Abstract

We report the fabrication and studies of electrically driven green, olivine, and amber color nanopyramid GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs). InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were grown on the nanopyramid semipolar facets. Compared with the commonly used (0001) c-plane MQWs, the semipolar facet has lower piezoelectric field, resulting in much faster radiative recombination efficiency. This is important for high In content MQWs. The measured internal quantum efficiencies for green, olivine, and amber color LED are 30%, 25%, and 21%, respectively. The radiative and non-radiative lifetime of the semipolar MQWs are also investigated.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. Yu, J. Ager, E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. T. Barletta, E. A. Berkman, B. F. Moody, N. A. El-Masry, A. M. Emara, M. J. Reed, and S. M. Bedair, “Development of green, yellow, and amber light emitting diodes using InGaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Fuhrmann, C. Netzel, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Optimization scheme for the quantum efficiency of GaInN-based green-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y.-L. Lai, C.-P. Liu, Y.-H. Lin, R.-M. Lin, D.-Y. Lyu, Z.-X. Peng, and T.-Y. Lin, “Effects of the material polarity on the green emission properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151906 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Akopian, G. Bahir, D. Gershoni, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical evidence for lack of polarization in (11-20) oriented GaN/(AlGa)N quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 202104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Ueda, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Epitaxial growth and optical properties of semipolar (11-22) GaN and InGaN/GaN quantum wells on GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211907 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Hiramatsu, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth techniques used in group III nitride epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(32), 6961–6975 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Liu, A. Satka, L. K. Jagadamma, P. R. Edwards, D. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, P. Shields, J. Kovac, F. Uherek, and W. Wang, “Light emission from InGaN quantum wells grown on the facets of closely spaced GaN nano-pyramids formed by nano-imprinting,” Appl. Phys. Express2(12), 121002 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. H. Wildeson, R. Colby, D. A. Ewoldt, Z. Liang, D. N. Zakharov, N. J. Zaluzec, R. E. García, E. A. Stach, and T. D. Sands, “III-nitride nanopyramid light emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.108(4), 044303 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Kim, J. Kim, M.-S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U.-I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multiquantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Yu, L. K. Lee, T. Jung, and P. C. Ku, “Photoluminescence study of semipolar {10-11} InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by selective area epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 141906 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y.-H. Ko, J.-H. Kim, L.-H. Jin, S.-M. Ko, B.-J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y.-H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “In inhomogeneity and emission characteristics of InGaN,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(32), 6993–7010 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y.-H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. P. D. Schenk, M. Leroux, and P. de Mierry, “Luminescence and absorption in InGaN epitaxial layers and the van Roosbroeck–Shockley relation,” J. Appl. Phys.88(3), 1525–1534 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1−xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of an In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Li, A. M. Fischer, Q. Y. Wei, F. A. Ponce, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Carrier localization and nonradiative recombination in yellow emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031906 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(5), 569–571 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Dimensionality of excitons in laser-diode structures composed of InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B59(15), 10283–10288 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S.-P. Chang, Y.-C. Chen, J.-K. Huang, Y.-J. Cheng, J.-R. Chang, K.-P. Sou, Y.-T. Kang, H.-C. Yang, T.-C. Hsu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Chang, “Electrically driven nanopyramid green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061106 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(12), 121911 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by v-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(12), 127402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

S.-P. Chang, Y.-C. Chen, J.-K. Huang, Y.-J. Cheng, J.-R. Chang, K.-P. Sou, Y.-T. Kang, H.-C. Yang, T.-C. Hsu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Chang, “Electrically driven nanopyramid green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

Y.-H. Ko, J.-H. Kim, L.-H. Jin, S.-M. Ko, B.-J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y.-H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

