:Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.6(11), 694–708 (1970).
[CrossRef]

E. O. Ammann, B. J. McMurtry, and M. Oshman, “Detailed experiments on Helium-Neon FM lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.1(6), 263–272 (1965).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Efficient Ultrafast Frequency Conversion Sources for the Visible and Ultraviolet Based on BiB3O6,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 679–691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and G. K. Samanta, “Breakthroughs in Photonics 2012: Breakthroughs in Optical Parametric Oscillators,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 0700105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

J.-M. Melkonian, N. Forget, F. Bretenaker, C. Drag, M. Lefebvre, and E. Rosencher, “Active mode locking of continuous-wave doubly and singly resonant optical parametric oscillators,” Opt. Lett.32(12), 1701–1703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Maker and A. I. Ferguson, “Frequency-modulation mode locking of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett.14(15), 788–790 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Hughes, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Mode locking of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:glass laser by frequency modulation,” Opt. Lett.16(3), 147–149 (1991).
[PubMed]

R. Nagar, D. Abraham, N. Tessler, A. Fraenkel, G. Eisenstein, E. P. Ippen, U. Koren, and G. Raybon, “Frequency-modulation mode locking of a semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett.16(22), 1750–1752 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Forget, S. Bahbah, C. Drag, F. Bretenaker, M. Lefèbvre, and E. Rosencher, “Actively mode-locked optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.31(7), 972–974 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Esteban-Martin, G. K. Samanta, K. Devi, S. C. Kumar, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Frequency-modulation-mode-locked optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.37(1), 115–117 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Devi, S. Chaitanya Kumar, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Mode-locked, continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.37(18), 3909–3911 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Broadband optical frequency comb generation with a phase-modulated parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.24(23), 1747–1749 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Wong, T. Plettner, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. Urbanek, M. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Self-phase-locked degenerate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.33(16), 1896–1898 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Lett.

K. Gurs and R. Muller, “Breitband-modulation durch steurung der emission eines optischen masers (Auskopple-modulation),” Phys. Lett.5(3), 179–181 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

P. W. Smith, “Mode-locking of lasers,” Proc. IEEE58(9), 1342–1357 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Self-phase-locked degenerate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator based on BiB3O6

V. Ramaiah-Badarla, A. Esteban-Martin, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Self-phase-locked degenerate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator based on BiB3O6,” Laser & Photon. Rev. doi: .
[CrossRef]

Other

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA, 1986).

F. J. Duarte, Tunable laser applications (CRC, 2009).

J. F. Ready, Industrial applications of lasers (Academic, 1997).

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I. T. Sorokina, eds., Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, 1st ed. (Springer, 2007).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. λ/2: Half-wave plate, PBS: Polarizing beam-splitter cube, L: Lens, M: Mirrors, OC: Output coupler; EOM: Electro-optic phase modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single-pass EOM output spectrum (a) at ν = 80 MHz for different modulation depths (μ12345) of (i) μ1 (ii) μ2 (iii) μ3 (iv) μ4 (v) μ5, and (b) for fixed modulation depth of μ3 at different modulation frequencies (ν12<ν<ν34) of (i) ν1 (ii) ν2 (iii) ν (iv) ν3 (v) ν4.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bessel function amplitude of order 0, 1, 2 and 3 representing the amplitudes of carrier frequency, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd sidebands, respectively, with modulation depth, μ, as argument.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Pulse train obtained at modulation frequency ν ± Δν for modulation depths of (i) μ1 (ii) μ2 (iii) μ3 (iv) μ4 and (v) μ5. (b) Pulse train obtained at modulation frequency ν ± Δν´ for modulation depth of μ3. Inset: Zoomed 533 ps pulses at 80 MHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Time trace of the mode-locked output at 160 MHz over 15 minutes. Inset: (i) Mode-locked output pulse train, and (ii) pulse peak stability at 160 MHz over 20 μs. (b) Pulse train at 160 MHz for z0 = 6 cm. Inset: Zoomed 953 ps and 471 ps pulses for z0 = 6 cm and 1 cm, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectrum of the output extracted from the DRO at T = 51.5 °C under (a) cw operation, and (b) mode-locked operation at a modulation frequency of ν ± Δν and depth of μ3 = 1.83 rad.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectrum of the output extracted from the DRO at T = 50°C for modulation depth of μ3 = 1.83 rad and at modulation frequency of (a) ν ± Δν and (b) ν = 80 MHz.

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