Abstract

High-speed height measurement is required in industrial fields for analyzing the behavior of a breaking object, a vibrating object or a rotating object. A shape measurement performed using a phase-shifting method can measure the shape with high spatial resolution because the coordinates can be obtained pixel by pixel. A light-source-stepping method (LSSM) that uses a linear LED array by means of a whole-space tabulation method (WSTM) has been proposed. Accurate shape measurement can be performed using this method. The response speed of the LED array is greater than 12 kHz. In this paper, height measurement is performed using WSTM and LSSM with a linear LED array and a high-speed camera. It was verified that the response speed of the linear LED is greater than 200 kHz. The phase shifting was performed at 12 kHz, and the height measurement of the vibrating woofer was performed at 4 kHz using a 3-step phase-shifting method.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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  1. Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, and H. Toda, “Real-time shape measurement by integrated phase-shifting method,” Proc. SPIE3744, 118–125 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Fujigaki, S. Matsumoto, A. Masaya, Y. Morimoto, and Y. Murata, “Development of shape measurement system using mirrors for metallic objects,” J. JSEM 2, 194–197(2012).
  3. H. N. Yen, D. M. Tsai, and J. Y. Yang, “Full-field 3-D measurement of solder pastes using LCD-based phase shifting techniques,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf.29(1), 50–57 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. S. Chan and A. K. Asundi, “Phase-shifting digital projection system for surface profile measurement,” Proc. SPIE2354, 444–452 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. S. Huang, C. Zhang, and F.-P. Chiang, “High-speed 3-D shape measurement based on digital fringe projection,” Opt. Eng.42(1), 163–168 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Zhang, D. Van Der Weide, and J. Oliver, “Superfast phase-shifting method for 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Express18(9), 9684–9689 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Gong and S. Zhang, “Ultrafast 3-D shape measurement with an off-the-shelf DLP projector,” Opt. Express18(19), 19743–19754 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Yoshizawa, T. Wakayama, and H. Takano, “Application of a MEMS scanner to profile measurement,” Proc. SPIE6762, 67620B (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Asai, T. Miyagi, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, “Application to bin-picking of shape measurement using whole-space tabulation method with MEMS scanner grating projector,” J. JSEM10(Special Issue), 186–191 (2010).
  10. S. Zwick, R. Fessler, J. Jegorov, and G. Notni, “Resolution limitations for tailored picture-generating freeform surfaces,” Opt. Express20(4), 3642–3653 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Grosse, M. Schaffer, B. Harendt, and R. Kowarschik, “Fast data acquisition for three-dimensional shape measurement using fixed-pattern projection and temporal coding,” Opt. Eng.50(10), 100503 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Oura, M. Fujigaki, A. Masaya, and Y. Morimoto, “Development of linear LED device for shape measurement by light source stepping method,” Opt. Meas. Mod. Metrol.5, 285–291 (2011).
  13. Y. Morimoto, A. Masaya, M. Fujigaki, and D. Asai, “Shape measurement by phase-stepping method using multi-line LEDs,” in Applied Measurement Systems, Ed. M. Zahurul Haq (InTech, 2012), Chapter 7, 137–152.
  14. Y. Horikawa, Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 2002–286432 (2002).
  15. M. Fujigaki and Y. Morimoto, “Shape measurement with grating projection using whole-space tabulation method,” J. JSEM8(4), 92–98 (2008) (in Japanese).
  16. M. Fujigaki, A. Takagishi, T. Matui, and Y. Morimoto, “Development of real-time shape measurement system using whole-space tabulation method,” Proc. SPIE7066, 706606, 706606-8 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2012

M. Fujigaki, S. Matsumoto, A. Masaya, Y. Morimoto, and Y. Murata, “Development of shape measurement system using mirrors for metallic objects,” J. JSEM 2, 194–197(2012).

S. Zwick, R. Fessler, J. Jegorov, and G. Notni, “Resolution limitations for tailored picture-generating freeform surfaces,” Opt. Express20(4), 3642–3653 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

M. Grosse, M. Schaffer, B. Harendt, and R. Kowarschik, “Fast data acquisition for three-dimensional shape measurement using fixed-pattern projection and temporal coding,” Opt. Eng.50(10), 100503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Oura, M. Fujigaki, A. Masaya, and Y. Morimoto, “Development of linear LED device for shape measurement by light source stepping method,” Opt. Meas. Mod. Metrol.5, 285–291 (2011).