I. H. Wildeson, R. Colby, D. A. Ewoldt, Z. Liang, D. N. Zakharov, N. J. Zaluzec, R. E. García, E. A. Stach, and T. D. Sands, “III-nitride nanopyramid light emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.108(4), 044303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kim, J. Kim, M.-S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U.-I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multiquantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Li, A. M. Fischer, Q. Y. Wei, F. A. Ponce, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Carrier localization and nonradiative recombination in yellow emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. Liu, A. Satka, L. K. Jagadamma, P. R. Edwards, D. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, P. Shields, J. Kovac, F. Uherek, and W. Wang, “Light emission from InGaN quantum wells grown on the facets of closely spaced GaN nano-pyramids formed by nano-imprinting,” Appl. Phys. Express2(12), 121002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Yu, L. K. Lee, T. Jung, and P. C. Ku, “Photoluminescence study of semipolar {10-11} InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by selective area epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 141906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Barletta, E. A. Berkman, B. F. Moody, N. A. El-Masry, A. M. Emara, M. J. Reed, and S. M. Bedair, “Development of green, yellow, and amber light emitting diodes using InGaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(12), 121911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Fuhrmann, C. Netzel, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Optimization scheme for the quantum efficiency of GaInN-based green-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-L. Lai, C.-P. Liu, Y.-H. Lin, R.-M. Lin, D.-Y. Lyu, Z.-X. Peng, and T.-Y. Lin, “Effects of the material polarity on the green emission properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ueda, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Epitaxial growth and optical properties of semipolar (11-22) GaN and InGaN/GaN quantum wells on GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Akopian, G. Bahir, D. Gershoni, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical evidence for lack of polarization in (11-20) oriented GaN/(AlGa)N quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 202104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by v-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1−xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. Yu, J. Ager, E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. Hiramatsu, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth techniques used in group III nitride epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(32), 6961–6975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “In inhomogeneity and emission characteristics of InGaN,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(32), 6993–7010 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. P. D. Schenk, M. Leroux, and P. de Mierry, “Luminescence and absorption in InGaN epitaxial layers and the van Roosbroeck–Shockley relation,” J. Appl. Phys.88(3), 1525–1534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of an In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Dimensionality of excitons in laser-diode structures composed of InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B59(15), 10283–10288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y.-H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(5), 569–571 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ade, G.

D. Fuhrmann, C. Netzel, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Optimization scheme for the quantum efficiency of GaInN-based green-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by v-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ager, J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. Yu, J. Ager, E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Akopian, N.

N. Akopian, G. Bahir, D. Gershoni, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical evidence for lack of polarization in (11-20) oriented GaN/(AlGa)N quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 202104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Allsopp, D.

C. Liu, A. Satka, L. K. Jagadamma, P. R. Edwards, D. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, P. Shields, J. Kovac, F. Uherek, and W. Wang, “Light emission from InGaN quantum wells grown on the facets of closely spaced GaN nano-pyramids formed by nano-imprinting,” Appl. Phys. Express2(12), 121002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bahir, G.

N. Akopian, G. Bahir, D. Gershoni, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical evidence for lack of polarization in (11-20) oriented GaN/(AlGa)N quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 202104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baker, T. J.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barletta, P. T.

P. T. Barletta, E. A. Berkman, B. F. Moody, N. A. El-Masry, A. M. Emara, M. J. Reed, and S. M. Bedair, “Development of green, yellow, and amber light emitting diodes using InGaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bedair, S. M.

P. T. Barletta, E. A. Berkman, B. F. Moody, N. A. El-Masry, A. M. Emara, M. J. Reed, and S. M. Bedair, “Development of green, yellow, and amber light emitting diodes using InGaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bell, A.

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1−xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berkman, E. A.

P. T. Barletta, E. A. Berkman, B. F. Moody, N. A. El-Masry, A. M. Emara, M. J. Reed, and S. M. Bedair, “Development of green, yellow, and amber light emitting diodes using InGaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-Y.

S.-P. Chang, Y.-C. Chen, J.-K. Huang, Y.-J. Cheng, J.-R. Chang, K.-P. Sou, Y.-T. Kang, H.-C. Yang, T.-C. Hsu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Chang, “Electrically driven nanopyramid green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.-R.

S.-P. Chang, Y.-C. Chen, J.-K. Huang, Y.-J. Cheng, J.-R. Chang, K.-P. Sou, Y.-T. Kang, H.-C. Yang, T.-C. Hsu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Chang, “Electrically driven nanopyramid green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-P.

S.-P. Chang, Y.-C. Chen, J.-K. Huang, Y.-J. Cheng, J.-R. Chang, K.-P. Sou, Y.-T. Kang, H.-C. Yang, T.-C. Hsu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Chang, “Electrically driven nanopyramid green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-C.

S.-P. Chang, Y.-C. Chen, J.-K. Huang, Y.-J. Cheng, J.-R. Chang, K.-P. Sou, Y.-T. Kang, H.-C. Yang, T.-C. Hsu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Chang, “Electrically driven nanopyramid green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.-J.

