Abstract

In this paper we propose and experimentally demonstrate arrays of graphene electro-absorption modulators as electrically reconfigurable patterns for terahertz cameras. The active element of these modulators consists of only single-atom-thick graphene, achieving a modulation of the THz wave reflectance > 50% with a potential modulation depth approaching 100%. Although the prototype presented here only contains 4x4 pixels, it reveals the possibility of developing reliable low-cost video-rate THz imaging systems employing single detector.

© 2013 OSA

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  3. J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. N. M. R. Peres and T. Stauber, “Transport in a clean graphene sheet at finite temperature and frequency,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B22(16), 2529–2536 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Yan, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, L. Liu, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing, “A new class of electrically tunable metamaterial terahertz modulators,” Opt. Express20(27), 28664–28671 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

J. D. Buron, D. H. Petersen, P. Bøggild, D. G. Cooke, M. Hilke, J. Sun, E. Whiteway, P. F. Nielsen, O. Hansen, A. Yurgens, and P. U. Jepsen, “Graphene conductance uniformity mapping,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5074–5081 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. Zhu, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Efficient terahertz electro-absorption modulation employing graphene plasmonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Yan, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, L. Liu, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing, “A new class of electrically tunable metamaterial terahertz modulators,” Opt. Express20(27), 28664–28671 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

J. L. Tomaino, A. D. Jameson, J. W. Kevek, M. J. Paul, A. M. van der Zande, R. A. Barton, P. L. McEuen, E. D. Minot, and Y.-S. Lee, “Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of large-area single-layer graphene,” Opt. Express19(1), 141–146 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, R. M. Weikle, T. Wang, P. Fay, and H. G. Xing, “A 570-630 GHz frequency domain spectroscopy system based on a broadband quasi-optical Schottky diode detector,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.20, 629–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector using a zero bias Schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett.20(9), 504–506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun.281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. M. R. Peres and T. Stauber, “Transport in a clean graphene sheet at finite temperature and frequency,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B22(16), 2529–2536 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging for Defense and Security Applications,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Xu and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave reciprocal imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 151107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Zimdars, “High speed terahertz reflection imaging,” Proc. SPIE5692, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(7), R67–R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz imaging via electrooptic effect,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.47(12), 2644–2650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

D. B. M. Klaassen, “A unified mobility model for device simulation – I. Model equations and concentration dependence,” Solid-State Electron.35(7), 953–959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

An, J.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banerjee, S. K.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baraniuk, R. G.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barton, R. A.

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berry, E.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(7), R67–R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bøggild, P.

J. D. Buron, D. H. Petersen, P. Bøggild, D. G. Cooke, M. Hilke, J. Sun, E. Whiteway, P. F. Nielsen, O. Hansen, A. Yurgens, and P. U. Jepsen, “Graphene conductance uniformity mapping,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5074–5081 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buron, J. D.

J. D. Buron, D. H. Petersen, P. Bøggild, D. G. Cooke, M. Hilke, J. Sun, E. Whiteway, P. F. Nielsen, O. Hansen, A. Yurgens, and P. U. Jepsen, “Graphene conductance uniformity mapping,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5074–5081 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamberlain, J. M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(7), R67–R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Charan, K.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-T.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging for Defense and Security Applications,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.-G.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H. K.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S.-Y.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cich, M. J.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Colombo, L.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooke, D. G.

J. D. Buron, D. H. Petersen, P. Bøggild, D. G. Cooke, M. Hilke, J. Sun, E. Whiteway, P. F. Nielsen, O. Hansen, A. Yurgens, and P. U. Jepsen, “Graphene conductance uniformity mapping,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5074–5081 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deibel, J.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duling, I. N.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun.281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fang, T.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fay, P.

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, R. M. Weikle, T. Wang, P. Fay, and H. G. Xing, “A 570-630 GHz frequency domain spectroscopy system based on a broadband quasi-optical Schottky diode detector,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.20, 629–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(7), R67–R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geng, B.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girit, C.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gundlach, D.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, O.