2010

D. Asai, T. Miyagi, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, “Application to bin-picking of shape measurement using whole-space tabulation method with MEMS scanner grating projector,” J. JSEM10(Special Issue), 186–191 (2010).

S. Zhang, D. Van Der Weide, and J. Oliver, “Superfast phase-shifting method for 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Express18(9), 9684–9689 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gong and S. Zhang, “Ultrafast 3-D shape measurement with an off-the-shelf DLP projector,” Opt. Express18(19), 19743–19754 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M. Fujigaki and Y. Morimoto, “Shape measurement with grating projection using whole-space tabulation method,” J. JSEM8(4), 92–98 (2008) (in Japanese).

M. Fujigaki, A. Takagishi, T. Matui, and Y. Morimoto, “Development of real-time shape measurement system using whole-space tabulation method,” Proc. SPIE7066, 706606, 706606-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Yoshizawa, T. Wakayama, and H. Takano, “Application of a MEMS scanner to profile measurement,” Proc. SPIE6762, 67620B (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. N. Yen, D. M. Tsai, and J. Y. Yang, “Full-field 3-D measurement of solder pastes using LCD-based phase shifting techniques,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf.29(1), 50–57 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. S. Huang, C. Zhang, and F.-P. Chiang, “High-speed 3-D shape measurement based on digital fringe projection,” Opt. Eng.42(1), 163–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, and H. Toda, “Real-time shape measurement by integrated phase-shifting method,” Proc. SPIE3744, 118–125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

C. S. Chan and A. K. Asundi, “Phase-shifting digital projection system for surface profile measurement,” Proc. SPIE2354, 444–452 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Asai, D.

D. Asai, T. Miyagi, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, “Application to bin-picking of shape measurement using whole-space tabulation method with MEMS scanner grating projector,” J. JSEM10(Special Issue), 186–191 (2010).

Asundi, A. K.

C. S. Chan and A. K. Asundi, “Phase-shifting digital projection system for surface profile measurement,” Proc. SPIE2354, 444–452 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. S.

C. S. Chan and A. K. Asundi, “Phase-shifting digital projection system for surface profile measurement,” Proc. SPIE2354, 444–452 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, F.-P.

P. S. Huang, C. Zhang, and F.-P. Chiang, “High-speed 3-D shape measurement based on digital fringe projection,” Opt. Eng.42(1), 163–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fessler, R.

Fujigaki, M.

M. Fujigaki, S. Matsumoto, A. Masaya, Y. Morimoto, and Y. Murata, “Development of shape measurement system using mirrors for metallic objects,” J. JSEM 2, 194–197(2012).

Y. Oura, M. Fujigaki, A. Masaya, and Y. Morimoto, “Development of linear LED device for shape measurement by light source stepping method,” Opt. Meas. Mod. Metrol.5, 285–291 (2011).

D. Asai, T. Miyagi, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, “Application to bin-picking of shape measurement using whole-space tabulation method with MEMS scanner grating projector,” J. JSEM10(Special Issue), 186–191 (2010).

M. Fujigaki and Y. Morimoto, “Shape measurement with grating projection using whole-space tabulation method,” J. JSEM8(4), 92–98 (2008) (in Japanese).

M. Fujigaki, A. Takagishi, T. Matui, and Y. Morimoto, “Development of real-time shape measurement system using whole-space tabulation method,” Proc. SPIE7066, 706606, 706606-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, and H. Toda, “Real-time shape measurement by integrated phase-shifting method,” Proc. SPIE3744, 118–125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y.

Grosse, M.

M. Grosse, M. Schaffer, B. Harendt, and R. Kowarschik, “Fast data acquisition for three-dimensional shape measurement using fixed-pattern projection and temporal coding,” Opt. Eng.50(10), 100503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harendt, B.

M. Grosse, M. Schaffer, B. Harendt, and R. Kowarschik, “Fast data acquisition for three-dimensional shape measurement using fixed-pattern projection and temporal coding,” Opt. Eng.50(10), 100503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P. S.

P. S. Huang, C. Zhang, and F.-P. Chiang, “High-speed 3-D shape measurement based on digital fringe projection,” Opt. Eng.42(1), 163–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jegorov, J.

Kowarschik, R.