S.-P. Chang, Y.-C. Chen, J.-K. Huang, Y.-J. Cheng, J.-R. Chang, K.-P. Sou, Y.-T. Kang, H.-C. Yang, T.-C. Hsu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Chang, “Electrically driven nanopyramid green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.

T. Kim, J. Kim, M.-S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U.-I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multiquantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Ko, J.-H. Kim, L.-H. Jin, S.-M. Ko, B.-J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y.-H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Christen, J.

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1−xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, U.-I.

T. Kim, J. Kim, M.-S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U.-I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multiquantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colby, R.

I. H. Wildeson, R. Colby, D. A. Ewoldt, Z. Liang, D. N. Zakharov, N. J. Zaluzec, R. E. García, E. A. Stach, and T. D. Sands, “III-nitride nanopyramid light emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.108(4), 044303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Craven, M. D.

N. Akopian, G. Bahir, D. Gershoni, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical evidence for lack of polarization in (11-20) oriented GaN/(AlGa)N quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 202104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Mierry, P.

H. P. D. Schenk, M. Leroux, and P. de Mierry, “Luminescence and absorption in InGaN epitaxial layers and the van Roosbroeck–Shockley relation,” J. Appl. Phys.88(3), 1525–1534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

N. Akopian, G. Bahir, D. Gershoni, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical evidence for lack of polarization in (11-20) oriented GaN/(AlGa)N quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 202104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

T. Li, A. M. Fischer, Q. Y. Wei, F. A. Ponce, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Carrier localization and nonradiative recombination in yellow emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, P. R.

C. Liu, A. Satka, L. K. Jagadamma, P. R. Edwards, D. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, P. Shields, J. Kovac, F. Uherek, and W. Wang, “Light emission from InGaN quantum wells grown on the facets of closely spaced GaN nano-pyramids formed by nano-imprinting,” Appl. Phys. Express2(12), 121002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eliseev, P. G.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(5), 569–571 (1997).
[CrossRef]

El-Masry, N. A.

P. T. Barletta, E. A. Berkman, B. F. Moody, N. A. El-Masry, A. M. Emara, M. J. Reed, and S. M. Bedair, “Development of green, yellow, and amber light emitting diodes using InGaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Emara, A. M.

P. T. Barletta, E. A. Berkman, B. F. Moody, N. A. El-Masry, A. M. Emara, M. J. Reed, and S. M. Bedair, “Development of green, yellow, and amber light emitting diodes using InGaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ewoldt, D. A.

I. H. Wildeson, R. Colby, D. A. Ewoldt, Z. Liang, D. N. Zakharov, N. J. Zaluzec, R. E. García, E. A. Stach, and T. D. Sands, “III-nitride nanopyramid light emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.108(4), 044303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231110 (2005).
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F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024 (1997).
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Y.-H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. M.

T. Li, A. M. Fischer, Q. Y. Wei, F. A. Ponce, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Carrier localization and nonradiative recombination in yellow emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fuhrmann, D.

D. Fuhrmann, C. Netzel, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Optimization scheme for the quantum efficiency of GaInN-based green-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071105 (2006).
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A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by v-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(12), 127402 (2005).
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A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1−xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, S.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “In inhomogeneity and emission characteristics of InGaN,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(32), 6993–7010 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of an In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
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Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Dimensionality of excitons in laser-diode structures composed of InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B59(15), 10283–10288 (1999).
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Funato, M.

M. Ueda, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Epitaxial growth and optical properties of semipolar (11-22) GaN and InGaN/GaN quantum wells on GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211907 (2006).
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Gainer, G. H.

Y.-H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
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I. H. Wildeson, R. Colby, D. A. Ewoldt, Z. Liang, D. N. Zakharov, N. J. Zaluzec, R. E. García, E. A. Stach, and T. D. Sands, “III-nitride nanopyramid light emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.108(4), 044303 (2010).
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N. Akopian, G. Bahir, D. Gershoni, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical evidence for lack of polarization in (11-20) oriented GaN/(AlGa)N quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 202104 (2005).
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J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. Yu, J. Ager, E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hangleiter, A.

D. Fuhrmann, C. Netzel, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Optimization scheme for the quantum efficiency of GaInN-based green-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by v-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haskell, B. A.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hinze, P.

D. Fuhrmann, C. Netzel, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Optimization scheme for the quantum efficiency of GaInN-based green-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by v-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(12), 127402 (2005).
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Hiramatsu, K.