J. D. Buron, D. H. Petersen, P. Bøggild, D. G. Cooke, M. Hilke, J. Sun, E. Whiteway, P. F. Nielsen, O. Hansen, A. Yurgens, and P. U. Jepsen, “Graphene conductance uniformity mapping,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5074–5081 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, Z.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hesler, J. L.

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, R. M. Weikle, T. Wang, P. Fay, and H. G. Xing, “A 570-630 GHz frequency domain spectroscopy system based on a broadband quasi-optical Schottky diode detector,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.20, 629–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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R. Yan, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, L. Liu, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing, “A new class of electrically tunable metamaterial terahertz modulators,” Opt. Express20(27), 28664–28671 (2012).
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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. Zhu, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Efficient terahertz electro-absorption modulation employing graphene plasmonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yan, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, L. Liu, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing, “A new class of electrically tunable metamaterial terahertz modulators,” Opt. Express20(27), 28664–28671 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, R. M. Weikle, T. Wang, P. Fay, and H. G. Xing, “A 570-630 GHz frequency domain spectroscopy system based on a broadband quasi-optical Schottky diode detector,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.20, 629–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector using a zero bias Schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett.20(9), 504–506 (2010).
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S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(11), 936–941 (2012).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(11), 936–941 (2012).
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W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
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S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(4), 041102 (2007).
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J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun.281(4), 527–532 (2008).
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J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun.281(4), 527–532 (2008).
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S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(4), 041102 (2007).
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S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(4), 041102 (2007).
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J. D. Buron, D. H. Petersen, P. Bøggild, D. G. Cooke, M. Hilke, J. Sun, E. Whiteway, P. F. Nielsen, O. Hansen, A. Yurgens, and P. U. Jepsen, “Graphene conductance uniformity mapping,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5074–5081 (2012).
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X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
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X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
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J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. Zhu, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Efficient terahertz electro-absorption modulation employing graphene plasmonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yan, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, L. Liu, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing, “A new class of electrically tunable metamaterial terahertz modulators,” Opt. Express20(27), 28664–28671 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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N. M. R. Peres and T. Stauber, “Transport in a clean graphene sheet at finite temperature and frequency,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B22(16), 2529–2536 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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J. D. Buron, D. H. Petersen, P. Bøggild, D. G. Cooke, M. Hilke, J. Sun, E. Whiteway, P. F. Nielsen, O. Hansen, A. Yurgens, and P. U. Jepsen, “Graphene conductance uniformity mapping,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5074–5081 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213511 (2009).
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Velamakanni, A.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
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A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(7), R67–R84 (2002).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, R. M. Weikle, T. Wang, P. Fay, and H. G. Xing, “A 570-630 GHz frequency domain spectroscopy system based on a broadband quasi-optical Schottky diode detector,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.20, 629–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, R. M. Weikle, T. Wang, P. Fay, and H. G. Xing, “A 570-630 GHz frequency domain spectroscopy system based on a broadband quasi-optical Schottky diode detector,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.20, 629–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector using a zero bias Schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett.20(9), 504–506 (2010).
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J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun.281(4), 527–532 (2008).
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J. D. Buron, D. H. Petersen, P. Bøggild, D. G. Cooke, M. Hilke, J. Sun, E. Whiteway, P. F. Nielsen, O. Hansen, A. Yurgens, and P. U. Jepsen, “Graphene conductance uniformity mapping,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5074–5081 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williamson, S. L.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun.281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xing, H. G.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. Zhu, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Efficient terahertz electro-absorption modulation employing graphene plasmonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yan, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, L. Liu, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing, “A new class of electrically tunable metamaterial terahertz modulators,” Opt. Express20(27), 28664–28671 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, R. M. Weikle, T. Wang, P. Fay, and H. G. Xing, “A 570-630 GHz frequency domain spectroscopy system based on a broadband quasi-optical Schottky diode detector,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.20, 629–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector using a zero bias Schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett.20(9), 504–506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. Xu and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave reciprocal imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 151107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. Zhu, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Efficient terahertz electro-absorption modulation employing graphene plasmonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yan, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, L. Liu, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing, “A new class of electrically tunable metamaterial terahertz modulators,” Opt. Express20(27), 28664–28671 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. D. Buron, D. H. Petersen, P. Bøggild, D. G. Cooke, M. Hilke, J. Sun, E. Whiteway, P. F. Nielsen, O. Hansen, A. Yurgens, and P. U. Jepsen, “Graphene conductance uniformity mapping,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5074–5081 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging for Defense and Security Applications,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging for Defense and Security Applications,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. Zhu, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Efficient terahertz electro-absorption modulation employing graphene plasmonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Zimdars, “High speed terahertz reflection imaging,” Proc. SPIE5692, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(7), R67–R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave reciprocal imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 151107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. Zhu, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Efficient terahertz electro-absorption modulation employing graphene plasmonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. (1)

