Abstract

In this paper we investigate the influence of n-type doping in Ge light emitting diodes on Si substrates on the room temperature emission spectrum. The layer structures are grown with a special low temperature molecular beam epitaxy process resulting in a slight tensile strain of 0.13%. The Ge LED’s show a dominant direct bandgap emission with shrinking bandgap at the Γ point in dependence of n-type doping level. The emission shift (38 meV at 1020 cm-3) is mainly assigned to bandgap narrowing at high doping. The electroluminescence intensity increases with doping concentrations up to 3x1019 cm−3 and decreases sharply at higher doping levels. The integrated direct gap emission intensity increases superlinear with electrical current density. Power exponents vary from about 2 at low doping densities up to 3.6 at 1020 cm−3 doping density.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electroluminescence of unstrained and tensile strained Ge-on-Si LEDs,” IEEE 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) 135 – 137 (2012).
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2012 (3)

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kasper, M. Oehme, J. Werner, T. Arguirov, and M. Kittler, “Direct band gap luminescence from Ge on Si pin diodes,” Front. Optoelectron.5, 256–260 (2012).

2011 (2)

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-Temperature Electroluminescence From GeSn Light-Emitting Pin Diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, “Silicon Photonics: A review of recent literature,” Silicon2(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Sarlija, D. Hähnel, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Very high room temperature peak to valley current ratio in Si Esaki Tunneling Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(11), 2857–2863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Kaschel, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Germanium waveguide photodetectors integrated on silicon with MBE,” Thin Solid Films517(1), 137–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, and E. Kasper, “Molecular beam epitaxy of highly antimony doped germanium on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth310(21), 4531–4534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

1992 (1)

D. B. M. Klaassen, J. W. Slotboom, and H. C. de Graaff, “Unified apparent bandgap narrowing in n- and p-type silicon,” Solid-State Electron.35(2), 125–129 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. C. Jain and D. J. Roulston, “A simple expression for bandgap narrowing (BGN) in heavily doped Si, Ge, GaAs and GexSi1-x strained layers,” Solid-State Electron.34(5), 453–465 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

C. Haas, “Infrared Absorption in Heavily Doped n-Type Germanium,” Phys. Rev.125(6), 1965–1971 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Pankove and P. Aigrain, “Optical absorption of arsenic-doped degenerate Germanium,” Phys. Rev.126(3), 956–962 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Abrosimov, N. V.

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aigrain, P.

J. I. Pankove and P. Aigrain, “Optical absorption of arsenic-doped degenerate Germanium,” Phys. Rev.126(3), 956–962 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Alberi, K.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aniel, F.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arguirov, T.

E. Kasper, M. Oehme, J. Werner, T. Arguirov, and M. Kittler, “Direct band gap luminescence from Ge on Si pin diodes,” Front. Optoelectron.5, 256–260 (2012).

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bahouchi, B.

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beaudoin, G.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bell, L. D.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bessette, J. T.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blacksberg, J.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boucaud, P.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Cheng, S. L.

de Graaff, H. C.

D. B. M. Klaassen, J. W. Slotboom, and H. C. de Graaff, “Unified apparent bandgap narrowing in n- and p-type silicon,” Solid-State Electron.35(2), 125–129 (1992).
[CrossRef]

de Kersauson, M.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dubon, O. D.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

El Kurdi, M.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

Gollhofer, M.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-Temperature Electroluminescence From GeSn Light-Emitting Pin Diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haas, C.

C. Haas, “Infrared Absorption in Heavily Doped n-Type Germanium,” Phys. Rev.125(6), 1965–1971 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Hähnel, D.

M. Oehme, M. Sarlija, D. Hähnel, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Very high room temperature peak to valley current ratio in Si Esaki Tunneling Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(11), 2857–2863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jain, S. C.