K. Hiramatsu, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth techniques used in group III nitride epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(32), 6961–6975 (2001).
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Hitzel, F.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by v-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, T.-C.

S.-P. Chang, Y.-C. Chen, J.-K. Huang, Y.-J. Cheng, J.-R. Chang, K.-P. Sou, Y.-T. Kang, H.-C. Yang, T.-C. Hsu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Chang, “Electrically driven nanopyramid green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.-K.

S.-P. Chang, Y.-C. Chen, J.-K. Huang, Y.-J. Cheng, J.-R. Chang, K.-P. Sou, Y.-T. Kang, H.-C. Yang, T.-C. Hsu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Chang, “Electrically driven nanopyramid green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, C. J.

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(12), 121911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jagadamma, L. K.

C. Liu, A. Satka, L. K. Jagadamma, P. R. Edwards, D. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, P. Shields, J. Kovac, F. Uherek, and W. Wang, “Light emission from InGaN quantum wells grown on the facets of closely spaced GaN nano-pyramids formed by nano-imprinting,” Appl. Phys. Express2(12), 121002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jin, L.-H.

Y.-H. Ko, J.-H. Kim, L.-H. Jin, S.-M. Ko, B.-J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y.-H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, T.

H. Yu, L. K. Lee, T. Jung, and P. C. Ku, “Photoluminescence study of semipolar {10-11} InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by selective area epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 141906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaneta, A.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “In inhomogeneity and emission characteristics of InGaN,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(32), 6993–7010 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Y.-T.

S.-P. Chang, Y.-C. Chen, J.-K. Huang, Y.-J. Cheng, J.-R. Chang, K.-P. Sou, Y.-T. Kang, H.-C. Yang, T.-C. Hsu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Chang, “Electrically driven nanopyramid green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(12), 121911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

M. Ueda, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Epitaxial growth and optical properties of semipolar (11-22) GaN and InGaN/GaN quantum wells on GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “In inhomogeneity and emission characteristics of InGaN,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(32), 6993–7010 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of an In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Dimensionality of excitons in laser-diode structures composed of InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B59(15), 10283–10288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

Y.-H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Y.-H. Ko, J.-H. Kim, L.-H. Jin, S.-M. Ko, B.-J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y.-H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kim, J. Kim, M.-S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U.-I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multiquantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-H.

Y.-H. Ko, J.-H. Kim, L.-H. Jin, S.-M. Ko, B.-J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y.-H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T.

Y.-H. Ko, J.-H. Kim, L.-H. Jin, S.-M. Ko, B.-J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y.-H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kim, J. Kim, M.-S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U.-I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multiquantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ko, S.-M.

Y.-H. Ko, J.-H. Kim, L.-H. Jin, S.-M. Ko, B.-J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y.-H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Ko, J.-H. Kim, L.-H. Jin, S.-M. Ko, B.-J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y.-H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kojima, K.

M. Ueda, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Epitaxial growth and optical properties of semipolar (11-22) GaN and InGaN/GaN quantum wells on GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kovac, J.

C. Liu, A. Satka, L. K. Jagadamma, P. R. Edwards, D. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, P. Shields, J. Kovac, F. Uherek, and W. Wang, “Light emission from InGaN quantum wells grown on the facets of closely spaced GaN nano-pyramids formed by nano-imprinting,” Appl. Phys. Express2(12), 121002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ku, P. C.

H. Yu, L. K. Lee, T. Jung, and P. C. Ku, “Photoluminescence study of semipolar {10-11} InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by selective area epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 141906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-C.

S.-P. Chang, Y.-C. Chen, J.-K. Huang, Y.-J. Cheng, J.-R. Chang, K.-P. Sou, Y.-T. Kang, H.-C. Yang, T.-C. Hsu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Chang, “Electrically driven nanopyramid green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, B.-J.

Y.-H. Ko, J.-H. Kim, L.-H. Jin, S.-M. Ko, B.-J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y.-H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Lai, C.-P. Liu, Y.-H. Lin, R.-M. Lin, D.-Y. Lyu, Z.-X. Peng, and T.-Y. Lin, “Effects of the material polarity on the green emission properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(5), 569–571 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. K.

H. Yu, L. K. Lee, T. Jung, and P. C. Ku, “Photoluminescence study of semipolar {10-11} InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by selective area epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 141906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

T. Kim, J. Kim, M.-S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U.-I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multiquantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leroux, M.