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector using a zero bias Schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett.20(9), 504–506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz imaging via electrooptic effect,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.47(12), 2644–2650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. (1)

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, R. M. Weikle, T. Wang, P. Fay, and H. G. Xing, “A 570-630 GHz frequency domain spectroscopy system based on a broadband quasi-optical Schottky diode detector,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.20, 629–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

J. D. Buron, D. H. Petersen, P. Bøggild, D. G. Cooke, M. Hilke, J. Sun, E. Whiteway, P. F. Nielsen, O. Hansen, A. Yurgens, and P. U. Jepsen, “Graphene conductance uniformity mapping,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5074–5081 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun (1)

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun.281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(7), R67–R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging for Defense and Security Applications,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Zimdars, “High speed terahertz reflection imaging,” Proc. SPIE5692, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
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Science (1)

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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D. B. M. Klaassen, “A unified mobility model for device simulation – I. Model equations and concentration dependence,” Solid-State Electron.35(7), 953–959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic and (b) optical image of the graphene reflection modulator array. The pixel size is 0.7x0.7 mm2. As shown in (a) the electric field intensity at the active graphene enhances by 4 times when the substrate optical thickness is an odd multiple of the quarter wavelength of the incoming THz radiation, thus leading to augmented modulation in reflectance in comparison to the transmission mode [18].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Sketch of the reflectance mode THz quasi-optical setup. (b) Measured reflectance (blue circles) and associated conductivity (red circles) versus voltage when the same voltage was applied between all the pixels and the back contact. The radiation was focused onto the center of the modulator array and the frequency was set at 590 GHz so that the substrate optical thickness is matched to be an odd quarter of the THz wavelength. The estimated conductivity contribution of carriers in the Si substrate is shown in green squares.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Principle of the imaging experiment. (a) Sketch of an object in a pixelated and collimated illumination that is transformed by the modulator array. Each pixel of the illumination, denoted by different colors, can be turned on and off by the modulator array. (b) Sketch of the beam path showing the expanded beam is about the same size with the modulator array placed away from the focal plane so that the beam toward the detector is pixelated. No object is placed in the path of the beam. (c-d) Two pixels of illumination when an object is placed in the path of the beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Map of “pixelated illumination” without an object: ΔRi0/R0,low, where R0,low is the measured total reflectance when all the pixels are off, i.e. the minimum reflectance of the modulator array. (b-d) Map of ΔRi/ΔRi0 for three different objects placed in the path of the reflected beam. ΔRi is the detected difference when switching the ith pixel on and off while keeping all other pixels off. The two red crossed pixels crossed did not show modulation due to fabrication issues. The sketches of the objects made from the absorber material are shown below each map. The close resemblance between the map and the object indicates the graphene modulator array can be used for imaging.

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