Abstract

We propose a freely programmable THz diffraction grating based on an electrostatically actuated, computer controlled array of metallic cantilevers. Switching between different grating patterns enables tailoring spatio-temporal profiles of the THz waves. By characterizing the device with spatially resolved THz time domain spectroscopy, we demonstrate beam steering for a wide frequency band extending from 0.15 THz to 0.9 THz. The steerable range at 0.3 THz exceeds 40°. Focusing is also demonstrated by programming a chirped grating. The proposed approach could be employed to mimic arbitrary diffraction optics, enabling highly integrated and extremely flexible systems indispensable for THz stand-off imaging and communications.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves33(11), 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(15), 151116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Busch, B. Scherger, M. Scheller, and M. Koch, “Optically controlled terahertz beam steering and imaging,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1391–1393 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Uematsu, K. Maki, and C. Otani, “Terahertz beam steering using interference of femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Express20(20), 22914–22921 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zamkotsian, B. Timotijevic, R. Lockhart, R. P. Stanley, P. Lanzoni, M. Luetzelschwab, M. Canonica, W. Noell, and M. Tormen, “Optical characterization of fully programmable MEMS diffraction gratings,” Opt. Express20(23), 25267–25274 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging –Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawano and K. Ishibashi, “An on-chip near-field terahertz probe and detector,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 618–621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Maki and C. Otani, “Terahertz beam steering and frequency tuning by using the spatial dispersion of ultrafast laser pulses,” Opt. Express16(14), 10158–10169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propaga. Mag.49(6), 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Wu, C. F. Hsieh, T. T. Tang, R. P. Pan, and C. L. Pan, “Electrically tunable room-temperature 2π liquid crystal terahertz phase shifter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1488–1490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Hsieh, R. P. Pan, T. T. Tang, H. L. Chen, and C. L. Pan, “Voltage-controlled liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter and quarter-wave plate,” Opt. Lett.31(8), 1112–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

S. D. Senturia, D. R. Day, M. A. Butler, and M. C. Smith, “Programmable diffraction gratings and their uses in displays, spectroscopy, and communications,” J. Micro/Nanolith.4(4), 041401 (2005).

2003

2000

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(20), 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett.36(13), 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1992

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O. Solgaard, F. S. A. Sandejas, and D. M. Bloom, “Deformable grating optical modulator,” Opt. Lett.17(9), 688–690 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altmann, K.

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves33(11), 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(15), 151116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baraniuk, R. G.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baumgärtner, S.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(20), 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

Busch, S.

Butler, M. A.

S. D. Senturia, D. R. Day, M. A. Butler, and M. C. Smith, “Programmable diffraction gratings and their uses in displays, spectroscopy, and communications,” J. Micro/Nanolith.4(4), 041401 (2005).

Canonica, M.

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Charan, K.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. L.

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cich, M. J.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, D. G.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging –Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dabrowski, R.

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves33(11), 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, P.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(20), 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Day, D. R.

S. D. Senturia, D. R. Day, M. A. Butler, and M. C. Smith, “Programmable diffraction gratings and their uses in displays, spectroscopy, and communications,” J. Micro/Nanolith.4(4), 041401 (2005).

Deibel, J. A.

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves33(11), 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(20), 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Froberg, N. M.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, C. T.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Furuta, T.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grine, A. D.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hecker, N. E.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(20), 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hempel, M.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(20), 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hillmer, H.

Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(15), 151116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hirata, A.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. F.

C. F. Hsieh, R. P. Pan, T. T. Tang, H. L. Chen, and C. L. Pan, “Voltage-controlled liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter and quarter-wave plate,” Opt. Lett.31(8), 1112–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Wu, C. F. Hsieh, T. T. Tang, R. P. Pan, and C. L. Pan, “Electrically tunable room-temperature 2π liquid crystal terahertz phase shifter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1488–1490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

Ishibashi, K.

Y. Kawano and K. Ishibashi, “An on-chip near-field terahertz probe and detector,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 618–621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, C.

Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(15), 151116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging –Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, Y.

Y. Kawano and K. Ishibashi, “An on-chip near-field terahertz probe and detector,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 618–621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

Kelly, K. F.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kersting, R.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett.36(13), 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propaga. Mag.49(6), 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(15), 151116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves33(11), 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Busch, B. Scherger, M. Scheller, and M. Koch, “Optically controlled terahertz beam steering and imaging,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1391–1393 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging –Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propaga. Mag.49(6), 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(20), 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kosugi, T.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krumbholz, N.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propaga. Mag.49(6), 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuerner, T.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propaga. Mag.49(6), 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lanzoni, P.

Lee, M.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Libon, I. H.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(20), 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lockhart, R.