H. P. D. Schenk, M. Leroux, and P. de Mierry, “Luminescence and absorption in InGaN epitaxial layers and the van Roosbroeck–Shockley relation,” J. Appl. Phys.88(3), 1525–1534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

T. Li, A. M. Fischer, Q. Y. Wei, F. A. Ponce, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Carrier localization and nonradiative recombination in yellow emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Z.

I. H. Wildeson, R. Colby, D. A. Ewoldt, Z. Liang, D. N. Zakharov, N. J. Zaluzec, R. E. García, E. A. Stach, and T. D. Sands, “III-nitride nanopyramid light emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.108(4), 044303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, R.-M.

Y.-L. Lai, C.-P. Liu, Y.-H. Lin, R.-M. Lin, D.-Y. Lyu, Z.-X. Peng, and T.-Y. Lin, “Effects of the material polarity on the green emission properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.-Y.

Y.-L. Lai, C.-P. Liu, Y.-H. Lin, R.-M. Lin, D.-Y. Lyu, Z.-X. Peng, and T.-Y. Lin, “Effects of the material polarity on the green emission properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-H.

Y.-L. Lai, C.-P. Liu, Y.-H. Lin, R.-M. Lin, D.-Y. Lyu, Z.-X. Peng, and T.-Y. Lin, “Effects of the material polarity on the green emission properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, A. Satka, L. K. Jagadamma, P. R. Edwards, D. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, P. Shields, J. Kovac, F. Uherek, and W. Wang, “Light emission from InGaN quantum wells grown on the facets of closely spaced GaN nano-pyramids formed by nano-imprinting,” Appl. Phys. Express2(12), 121002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.-P.

Y.-L. Lai, C.-P. Liu, Y.-H. Lin, R.-M. Lin, D.-Y. Lyu, Z.-X. Peng, and T.-Y. Lin, “Effects of the material polarity on the green emission properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. Yu, J. Ager, E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lyu, D.-Y.

Y.-L. Lai, C.-P. Liu, Y.-H. Lin, R.-M. Lin, D.-Y. Lyu, Z.-X. Peng, and T.-Y. Lin, “Effects of the material polarity on the green emission properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. W.

C. Liu, A. Satka, L. K. Jagadamma, P. R. Edwards, D. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, P. Shields, J. Kovac, F. Uherek, and W. Wang, “Light emission from InGaN quantum wells grown on the facets of closely spaced GaN nano-pyramids formed by nano-imprinting,” Appl. Phys. Express2(12), 121002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Masui, H.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

Y.-H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moody, B. F.

P. T. Barletta, E. A. Berkman, B. F. Moody, N. A. El-Masry, A. M. Emara, M. J. Reed, and S. M. Bedair, “Development of green, yellow, and amber light emitting diodes using InGaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

M. Ueda, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Epitaxial growth and optical properties of semipolar (11-22) GaN and InGaN/GaN quantum wells on GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “In inhomogeneity and emission characteristics of InGaN,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(32), 6993–7010 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of an In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, Y.

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1−xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of an In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Dimensionality of excitons in laser-diode structures composed of InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B59(15), 10283–10288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

M. Ueda, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Epitaxial growth and optical properties of semipolar (11-22) GaN and InGaN/GaN quantum wells on GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “In inhomogeneity and emission characteristics of InGaN,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(32), 6993–7010 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of an In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Dimensionality of excitons in laser-diode structures composed of InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B59(15), 10283–10288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Netzel, C.

D. Fuhrmann, C. Netzel, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Optimization scheme for the quantum efficiency of GaInN-based green-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by v-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, K.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “In inhomogeneity and emission characteristics of InGaN,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(32), 6993–7010 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, R. A.

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(12), 121911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Omae, K.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “In inhomogeneity and emission characteristics of InGaN,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(32), 6993–7010 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Omiya, H.

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1−xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Osinski, M.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(5), 569–571 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

T. Kim, J. Kim, M.-S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U.-I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multiquantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pattison, P. M.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Z.-X.

Y.-L. Lai, C.-P. Liu, Y.-H. Lin, R.-M. Lin, D.-Y. Lyu, Z.-X. Peng, and T.-Y. Lin, “Effects of the material polarity on the green emission properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, P.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(5), 569–571 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Plumlee, C.

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1−xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ponce, F. A.

T. Li, A. M. Fischer, Q. Y. Wei, F. A. Ponce, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Carrier localization and nonradiative recombination in yellow emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1−xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reed, M. J.

