Abstract

Waveguide integrated MSM (metal-semiconductor-metal) Germanium (Ge) photodetectors (PDs) with a SiGe capping layer were exploited for silicon photonics integration. Under optimized epitaxial growth conditions, the capping layer passivated the Ge surface, resulting in sufficiently low dark current of the PDs. In addition, the PDs exhibited a narrower distribution of the dark current than PDs with a Si capping layer, probably due to the lower surface leakage current. Low-noise differential receivers with uniform MSM Ge PDs exhibiting 10 Gbps data transmission were realized.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (1)

J. Fujikata, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Si Waveguide-Integrated Metal–Semiconductor–Metal and p–i–n-Type Ge Photodiodes Using Si-Capping Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.52(4), 04CG10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (6)

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V•cm V(π)L using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow Power 80 Gb/s Arrayed CMOS Silicon Photonic Transceivers for WDM Optical Links,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Takenaka, K. Morii, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “Dark current reduction of Ge photodetector by GeO₂ surface passivation and gas-phase doping,” Opt. Express20(8), 8718–8725 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aamer, A. Griol, A. Brimont, A. M. Gutierrez, P. Sanchis, and A. Håkansson, “Increased sensitivity through maximizing the extinction ratio of SOI delay-interferometer receiver for 10G DPSK,” Opt. Express20(13), 14698–14704 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Sahni, H. Thacker, J. Yao, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Improving CMOS-compatible Germanium photodetectors,” Opt. Express20(24), 26345–26350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators, and photodetectors on single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express19(26), B159–B165 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Hwang and E. H. Zhang, “Effects of a a-Si:H layer on reducing the dark current of 1310 nm metal–germanium–metal photodetectors,” Thin Solid Films519(11), 3819–3821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A Grating-Coupler-Enabled CMOS Photonics Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

K.-W. Ang, T.-Y. Liow, M.-B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low Thermal Budget Monolithic Integration of Evanescent-Coupled Ge-on-SOI Photodetector on Si CMOS Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O Technology for Tera-Scale Computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607(1), 760703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express18(5), 4986–4999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Nanoelectronic and Nanophotonic Interconnect,” Proc. IEEE96(2), 230–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ozguven and P. C. McIntyre, “Silicon-germanium interdiffusion in high-germanium-content epitaxial heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(18), 181907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact InAlAs–InGaAs Metal–Semiconductor–Metal Photodetectors Integrated on Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(19), 1484–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Hwang, W. T. Chang, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Kung, C. H. Hu, and P. S. Chen, “Suppressing the dark current of metal–semiconductor–metal SiGe/Si heterojunction photodetector by using asymmetric structure,” Thin Solid Films515(7–8), 3837–3839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Hwang, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Kung, and J. C. Liu, “High Photo-to-Dark-Current Ratio in SiGe/Si Schottky-Barrier Photodetectors by Using an a-Si:H Cap Layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.54(9), 2386–2391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron. Lett.42(23), 1363–1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dimoulas, P. Tsipas, A. Sotiropoulos, and E. K. Evangelou, “Fermi-level pinning and charge neutrality level in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 252110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Metal–Germanium–Metal Photodetectors on Heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si With Amorphous Ge Schottky Barrier Enhancement Layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(2), 581–583 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effective Dark Current SuppressionWith Asymmetric MSM Photodetectors in Group IV Semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(11), 1585–1587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-Performance p-i-n Ge on Si Photodetectors for the Near Infrared: From Model to Demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.48(6), 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical Interconnects to Silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C.-S. Li and H. S. Stone, “Differential Board/Backplane Optical Interconnects for High-speed Digital Systems Part I: Theory,” J. Lightwave Technol.11(7), 1234–1249 (1993).

1992 (2)

S. M. Jang and R. Reif, “Effects of hydrogen and deposition pressure on Si1-xGex growth rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(6), 707–709 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Afshar-Hanaii, J. M. Bonar, A. G. R. Evans, G. J. Parker, C. M. K. Starbuck, and H. A. Kemhadjian, “Thick selective epitaxial growth of silicon at-960°C using silane only,” Microelectron. Eng.18(3), 237–246 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

J. L. Regolini, D. Bensahel, J. Mercier, and E. Scheid, “Silicon selective epitaxial growth at reduced pressure and temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth96(3), 505–512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Murota, N. Nakamura, M. Kato, N. Mikoshiba, and T. Ohmi, “Lowtemperature silicon selective deposition and epitaxy on silicon using the thermal decomposition of silane under ultraclean environment,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(11), 1007–1009 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. Ishitani, H. Kitajima, K. Tanno, H. Tsuya, N. Endo, N. Kasai, and Y. Kurogi, “Selective silicon epitaxial growth for device-isolation technology,” Microelectron. Eng.4(1), 3–33 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Aamer, M.

Afshar-Hanaii, N.

N. Afshar-Hanaii, J. M. Bonar, A. G. R. Evans, G. J. Parker, C. M. K. Starbuck, and H. A. Kemhadjian, “Thick selective epitaxial growth of silicon at-960°C using silane only,” Microelectron. Eng.18(3), 237–246 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Akagawa, T.

Akiyama, S.

Alon, E.

Amberg, P.

Ang, K.-W.

K.-W. Ang, T.-Y. Liow, M.-B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low Thermal Budget Monolithic Integration of Evanescent-Coupled Ge-on-SOI Photodetector on Si CMOS Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

Asghari, M.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic structure of MSM Ge PD with SiGe capping layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of selectively grown Ge light absorption layer and SiGe capping layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Growth rate of SiGe capping layer as function of inverse growth temperature. Cross and circle marks indicate flatness of capping layer: cross marks represent rough surface, and circles represent flat surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) TEM image and (b) SIMS profile of SiGe capping layer grown on Ge.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) I-V characteristics of SiGe capped Ge schottky structure. Schematic image of test structure is shown in inset. I-V curves were measured at various temperatures. (b) Diode current divided by the squared absolute temperature as a function of inverse temperature. Data were taken at several forward biases from Fig. 5(a). The inset of the figure shows the value of ΦBp – qV/n as a function of the absolute bias.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Energy band structure of MSM Ge PD with SiGe capping layer. Hole energy barrier (ΦBp) was extracted from temperature dependence of forward current shown in Fig. 5(b). Electron energy barrier (ΦBn) was estimated from ΦBp and band gap of SiGe.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Photo and dark current characteristics of simple MSM PD structures. Schematic image of test structure is shown at top. (b) Dark current of a single pair of double Schottky junctions with SiGe capping layer and with Si capping layer. The current is normalized to the current of the SiGe capped sample which has the smallest metal spacing. (c) Cumulative probability of MSM Ge PD’s dark current distribution.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Photo and dark current characteristics of waveguide integrated MSM Ge PD with SiGe capping layer. (b) Frequency response characteristics of MSM Ge PD. (c) Eye diagrams of MSM Ge PD at 20 Gbps.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Schematic configuration of differential optical receiver circuit. (b) Optical image of MSM PD pair in optical circuit.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Eye diagrams of differential PD pairs in optical receiver circuits. Eye diagrams of individual PDs in each pair are also shown for comparison. The eye diagrams were taken at 7 V.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Parameters used in Eqs. (1) and (2)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Characteristics of waveguide integrated MSM Ge PD with SiGe capping layer

Equations (2)

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I=A A * T 2 exp( ϕ Bp kT )exp( qV nkT )
A * = 4qπm k 2 h 3

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