S. C. Jain and D. J. Roulston, “A simple expression for bandgap narrowing (BGN) in heavily doped Si, Ge, GaAs and GexSi1-x strained layers,” Solid-State Electron.34(5), 453–465 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jakomin, R.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Kaschel, M.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-Temperature Electroluminescence From GeSn Light-Emitting Pin Diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Sarlija, D. Hähnel, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Very high room temperature peak to valley current ratio in Si Esaki Tunneling Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(11), 2857–2863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Kaschel, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Germanium waveguide photodetectors integrated on silicon with MBE,” Thin Solid Films517(1), 137–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, E.

E. Kasper, M. Oehme, J. Werner, T. Arguirov, and M. Kittler, “Direct band gap luminescence from Ge on Si pin diodes,” Front. Optoelectron.5, 256–260 (2012).

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-Temperature Electroluminescence From GeSn Light-Emitting Pin Diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Sarlija, D. Hähnel, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Very high room temperature peak to valley current ratio in Si Esaki Tunneling Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(11), 2857–2863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Kaschel, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Germanium waveguide photodetectors integrated on silicon with MBE,” Thin Solid Films517(1), 137–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, and E. Kasper, “Molecular beam epitaxy of highly antimony doped germanium on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth310(21), 4531–4534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirfel, O.

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Kaschel, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Germanium waveguide photodetectors integrated on silicon with MBE,” Thin Solid Films517(1), 137–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kittler, M.

E. Kasper, M. Oehme, J. Werner, T. Arguirov, and M. Kittler, “Direct band gap luminescence from Ge on Si pin diodes,” Front. Optoelectron.5, 256–260 (2012).

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Klaassen, D. B. M.

D. B. M. Klaassen, J. W. Slotboom, and H. C. de Graaff, “Unified apparent bandgap narrowing in n- and p-type silicon,” Solid-State Electron.35(2), 125–129 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, J.

Michel, J.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikzad, S.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, Y.

Oehme, M.

E. Kasper, M. Oehme, J. Werner, T. Arguirov, and M. Kittler, “Direct band gap luminescence from Ge on Si pin diodes,” Front. Optoelectron.5, 256–260 (2012).

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-Temperature Electroluminescence From GeSn Light-Emitting Pin Diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Sarlija, D. Hähnel, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Very high room temperature peak to valley current ratio in Si Esaki Tunneling Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(11), 2857–2863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, and E. Kasper, “Molecular beam epitaxy of highly antimony doped germanium on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth310(21), 4531–4534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Kaschel, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Germanium waveguide photodetectors integrated on silicon with MBE,” Thin Solid Films517(1), 137–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pankove, J. I.

J. I. Pankove and P. Aigrain, “Optical absorption of arsenic-doped degenerate Germanium,” Phys. Rev.126(3), 956–962 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N.

Romagnoli, M.

Roulston, D. J.

S. C. Jain and D. J. Roulston, “A simple expression for bandgap narrowing (BGN) in heavily doped Si, Ge, GaAs and GexSi1-x strained layers,” Solid-State Electron.34(5), 453–465 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K.

Sarlija, M.

M. Oehme, M. Sarlija, D. Hähnel, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Very high room temperature peak to valley current ratio in Si Esaki Tunneling Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(11), 2857–2863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, S.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, M.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-Temperature Electroluminescence From GeSn Light-Emitting Pin Diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, J.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-Temperature Electroluminescence From GeSn Light-Emitting Pin Diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Sarlija, D. Hähnel, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Very high room temperature peak to valley current ratio in Si Esaki Tunneling Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(11), 2857–2863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shambat, G.

Slotboom, J. W.

D. B. M. Klaassen, J. W. Slotboom, and H. C. de Graaff, “Unified apparent bandgap narrowing in n- and p-type silicon,” Solid-State Electron.35(2), 125–129 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Silicon Photonics: A review of recent literature,” Silicon2(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vuckovic, J.

Walukiewicz, W.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J.