P. T. Barletta, E. A. Berkman, B. F. Moody, N. A. El-Masry, A. M. Emara, M. J. Reed, and S. M. Bedair, “Development of green, yellow, and amber light emitting diodes using InGaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rossow, U.

D. Fuhrmann, C. Netzel, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Optimization scheme for the quantum efficiency of GaInN-based green-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by v-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saijou, S.

Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of an In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sands, T. D.

I. H. Wildeson, R. Colby, D. A. Ewoldt, Z. Liang, D. N. Zakharov, N. J. Zaluzec, R. E. García, E. A. Stach, and T. D. Sands, “III-nitride nanopyramid light emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.108(4), 044303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Satka, A.

C. Liu, A. Satka, L. K. Jagadamma, P. R. Edwards, D. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, P. Shields, J. Kovac, F. Uherek, and W. Wang, “Light emission from InGaN quantum wells grown on the facets of closely spaced GaN nano-pyramids formed by nano-imprinting,” Appl. Phys. Express2(12), 121002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. Yu, J. Ager, E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schenk, H. P. D.

H. P. D. Schenk, M. Leroux, and P. de Mierry, “Luminescence and absorption in InGaN epitaxial layers and the van Roosbroeck–Shockley relation,” J. Appl. Phys.88(3), 1525–1534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shields, P.

C. Liu, A. Satka, L. K. Jagadamma, P. R. Edwards, D. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, P. Shields, J. Kovac, F. Uherek, and W. Wang, “Light emission from InGaN quantum wells grown on the facets of closely spaced GaN nano-pyramids formed by nano-imprinting,” Appl. Phys. Express2(12), 121002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. J.

Y.-H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sou, K.-P.

S.-P. Chang, Y.-C. Chen, J.-K. Huang, Y.-J. Cheng, J.-R. Chang, K.-P. Sou, Y.-T. Kang, H.-C. Yang, T.-C. Hsu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Chang, “Electrically driven nanopyramid green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

N. Akopian, G. Bahir, D. Gershoni, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical evidence for lack of polarization in (11-20) oriented GaN/(AlGa)N quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 202104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, S.

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1−xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stach, E. A.

I. H. Wildeson, R. Colby, D. A. Ewoldt, Z. Liang, D. N. Zakharov, N. J. Zaluzec, R. E. García, E. A. Stach, and T. D. Sands, “III-nitride nanopyramid light emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.108(4), 044303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1−xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, M.

M. Ueda, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Epitaxial growth and optical properties of semipolar (11-22) GaN and InGaN/GaN quantum wells on GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uherek, F.

C. Liu, A. Satka, L. K. Jagadamma, P. R. Edwards, D. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, P. Shields, J. Kovac, F. Uherek, and W. Wang, “Light emission from InGaN quantum wells grown on the facets of closely spaced GaN nano-pyramids formed by nano-imprinting,” Appl. Phys. Express2(12), 121002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van der Laak, N. K.

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(12), 121911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walukiewicz, W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. Yu, J. Ager, E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

C. Liu, A. Satka, L. K. Jagadamma, P. R. Edwards, D. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, P. Shields, J. Kovac, F. Uherek, and W. Wang, “Light emission from InGaN quantum wells grown on the facets of closely spaced GaN nano-pyramids formed by nano-imprinting,” Appl. Phys. Express2(12), 121002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q. Y.

T. Li, A. M. Fischer, Q. Y. Wei, F. A. Ponce, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Carrier localization and nonradiative recombination in yellow emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

T. Li, A. M. Fischer, Q. Y. Wei, F. A. Ponce, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Carrier localization and nonradiative recombination in yellow emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wildeson, I. H.

I. H. Wildeson, R. Colby, D. A. Ewoldt, Z. Liang, D. N. Zakharov, N. J. Zaluzec, R. E. García, E. A. Stach, and T. D. Sands, “III-nitride nanopyramid light emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.108(4), 044303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. Yu, J. Ager, E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.-C.

S.-P. Chang, Y.-C. Chen, J.-K. Huang, Y.-J. Cheng, J.-R. Chang, K.-P. Sou, Y.-T. Kang, H.-C. Yang, T.-C. Hsu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Chang, “Electrically driven nanopyramid green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.-S.

T. Kim, J. Kim, M.-S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U.-I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multiquantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, L. K. Lee, T. Jung, and P. C. Ku, “Photoluminescence study of semipolar {10-11} InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by selective area epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 141906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. Yu, J. Ager, E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zakharov, D. N.