Luetzelschwab, M.

Maki, K.

Mittleman, D.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propaga. Mag.49(6), 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Monnai, Y.

Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(15), 151116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsuma, T.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, F.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Noell, W.

Nordquist, C. D.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. F.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, Y.

Otani, C.

Padilla, W. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, C. L.

H. Y. Wu, C. F. Hsieh, T. T. Tang, R. P. Pan, and C. L. Pan, “Electrically tunable room-temperature 2π liquid crystal terahertz phase shifter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1488–1490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Hsieh, R. P. Pan, T. T. Tang, H. L. Chen, and C. L. Pan, “Voltage-controlled liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter and quarter-wave plate,” Opt. Lett.31(8), 1112–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, R. P.

C. F. Hsieh, R. P. Pan, T. T. Tang, H. L. Chen, and C. L. Pan, “Voltage-controlled liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter and quarter-wave plate,” Opt. Lett.31(8), 1112–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Wu, C. F. Hsieh, T. T. Tang, R. P. Pan, and C. L. Pan, “Electrically tunable room-temperature 2π liquid crystal terahertz phase shifter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1488–1490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piesiewicz, R.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propaga. Mag.49(6), 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, M.

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves33(11), 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sandejas, F. S. A.

Sato, Y.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scheller, M.

S. Busch, B. Scherger, M. Scheller, and M. Koch, “Optically controlled terahertz beam steering and imaging,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1391–1393 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves33(11), 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scherger, B.

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves33(11), 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Busch, B. Scherger, M. Scheller, and M. Koch, “Optically controlled terahertz beam steering and imaging,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1391–1393 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoebel, J.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propaga. Mag.49(6), 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Senturia, S. D.

S. D. Senturia, D. R. Day, M. A. Butler, and M. C. Smith, “Programmable diffraction gratings and their uses in displays, spectroscopy, and communications,” J. Micro/Nanolith.4(4), 041401 (2005).

Shinoda, H.

Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(15), 151116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shrekenhamer, D. B.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. C.

S. D. Senturia, D. R. Day, M. A. Butler, and M. C. Smith, “Programmable diffraction gratings and their uses in displays, spectroscopy, and communications,” J. Micro/Nanolith.4(4), 041401 (2005).

Solgaard, O.

Stanley, R. P.

Strasser, G.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett.36(13), 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sugahara, H.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takhar, D.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, T. T.

C. F. Hsieh, R. P. Pan, T. T. Tang, H. L. Chen, and C. L. Pan, “Voltage-controlled liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter and quarter-wave plate,” Opt. Lett.31(8), 1112–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Wu, C. F. Hsieh, T. T. Tang, R. P. Pan, and C. L. Pan, “Electrically tunable room-temperature 2π liquid crystal terahertz phase shifter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1488–1490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timotijevic, B.

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tormen, M.

Uematsu, K.

Unterrainer, K.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett.36(13), 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vieweg, N.

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves33(11), 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wanke, M. C.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H. Y.

H. Y. Wu, C. F. Hsieh, T. T. Tang, R. P. Pan, and C. L. Pan, “Electrically tunable room-temperature 2π liquid crystal terahertz phase shifter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1488–1490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, R.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Young, E. W.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zamkotsian, F.

Zhang, X. C.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J. M. O.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(20), 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(15), 151116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett.36(13), 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Antennas Propaga. Mag.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propaga. Mag.49(6), 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Y. Wu, C. F. Hsieh, T. T. Tang, R. P. Pan, and C. L. Pan, “Electrically tunable room-temperature 2π liquid crystal terahertz phase shifter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1488–1490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves33(11), 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Micro/Nanolith.

S. D. Senturia, D. R. Day, M. A. Butler, and M. C. Smith, “Programmable diffraction gratings and their uses in displays, spectroscopy, and communications,” J. Micro/Nanolith.4(4), 041401 (2005).

Laser Photon. Rev.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging –Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawano and K. Ishibashi, “An on-chip near-field terahertz probe and detector,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 618–621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Opt. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photo of the device. (b) Schematic of the cantilevers and the electrodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photos of periodic and chirped grating patterns programmed on the device. (b) Measured cross sectional profile of the periodic grating pattern.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental setup for beam steering. (b) Beam direction versus frequency plotted for different grating periods p. Measurement (dots) and theory (dashed lines) are compared. The inset shows angular intensity scans at 0.3 THz for three different grating periods p.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental setup for focusing. (b) & (c) Theoretical intensity map of focused diffraction at 0.3 THz for two different chirped grating patterns. The colour bar is valid above the white dashed line. (d) & (e) Intensity profiles of the focus corresponding to (b) and (c), respectively. Measurement (dots) and theory (dashed lines) are compared.

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