Abstract

Coherent XUV sources, which may operate at MHz repetition rate, could find applications in high-precision spectroscopy and for spatio-time-resolved measurements of collective electron dynamics on nanostructured surfaces. We theoretically investigate utilizing the enhanced plasmonic fields in an ordered array of gold nanoparticles for the generation of high-harmonic, extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation. By optimization of the chirp of ultrashort laser pulses incident on the array, our simulations indicate a potential route towards the temporal shaping of the plasmonic near-field and, in turn, the generation of single attosecond pulses. The inherent effects of inhomogeneity of the local fields on the high-harmonic generation are analyzed and discussed. While taking the inhomogeneity into account does not affect the optimal chirp for the generation of a single attosecond pulse, the cut-off energy of the high-harmonic spectrum is enhanced by about a factor of two.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (4)

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Nanostructure-enhanced atomic line emission,” Nature485(7397), E1–E3 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Kim et al. reply,” Nature485(7397), E1–E3 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 013416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Ciappina, J. Biegert, R. Quidant, and M. Lewenstein, “High-order-harmonic generation from inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A85(3), 033828 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (7)

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Kaster, B. Bernhardt, J. Rauschenberger, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, T. Udem, M. F. Kling, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of femtosecond enhancement cavities and high-power applications,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79141I, 79141I-13 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics5(11), 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Husakou, F. Kelkensberg, J. Herrmann, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Polarization gating and circularly-polarized high harmonic generation using plasmonic enhancement in metal nanostructures,” Opt. Express19(25), 25346–25354 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Husakou, S. J. Im, and J. Herrmann, “Theory of plasmon-enhanced high-order harmonic generation in the vicinity of metal nanostructures in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A83(4), 043839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y. Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys.13(7), 073010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photonics5(11), 655–663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Vernaleken, J. Weitenberg, T. Sartorius, P. Russbueldt, W. Schneider, S. L. Stebbings, M. F. Kling, P. Hommelhoff, H.-D. Hoffmann, R. Poprawe, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Single-pass high-harmonic generation at 20.8 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3428–3430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.33(10), 1099–1101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photonics1(9), 539–544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gai, J. Wang, and Q. Tian, “Modified Debye model parameters of metals applicable for broadband calculations,” Appl. Opt.46(12), 2229–2233 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. Plech, V. Kotaidis, M. Lorenc, and J. Boneberg, “Femtosecond laser near-field ablation from gold nanoparticles,” Nat. Phys.2(1), 44–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett.70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

V. C. Reed and K. Burnett, “Ionization of atoms in intense laser pulses using the Kramers-Henneberger transformation,” Phys. Rev. A42(5), 3152–3155 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys.47(3), 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions formed by multiphoton absorption processes in the continuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.48(26), 1814–1817 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Abel, B.

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Nanostructure-enhanced atomic line emission,” Nature485(7397), E1–E3 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alahmed, Z. A.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Kaster, B. Bernhardt, J. Rauschenberger, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, T. Udem, M. F. Kling, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of femtosecond enhancement cavities and high-power applications,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79141I, 79141I-13 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Altun, Z.

I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 013416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Kaster, B. Bernhardt, J. Rauschenberger, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, T. Udem, M. F. Kling, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of femtosecond enhancement cavities and high-power applications,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79141I, 79141I-13 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, J.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardhan, R.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernhardt, B.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Kaster, B. Bernhardt, J. Rauschenberger, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, T. Udem, M. F. Kling, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of femtosecond enhancement cavities and high-power applications,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79141I, 79141I-13 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

M. F. Ciappina, J. Biegert, R. Quidant, and M. Lewenstein, “High-order-harmonic generation from inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A85(3), 033828 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bleda, E. A.

I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 013416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blümel, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boneberg, J.

A. Plech, V. Kotaidis, M. Lorenc, and J. Boneberg, “Femtosecond laser near-field ablation from gold nanoparticles,” Nat. Phys.2(1), 44–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burgdörfer, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, K.

V. C. Reed and K. Burnett, “Ionization of atoms in intense laser pulses using the Kramers-Henneberger transformation,” Phys. Rev. A42(5), 3152–3155 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, A. L.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
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S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y. Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys.13(7), 073010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siu, W.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivis, M.

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Nanostructure-enhanced atomic line emission,” Nature485(7397), E1–E3 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stebbings, S. L.