I. H. Wildeson, R. Colby, D. A. Ewoldt, Z. Liang, D. N. Zakharov, N. J. Zaluzec, R. E. García, E. A. Stach, and T. D. Sands, “III-nitride nanopyramid light emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.108(4), 044303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zaluzec, N. J.

I. H. Wildeson, R. Colby, D. A. Ewoldt, Z. Liang, D. N. Zakharov, N. J. Zaluzec, R. E. García, E. A. Stach, and T. D. Sands, “III-nitride nanopyramid light emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.108(4), 044303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

Y.-H. Ko, J.-H. Kim, L.-H. Jin, S.-M. Ko, B.-J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y.-H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express

C. Liu, A. Satka, L. K. Jagadamma, P. R. Edwards, D. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, P. Shields, J. Kovac, F. Uherek, and W. Wang, “Light emission from InGaN quantum wells grown on the facets of closely spaced GaN nano-pyramids formed by nano-imprinting,” Appl. Phys. Express2(12), 121002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Kim, J. Kim, M.-S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U.-I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multiquantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, L. K. Lee, T. Jung, and P. C. Ku, “Photoluminescence study of semipolar {10-11} InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by selective area epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 141906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. Yu, J. Ager, E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Barletta, E. A. Berkman, B. F. Moody, N. A. El-Masry, A. M. Emara, M. J. Reed, and S. M. Bedair, “Development of green, yellow, and amber light emitting diodes using InGaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Fuhrmann, C. Netzel, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Optimization scheme for the quantum efficiency of GaInN-based green-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-L. Lai, C.-P. Liu, Y.-H. Lin, R.-M. Lin, D.-Y. Lyu, Z.-X. Peng, and T.-Y. Lin, “Effects of the material polarity on the green emission properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Akopian, G. Bahir, D. Gershoni, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical evidence for lack of polarization in (11-20) oriented GaN/(AlGa)N quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 202104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Ueda, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Epitaxial growth and optical properties of semipolar (11-22) GaN and InGaN/GaN quantum wells on GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of an In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Li, A. M. Fischer, Q. Y. Wei, F. A. Ponce, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Carrier localization and nonradiative recombination in yellow emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(5), 569–571 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S.-P. Chang, Y.-C. Chen, J.-K. Huang, Y.-J. Cheng, J.-R. Chang, K.-P. Sou, Y.-T. Kang, H.-C. Yang, T.-C. Hsu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Chang, “Electrically driven nanopyramid green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(12), 121911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. P. D. Schenk, M. Leroux, and P. de Mierry, “Luminescence and absorption in InGaN epitaxial layers and the van Roosbroeck–Shockley relation,” J. Appl. Phys.88(3), 1525–1534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1−xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Wildeson, R. Colby, D. A. Ewoldt, Z. Liang, D. N. Zakharov, N. J. Zaluzec, R. E. García, E. A. Stach, and T. D. Sands, “III-nitride nanopyramid light emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.108(4), 044303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “In inhomogeneity and emission characteristics of InGaN,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(32), 6993–7010 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Hiramatsu, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth techniques used in group III nitride epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(32), 6961–6975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Dimensionality of excitons in laser-diode structures composed of InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B59(15), 10283–10288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by v-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The fabrication steps of a nanopyramid LED. (a) Nanopillars by patterned top-down etch. (b) Nanopillar sidewall coated with oxide. (c) Nanopyramids grown on the top of nanopillars, followed by MQW growth. (d) Top surface indium tin oxide (ITO) deposition and metal pad fabrication. (e) HRTEM cross-section image taken from a nanopillar sample right after MQW growth.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM top view. (b)-(f) Spectrally resolved CL images at various wavelength. The bright pattern follows the pyramid height contour, indicating a redshift of MQW emission as the location moves from the bottom to top of nanopyramids.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Integrated PL intensity versus temperature. The PL intensity is normalized to its value at 20K. (b) Time resolved PL decay time constant versus temperature. (c) Emission peak energy versus temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The radiative and nonradiative lifetime versus temperature derived from measured PL lifetime and IQE for green (a), olivine (b), and amber (c) nanopyramid LED, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)-(b) Optical microscope images of the G-, O-, and A-LED under electrical injection, showing green, olivine, and amber color. (d)-(f) EL spectrum versus injection current, showing the blue shift of peak emission as current increases due to the screening of polarization field.

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