M. Grosse, M. Schaffer, B. Harendt, and R. Kowarschik, “Fast data acquisition for three-dimensional shape measurement using fixed-pattern projection and temporal coding,” Opt. Eng.50(10), 100503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Masaya, A.

M. Fujigaki, S. Matsumoto, A. Masaya, Y. Morimoto, and Y. Murata, “Development of shape measurement system using mirrors for metallic objects,” J. JSEM 2, 194–197(2012).

Y. Oura, M. Fujigaki, A. Masaya, and Y. Morimoto, “Development of linear LED device for shape measurement by light source stepping method,” Opt. Meas. Mod. Metrol.5, 285–291 (2011).

Matsumoto, S.

M. Fujigaki, S. Matsumoto, A. Masaya, Y. Morimoto, and Y. Murata, “Development of shape measurement system using mirrors for metallic objects,” J. JSEM 2, 194–197(2012).

Matui, T.

M. Fujigaki, A. Takagishi, T. Matui, and Y. Morimoto, “Development of real-time shape measurement system using whole-space tabulation method,” Proc. SPIE7066, 706606, 706606-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyagi, T.

D. Asai, T. Miyagi, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, “Application to bin-picking of shape measurement using whole-space tabulation method with MEMS scanner grating projector,” J. JSEM10(Special Issue), 186–191 (2010).

Morimoto, Y.

M. Fujigaki, S. Matsumoto, A. Masaya, Y. Morimoto, and Y. Murata, “Development of shape measurement system using mirrors for metallic objects,” J. JSEM 2, 194–197(2012).

Y. Oura, M. Fujigaki, A. Masaya, and Y. Morimoto, “Development of linear LED device for shape measurement by light source stepping method,” Opt. Meas. Mod. Metrol.5, 285–291 (2011).

D. Asai, T. Miyagi, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, “Application to bin-picking of shape measurement using whole-space tabulation method with MEMS scanner grating projector,” J. JSEM10(Special Issue), 186–191 (2010).

M. Fujigaki and Y. Morimoto, “Shape measurement with grating projection using whole-space tabulation method,” J. JSEM8(4), 92–98 (2008) (in Japanese).

M. Fujigaki, A. Takagishi, T. Matui, and Y. Morimoto, “Development of real-time shape measurement system using whole-space tabulation method,” Proc. SPIE7066, 706606, 706606-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, and H. Toda, “Real-time shape measurement by integrated phase-shifting method,” Proc. SPIE3744, 118–125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murata, Y.

M. Fujigaki, S. Matsumoto, A. Masaya, Y. Morimoto, and Y. Murata, “Development of shape measurement system using mirrors for metallic objects,” J. JSEM 2, 194–197(2012).

Notni, G.

Oliver, J.

Oura, Y.

Y. Oura, M. Fujigaki, A. Masaya, and Y. Morimoto, “Development of linear LED device for shape measurement by light source stepping method,” Opt. Meas. Mod. Metrol.5, 285–291 (2011).

Schaffer, M.

M. Grosse, M. Schaffer, B. Harendt, and R. Kowarschik, “Fast data acquisition for three-dimensional shape measurement using fixed-pattern projection and temporal coding,” Opt. Eng.50(10), 100503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takagishi, A.

M. Fujigaki, A. Takagishi, T. Matui, and Y. Morimoto, “Development of real-time shape measurement system using whole-space tabulation method,” Proc. SPIE7066, 706606, 706606-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takano, H.

T. Yoshizawa, T. Wakayama, and H. Takano, “Application of a MEMS scanner to profile measurement,” Proc. SPIE6762, 67620B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toda, H.

Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, and H. Toda, “Real-time shape measurement by integrated phase-shifting method,” Proc. SPIE3744, 118–125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. M.

H. N. Yen, D. M. Tsai, and J. Y. Yang, “Full-field 3-D measurement of solder pastes using LCD-based phase shifting techniques,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf.29(1), 50–57 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Der Weide, D.

Wakayama, T.

T. Yoshizawa, T. Wakayama, and H. Takano, “Application of a MEMS scanner to profile measurement,” Proc. SPIE6762, 67620B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. Y.

H. N. Yen, D. M. Tsai, and J. Y. Yang, “Full-field 3-D measurement of solder pastes using LCD-based phase shifting techniques,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf.29(1), 50–57 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yen, H. N.

H. N. Yen, D. M. Tsai, and J. Y. Yang, “Full-field 3-D measurement of solder pastes using LCD-based phase shifting techniques,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf.29(1), 50–57 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshizawa, T.