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y. Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys.13(7), 073010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Vernaleken, J. Weitenberg, T. Sartorius, P. Russbueldt, W. Schneider, S. L. Stebbings, M. F. Kling, P. Hommelhoff, H.-D. Hoffmann, R. Poprawe, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Single-pass high-harmonic generation at 20.8 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3428–3430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiger, A.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys.47(3), 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics5(11), 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y. Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys.13(7), 073010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photonics1(9), 539–544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Süßmann, F.

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y. Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys.13(7), 073010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Swoboda, M.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, Q.

Tian, Z. Q.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
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Topcu, T.

I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 013416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Kaster, B. Bernhardt, J. Rauschenberger, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, T. Udem, M. F. Kling, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of femtosecond enhancement cavities and high-power applications,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79141I, 79141I-13 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Kaster, B. Bernhardt, J. Rauschenberger, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, T. Udem, M. F. Kling, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of femtosecond enhancement cavities and high-power applications,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79141I, 79141I-13 (2011).
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A. Vernaleken, J. Weitenberg, T. Sartorius, P. Russbueldt, W. Schneider, S. L. Stebbings, M. F. Kling, P. Hommelhoff, H.-D. Hoffmann, R. Poprawe, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Single-pass high-harmonic generation at 20.8 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3428–3430 (2011).
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A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
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Vrakking, M. J. J.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, Z. L.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitenberg, J.

Wu, C.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett.70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. Y.

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y. Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys.13(7), 073010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. L.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yavuz, I.

I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 013416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Yost, D. C.

Zhang, W.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zherebtsov, S.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, X. S.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z. Y.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Znakovskaya, I.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Phys. (1)

B. Fetic, K. Kalajdzic, and D. B. Milosevic, “High-order harmonic generation by a spatially inhomogeneous field,” Ann. Phys., doi:.
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Appl. Opt. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photonics5(11), 655–663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photonics1(9), 539–544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics5(11), 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. Plech, V. Kotaidis, M. Lorenc, and J. Boneberg, “Femtosecond laser near-field ablation from gold nanoparticles,” Nat. Phys.2(1), 44–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (7)

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
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S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
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M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Nanostructure-enhanced atomic line emission,” Nature485(7397), E1–E3 (2012).
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S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Kim et al. reply,” Nature485(7397), E1–E3 (2012).
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A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y. Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys.13(7), 073010 (2011).
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Opt. Express (1)

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the ordered gold NP array with an optimum radius of R = 80 nm and a gap between NPs of d = 2 nm; (b) Spectrum of the plasmonic field enhancement. The peak of the field enhancement was optimized to be at 800 nm; the observation point is at the center of the gap in the x-y plane and 15 nm above the cross-section of the NP array. The z-axis is 15 nm.(c) Contour plot of the enhanced fields between the nanoparticles; (d) The enhanced plasmonic field of three hot spots in the gaps (indicated by three black and two red crosses with corresponding color codes in (c)). The crosses are at 15 nm in z-axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Temporal profiles of the incident laser pulse for different chirp parameters; (b) Corresponding enhanced plasmonic fields of the NP array. Note, that the CEPs of the fields for negative chirp in (a) and (b) have been optimized (see text for details).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The HHG spectrum for an incident intensity of 1011 W/cm2 (black line); the green line and the red line are the Gaussian band-pass filters with FWHM of 5 eV and10 eV, respectively. (b) Temporal profile of the generated XUV light after spectral selection of the cutoff region by a Gaussian filter of 5 eV FWHM (black line) and 10 eV FWHM (red line) in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The dipole moment (a) and the harmonic spectrum of the dipole moment (b) for a continuous wave incident beam at 882 nm with an intensity of 3 × 1011 W/cm2. The observation point is 1 nm away from the metal surface at the center of the gap.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The total dipole momentum in the gap. (b) The high-harmonic spectrum, where the red curve is calculated by the model presented in Ref. [15], and the thin green curve is calculated by the standard model. (c) The temporal profile corresponding to selection of the cut-off region for a chirp parameter of C = −0.5.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Incident laser pulse durations and peak field amplitudes for different chirp parameters. The peak field amplitude has been normalized to 1 for zero chirp.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of plasmonic fields obtained with negatively chirped laser pulses

Tables Icon

Table 3 Parameters of the calculated HHG spectra

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E(t,C)= E 0 e 1+iC 2 (2 ln2 t τ p ) 2 e i(ωt+φ)
ε(ω)= ε i ε i ε s 1+iτω + σ iω ε 0
E cutoff = 3.17 U p + I p

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