E. Kasper, M. Oehme, J. Werner, T. Arguirov, and M. Kittler, “Direct band gap luminescence from Ge on Si pin diodes,” Front. Optoelectron.5, 256–260 (2012).

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-Temperature Electroluminescence From GeSn Light-Emitting Pin Diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Sarlija, D. Hähnel, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Very high room temperature peak to valley current ratio in Si Esaki Tunneling Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(11), 2857–2863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, and E. Kasper, “Molecular beam epitaxy of highly antimony doped germanium on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth310(21), 4531–4534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Kaschel, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Germanium waveguide photodetectors integrated on silicon with MBE,” Thin Solid Films517(1), 137–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. Y.

Yu, K. M.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zerounian, N.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Front. Optoelectron. (1)

E. Kasper, M. Oehme, J. Werner, T. Arguirov, and M. Kittler, “Direct band gap luminescence from Ge on Si pin diodes,” Front. Optoelectron.5, 256–260 (2012).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-Temperature Electroluminescence From GeSn Light-Emitting Pin Diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

M. Oehme, M. Sarlija, D. Hähnel, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Very high room temperature peak to valley current ratio in Si Esaki Tunneling Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(11), 2857–2863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

M. Oehme, J. Werner, and E. Kasper, “Molecular beam epitaxy of highly antimony doped germanium on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth310(21), 4531–4534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (2)

J. I. Pankove and P. Aigrain, “Optical absorption of arsenic-doped degenerate Germanium,” Phys. Rev.126(3), 956–962 (1962).
[CrossRef]

C. Haas, “Infrared Absorption in Heavily Doped n-Type Germanium,” Phys. Rev.125(6), 1965–1971 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Silicon (1)

R. Soref, “Silicon Photonics: A review of recent literature,” Silicon2(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Phenomena (1)

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (2)

D. B. M. Klaassen, J. W. Slotboom, and H. C. de Graaff, “Unified apparent bandgap narrowing in n- and p-type silicon,” Solid-State Electron.35(2), 125–129 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Jain and D. J. Roulston, “A simple expression for bandgap narrowing (BGN) in heavily doped Si, Ge, GaAs and GexSi1-x strained layers,” Solid-State Electron.34(5), 453–465 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Kaschel, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Germanium waveguide photodetectors integrated on silicon with MBE,” Thin Solid Films517(1), 137–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electroluminescence of unstrained and tensile strained Ge-on-Si LEDs,” IEEE 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) 135 – 137 (2012).

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electroluminescence of unstrained and tensile strained Ge-on-Si LEDs,” IEEE 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) 135 – 137 (2012).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic cross section of a p+nn+ Ge LED structure. (b) A plan view scanning electron microscopy image of the complete fabricated p+nn+ Ge LED with a mesa radius of 5 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) J-V characteristics of p+nn+ Ge LED’s with different doping concentrations nvar in the n-Ge layer. (b) J-V characteristics of a p+nn+ Ge LED with different device areas at a constant doping concentration of nvar = 3x1019 cm−3. The inset shows the linear plot of the J-V curve with a negative differential resistance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Direct gap room temperature EL spectra of 80 µm radius Ge p+nn+ LED’s under different injection current densities. Active n-type region is 3x1019 cm−3 (left) and 4x1019 cm−3 (right) doped. (b) Integral EL intensity of a 80 µm radius p+nn+ Ge LED’s as function of doping concentration at different current densities.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Exponent m versus doping concentration nvar of the PΓ ~jm characteristics of the investigated LED’s. Inset: Integrated emission to current density characteristics of a 80 µm radius p+nn+ Ge LED with a doping concentration of nvar = 3x1019 cm−3. The exponent m is 2.25.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Direct bandgap energy Eg as function of doping concentration of tensile strained p+nn+ Ge LED’s. Inset: Maximum positions Emax of EL spectra as function of the injected electrical power.

Equations (3)

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P Γ = I EL ( E )dE
I EL ( E )~ E E g exp( E k B T )
E max = E g + k B T 2

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