T. Yoshizawa, T. Wakayama, and H. Takano, “Application of a MEMS scanner to profile measurement,” Proc. SPIE6762, 67620B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

P. S. Huang, C. Zhang, and F.-P. Chiang, “High-speed 3-D shape measurement based on digital fringe projection,” Opt. Eng.42(1), 163–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

Zwick, S.

Development of shape measurement system using mirrors for metallic objects

M. Fujigaki, S. Matsumoto, A. Masaya, Y. Morimoto, and Y. Murata, “Development of shape measurement system using mirrors for metallic objects,” J. JSEM 2, 194–197(2012).

IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf.

H. N. Yen, D. M. Tsai, and J. Y. Yang, “Full-field 3-D measurement of solder pastes using LCD-based phase shifting techniques,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf.29(1), 50–57 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. JSEM

D. Asai, T. Miyagi, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, “Application to bin-picking of shape measurement using whole-space tabulation method with MEMS scanner grating projector,” J. JSEM10(Special Issue), 186–191 (2010).

M. Fujigaki and Y. Morimoto, “Shape measurement with grating projection using whole-space tabulation method,” J. JSEM8(4), 92–98 (2008) (in Japanese).

Opt. Eng.

M. Grosse, M. Schaffer, B. Harendt, and R. Kowarschik, “Fast data acquisition for three-dimensional shape measurement using fixed-pattern projection and temporal coding,” Opt. Eng.50(10), 100503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Huang, C. Zhang, and F.-P. Chiang, “High-speed 3-D shape measurement based on digital fringe projection,” Opt. Eng.42(1), 163–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Meas. Mod. Metrol.

Y. Oura, M. Fujigaki, A. Masaya, and Y. Morimoto, “Development of linear LED device for shape measurement by light source stepping method,” Opt. Meas. Mod. Metrol.5, 285–291 (2011).

Proc. SPIE

M. Fujigaki, A. Takagishi, T. Matui, and Y. Morimoto, “Development of real-time shape measurement system using whole-space tabulation method,” Proc. SPIE7066, 706606, 706606-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, and H. Toda, “Real-time shape measurement by integrated phase-shifting method,” Proc. SPIE3744, 118–125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Chan and A. K. Asundi, “Phase-shifting digital projection system for surface profile measurement,” Proc. SPIE2354, 444–452 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshizawa, T. Wakayama, and H. Takano, “Application of a MEMS scanner to profile measurement,” Proc. SPIE6762, 67620B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Morimoto, A. Masaya, M. Fujigaki, and D. Asai, “Shape measurement by phase-stepping method using multi-line LEDs,” in Applied Measurement Systems, Ed. M. Zahurul Haq (InTech, 2012), Chapter 7, 137–152.

Y. Horikawa, Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 2002–286432 (2002).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Projected grating pattern with a point light source and a grating plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase-shifted projected grating pattern using the light-source-stepping method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Projected grating using a linear light source.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Principle of the whole-space tabulation method. (a) Correspondence between the height and phase of the projected grating at a pixel line. (b) Calibration tables to obtain the x coordinate from the phase θ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Developed linear LED array device.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Waveforms output by the photosensor and input by the pulse generator with frequencies of 1 kHz, 12 kHz and 100 kHz.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Characteristic amplitude versus frequency for a rectangular wave for frequency ranging from 1 kHz to 3,000 kHz.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Example of phase-height table at the center pixel of the measurement area.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Result of height measurement of the reference plane placed at z = 1.0 mm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Cross sections along the horizontal center line of the height measurement results for the reference plane.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Phase-shifted grating images projected onto a vibrating woofer.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

The phase map and height map of a vibrating woofer obtained from Fig. 11.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Cross sections in time series at 1/1000-second intervals along the horizontal broken line A shown in Fig. 13(b).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Height change at a point on the woofer.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measurement results of planes on a horizontal center line

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ(x, z g )= 2πx p + ϕ 0
x g = x p x s z p z s ( z g z s )+ x s = z g z s z p z s x p + z p z g z p z s x s .
ϕ( x p , z p )=ϕ( x g , z g )= 2π x g p + ϕ 0 .
Δ x g = z p z g z p z s Δx.
Δϕ= 2π p z p z g z p z s Δx.
tanθ= 3 ( I 1 I 2 ) 2 I 0 I 1 I 2 ,

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