Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate a vertical pin Ge-on-Si photo-detector on a wet-etched Si recess on a SOI wafer. A 120nm-deep Si recess is etched on the SOI wafer with a 340nm-thick top Si layer by the TMAH solution. The measured results show that the responsivity is more than 0.60 A/W for TE polarization and is more than 0.65 A/W for TM polarization at 1550 nm wavelength. Compared to the photo-detector without the Si recess, the responsivities for both TE and TM polarizations are improved by ~10%. A low dark current of 170 nA is achieved at a bias voltage of −1 V. And, the 3dB-bandwidth at a bias voltage of −3 V is 21.5 GHz. This approach can be used to improve the coupling and absorption for high responsivity of photo-detector while maintain its high speed on a thick SOI platform based on the simulation results.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2013

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed receiver technology on the SOI platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 3800108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, X. G. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. B. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

S. Liao, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express19(25), 24897–24904 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 284–286 (2011).

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(13), 525–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, “A roadmap for nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 303–305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” J. Solid-State Circuits41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and G. R. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in Silicon-on-Insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Kakahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analui, B.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” J. Solid-State Circuits41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ang, K. W.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express18(5), 5106–5113 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asghari, M.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed receiver technology on the SOI platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 3800108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 284–286 (2011).

S. Liao, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Thermally tunable silicon racetrack resonators with ultralow tuning power,” Opt. Express18(19), 20298–20304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

Baets, G. R.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and G. R. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in Silicon-on-Insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baks, C. W.

Beckx, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and G. R. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in Silicon-on-Insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berroth, M.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(13), 525–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and G. R. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in Silicon-on-Insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cai, H.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Davids, P. S.

DeRose, C. T.

Dong, P.

Duan, N.

T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, X. G. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. B. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and G. R. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in Silicon-on-Insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, X. G. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. B. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express18(5), 5106–5113 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed receiver technology on the SOI platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 3800108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 284–286 (2011).

S. Liao, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Thermally tunable silicon racetrack resonators with ultralow tuning power,” Opt. Express18(19), 20298–20304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N. N.

S. Liao, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, M.

Fong, J.

S. Liao, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 284–286 (2011).

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Kakahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Guckenberger, D.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” J. Solid-State Circuits41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Kakahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jaenen, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and G. R. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in Silicon-on-Insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kakahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Kakahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaschel, M.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(13), 525–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, E.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(13), 525–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, “A roadmap for nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 303–305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kirchain, R.

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, “A roadmap for nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 303–305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klinger, S.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(13), 525–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Thermally tunable silicon racetrack resonators with ultralow tuning power,” Opt. Express18(19), 20298–20304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kucharski, D.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” J. Solid-State Circuits41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuchta, D. M.

Kung, C. C.

Kung, C.-C.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 284–286 (2011).

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express18(5), 5106–5113 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

Li, G.

Liang, H.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed receiver technology on the SOI platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 3800108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 284–286 (2011).

S. Liao, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Thermally tunable silicon racetrack resonators with ultralow tuning power,” Opt. Express18(19), 20298–20304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

S. Liao, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lim, A. E.-J.

T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, X. G. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. B. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liow, T.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liow, T. Y.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express18(5), 5106–5113 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liow, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, X. G. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. B. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y. L.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express18(5), 5106–5113 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.-Q.

T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, X. G. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. B. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Luff, B. J.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed receiver technology on the SOI platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 3800108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 284–286 (2011).

Luo, Y.

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Kakahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Narasimha, A.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” J. Solid-State Circuits41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oehme, M.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(13), 525–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pan, H.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed receiver technology on the SOI platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 3800108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 284–286 (2011).

S. Liao, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Thermally tunable silicon racetrack resonators with ultralow tuning power,” Opt. Express18(19), 20298–20304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rylyakov, A. V.

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schow, C. L.

Shafiiha, R.

Shank, S. M.

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Kakahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. F.

T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, X. G. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. B. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express18(5), 5106–5113 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Starbuck, A. L.

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and G. R. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in Silicon-on-Insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Kakahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamechika, E.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Kakahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and G. R. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in Silicon-on-Insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Kakahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tu, X. G.

T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, X. G. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. B. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Kakahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

Wiaux, V.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and G. R. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in Silicon-on-Insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and G. R. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in Silicon-on-Insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y. Z.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Kakahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, X. G. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. B. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express18(5), 5106–5113 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zortman, W. A.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, X. G. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. B. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Kakahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and G. R. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in Silicon-on-Insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed receiver technology on the SOI platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(2), 3800108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(13), 525–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 284–286 (2011).

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid-State Circuits

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” J. Solid-State Circuits41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, “A roadmap for nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 303–305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Other

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y.-K. Chen, “ 224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” presented at the Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., OSA Tech. Dig., Anaheim, CA, 2013, Paper PDP5C.6.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic structure of vertical Ge-on-Si PD on a Si recess

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated optical field distribution in the vertical pin Ge-on-Si PD at 1550 nm (Left: h = 340 nm; Right: h = 102 nm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated unabsorbed optical power vs. h/H of Ge-on-Si PD

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SEM image of Si nano-taper. (b) SEM image of Si recess formed by wet etching (inset: smooth sloped side wall formed by wet etching). (c) Ge pattern on the recess after Ge Epi process.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) TEM image of Ge-on-Si PD on a Si recess. (b) TEM image of Ge-on-Si PD without a Si recess.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured responsivity of 5µm-wide Ge-on-Si PD on channel Si waveguide (without Si recess) with various lengths for TE mode. (b) Measured responsivity of 5µm-wide Ge-on-Si PD on channel Si waveguide (without Si recess) with various lengths for TM mode. (c) Measured responsivity of 5µm-wide Ge-on-Si PD on Si recess with various lengths for TE mode. (b) Measured responsivity of 5µm-wide G e-on-Si PD on Si recess with various lengths for TM mode.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Dark current vs. voltage and illuminated current vs. voltage of a 5 µm × 10 µm Ge-on-Si PD on a Si recess. (b) Bandwidth of a 5 µm × 10 µm Ge-on-Si PD on a Si recess at various biases.

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