Abstract

At present, distributed storage systems have been widely studied to alleviate Internet traffic build-up caused by high-bandwidth, on-demand applications. Distributed storage arrays located locally within the passive optical network were previously proposed to deliver Video-on-Demand services. As an added feature, a popularity-aware caching algorithm was also proposed to dynamically maintain the most popular videos in the storage arrays of such local storages. In this paper, we present a new dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm to improve Video-on-Demand services over passive optical networks using local storages. The algorithm exploits the use of standard control packets to reduce the time taken for the initial request communication between the customer and the central office, and to maintain the set of popular movies in the local storage. We conduct packet level simulations to perform a comparative analysis of the Quality-of-Service attributes between two passive optical networks, namely the conventional passive optical network and one that is equipped with a local storage. Results from our analysis highlight that strategic placement of a local storage inside the network enables the services to be delivered with improved Quality-of-Service to the customer. We further formulate power consumption models of both architectures to examine the trade-off between enhanced Quality-of-Service performance versus the increased power requirement from implementing a local storage within the network.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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  1. “Cisco visual networking index: Forecast and methodology, 2011 – 2016,” http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11-481360.pdf .
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  5. P. Dymarski, S. Kula, and T. N. Huy, “QoS conditions for VoIP and VoD,” J. Telecommun. Inf. Technol.3, 29–37 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Baliga, R. Ayres, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Proceedings of OFC 2008, paper ThQ5 (2008).
  8. C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and N. Nadarajah, “Energy-efficient content distribution for VoD services,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC 2011, paper OWR3 (2011).
  9. C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. A. Chan, “Improving energy efficiency of Video on Demand Services,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.3(11), 870–880 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and N. Nadarajah, “Popularity-aware caching algorithm for Video-on-Demand delivery over broadband access networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM, 1 – 5 (2010).
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  13. E. Wong, M. Mueller, M. P. Dias, C. A. Chan, and M. C. Amann, “Energy-efficiency of optical network units with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Express20(14), 14960–14970 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2011

P. Dymarski, S. Kula, and T. N. Huy, “QoS conditions for VoIP and VoD,” J. Telecommun. Inf. Technol.3, 29–37 (2011).

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. A. Chan, “Improving energy efficiency of Video on Demand Services,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.3(11), 870–880 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

D. De Vleeschauwer and K. Laevens, “Performance of caching algorithms for IPTV On-Demand services,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast.55(2), 491–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

“Speech and Multimedia Transmission Quality (STQ); Audiovisual QoS for communication over IP networks,” ETSI ES202, 667 (2009).

2004

Y. Chen, T. Farley, and N. Ye, “QoS requirements of network applications on the Internet,” IOS Press, Systems Management4, 55–76 (2004).

Amann, M. C.

Chan, C. A.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, T. Farley, and N. Ye, “QoS requirements of network applications on the Internet,” IOS Press, Systems Management4, 55–76 (2004).

De Vleeschauwer, D.

D. De Vleeschauwer and K. Laevens, “Performance of caching algorithms for IPTV On-Demand services,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast.55(2), 491–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dias, M. P.

Dymarski, P.

P. Dymarski, S. Kula, and T. N. Huy, “QoS conditions for VoIP and VoD,” J. Telecommun. Inf. Technol.3, 29–37 (2011).

Farley, T.

Y. Chen, T. Farley, and N. Ye, “QoS requirements of network applications on the Internet,” IOS Press, Systems Management4, 55–76 (2004).

Huy, T. N.

P. Dymarski, S. Kula, and T. N. Huy, “QoS conditions for VoIP and VoD,” J. Telecommun. Inf. Technol.3, 29–37 (2011).

Jayasundara, C.

Kula, S.

P. Dymarski, S. Kula, and T. N. Huy, “QoS conditions for VoIP and VoD,” J. Telecommun. Inf. Technol.3, 29–37 (2011).

Laevens, K.

D. De Vleeschauwer and K. Laevens, “Performance of caching algorithms for IPTV On-Demand services,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast.55(2), 491–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, M.

Nirmalathas, A.

Wong, E.

Ye, N.

Y. Chen, T. Farley, and N. Ye, “QoS requirements of network applications on the Internet,” IOS Press, Systems Management4, 55–76 (2004).

ETSI ES

“Speech and Multimedia Transmission Quality (STQ); Audiovisual QoS for communication over IP networks,” ETSI ES202, 667 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Broadcast.

D. De Vleeschauwer and K. Laevens, “Performance of caching algorithms for IPTV On-Demand services,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast.55(2), 491–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IOS Press, Systems Management

Y. Chen, T. Farley, and N. Ye, “QoS requirements of network applications on the Internet,” IOS Press, Systems Management4, 55–76 (2004).

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

J. Telecommun. Inf. Technol.

P. Dymarski, S. Kula, and T. N. Huy, “QoS conditions for VoIP and VoD,” J. Telecommun. Inf. Technol.3, 29–37 (2011).

Opt. Express

Other

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and N. Nadarajah, “Popularity-aware caching algorithm for Video-on-Demand delivery over broadband access networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM, 1 – 5 (2010).

“IEEE Standard for Information Technology – Telecommunications and information exchange between systems – Local and metropolitan area networks – Specific Requirements – Part 3: Carrier sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specification,” ANSI/IEEE Standard 802.3 – 2002, http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.3-2002.pdf .

J. Baliga, R. Ayres, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Proceedings of OFC 2008, paper ThQ5 (2008).

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and N. Nadarajah, “Energy-efficient content distribution for VoD services,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC 2011, paper OWR3 (2011).

“Quality of Service ranking and measurement methods for digital video services delivered over broadband IP networks,” ITU-T recommendation J.241 (2005).

“Cisco visual networking index: Forecast and methodology, 2011 – 2016,” http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11-481360.pdf .

“End user multimedia QoS categories,” ITU-T Recommendation G.1010 (2001).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PON architecture with local storage (LS) [10].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Format of the REPORT control frame with a modified field for the Request Video ID.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Format of the GATE control frame with a modified field for the VoD content information.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Timing diagrams to illustrate communication between the OLT, LS, and ONU when the (a) central office services the request and (b) local storage services the request.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Flow chart of the proposed DBA to optimize VoD delivery.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Delay as a function of number of active ONUs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Jitter as a function of number of active ONUs.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Percentage of available downstream bandwidth for services other than VoD.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Delay and utilization(b) Jitter and utilization for the case when downstream VoD is from local storage (LS).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Power consumption per customer against different percentage of number of videos stored at LS and without LS.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Power consumption per customer and percentage of power increment as a function of number of active ONUs.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Network and Protocol Parameters

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Table 2 Equipment Specifications

Equations (2)

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P customer ( W )=  P Cstorage N + P Cserver N + K  P Lstorage N + K  P Lserver N +  K  P OLT N +  P ONU =  1 N  ( V ×M   central × 17pW/bit )+  1 N ( B× N central × 70W/Gbps )  +  K N ( V × M   local × 17pW/bit ) +  K N ( B ×  N local × 70 W/Gbps )   +  K P OLT N +  P ONU
  P customer ( W )= P Cstorage N + P Cserver N +  K  P OLT N +  P ONU = ( V × M ×  17 pW/bit N )+ ( B× N active × 70 W Gbps N ) +  K  P OLT N + P ONU

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