Abstract

High flexibility has been one of advantages for one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires (NWs) in wide application of nanoscale integrated circuits. We investigate the bending effects on lasing action of CdSe NWs. Threshold increases and differential efficiency decreases gradually when we decrease the bending radius step by step. Red shift and mode reduction in the output spectra are also observed. The bending loss of laser oscillation is considerably larger than that of photoluminescence (PL), and both show the exponential relationship with the bending radius. Diameter and mode dependent bending losses are investigated. Furthermore, the polarizations of output can be modulated linearly by bending the NWs into different angles continuously.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (2)

B. Wei, K. Zheng, Y. Ji, Y. F. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and X. D. Han, “Size-dependent bandgap modulation of ZnO nanowires by tensile strain,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4595–4599 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, C.-H. Chen, T. Sato, S. Matsuo, and M. Notomi, “Narrow linewidth operation of buried-heterostructure photonic crystal nanolaser,” Opt. Express20(11), 11643–11651 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Y. Xiao, C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. Ye, H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, F. X. Gu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Single-nanowire single-mode Laser,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1122–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Fu, Z. Y. Zhang, L. Z. Kou, P. C. Wu, X. B. Han, X. L. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, J. Xu, Q. Zhao, W. L. Guo, and D. P. Yu, “Linear strain-gradient effect on the energy bandgap in bent CdS nanowires,” Nano Res.4(3), 308–314 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Khorasaninejad and S. S. Saini, “Bend waveguides on silicon nanowire optical waveguides (SNOW),” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 696–702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

B. Yan, R. Chen, W. W. Zhou, J. X. Zhang, H. D. Sun, H. Gong, and T. Yu, “Localized suppression of longitudinal-optical-phonon-exciton coupling in bent ZnO nanowires,” Nanotechnology21(44), 445706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xu, Y. Qin, C. Xu, Y. G. Wei, R. Yang, and Z. L. Wang, “Self-powered nanowire devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(5), 366–373 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Chen, G. Conache, M. E. Pistol, S. M. Gray, M. T. Borgström, H. Xu, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, and U. Håkanson, “Probing strain in bent semiconductor nanowires with Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1280–1286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(2), 024001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. B. Han, L. Z. Kou, X. L. Lang, J. B. Xia, N. Wang, R. Qin, J. Xu, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. D. Shan, X. F. Song, J. Y. Gao, W. L. Guo, and D. P. Yu, “Electronic and mechanical coupling in bent ZnO nanowires,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(48), 4937–4941 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. X. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics3(10), 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Wang, Z. F. Hu, H. K. Yu, W. Fang, M. Qiu, and L. M. Tong, “Endface reflectivities of optical nanowires,” Opt. Express17(13), 10881–10886 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, J. Fu, M. Qiu, Y. H. Li, F. X. Gu, and L. M. Tong, “Modeling bending losses of optical nanofibers or nanowires,” Appl. Opt.48(22), 4365–4369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(5), 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. He and C. M. Lilley, “Surface effect on the elastic behavior of static bending nanowires,” Nano Lett.8(7), 1798–1802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, Y. D. Gu, P. Fei, W. J. Mai, Y. F. Gao, R. S. Yang, G. Bao, and Z. L. Wang, “Flexible piezotronic strain sensor,” Nano Lett.8(9), 3035–3040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vučković, “Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser,” Nature2, 484–488 (2006).

P. J. Pauzauskie, D. J. Sirbuly, and P. D. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowire ring resonator laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(14), 143903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, A. Tsao, Q. Yang, and D. R. Yang, “Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(22), 223501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

M. Lipson, “Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon-challenges and opportunities,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(12), 4222–4238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett.5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gradecak, F. Qian, Y. Li, H. G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “GaN nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(17), 173111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Gourley, J. K. Hendricks, A. E. McDonald, R. G. Copeland, K. E. Barrett, C. R. Gourley, and R. K. Naviaux, “Ultrafast nanolaser flow device for detecting cancer in single cells,” Biomed. Microdevices7(4), 331–339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

C. J. Barrelet, A. B. Greytak, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowires photonic circuits elements,” Nano Lett.4(10), 1981–1985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maikap, M. H. Liao, F. Yuan, M. H. Lee, C.-F. Huang, S. T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Package-strain-enhanced device and circuit performance,” IEDM. Tech. Dig., 233–236 (2004).

C. Ma, Y. Ding, D. Moore, X. D. Wang, and Z. L. Wang, “Single-crystal CdSe nanosaws,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(3), 708–709 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(1), 36–38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Reflection of guided modes in a semiconductor nanowire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(6), 1237–1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Optical cavity effects in ZnO nanowire lasers and waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(34), 8816–8828 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, X. Duan, Y. Cui, L. J. Lauhon, K. H. Kim, and C. M. Lieber, “Logic gates and computation from assembled nanowire building blocks,” Science294(5545), 1313–1317 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Bends in optical dielectric guides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.48, 2103–2132 (1969).

Agarwal, R.

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vučković, “Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser,” Nature2, 484–488 (2006).

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, G.

J. Zhou, Y. D. Gu, P. Fei, W. J. Mai, Y. F. Gao, R. S. Yang, G. Bao, and Z. L. Wang, “Flexible piezotronic strain sensor,” Nano Lett.8(9), 3035–3040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, J. M.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(5), 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barrelet, C. J.

C. J. Barrelet, A. B. Greytak, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowires photonic circuits elements,” Nano Lett.4(10), 1981–1985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, K. E.

P. L. Gourley, J. K. Hendricks, A. E. McDonald, R. G. Copeland, K. E. Barrett, C. R. Gourley, and R. K. Naviaux, “Ultrafast nanolaser flow device for detecting cancer in single cells,” Biomed. Microdevices7(4), 331–339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borgström, M. T.

J. N. Chen, G. Conache, M. E. Pistol, S. M. Gray, M. T. Borgström, H. Xu, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, and U. Håkanson, “Probing strain in bent semiconductor nanowires with Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1280–1286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(1), 36–38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(2), 024001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(5), 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. T.

S. Maikap, M. H. Liao, F. Yuan, M. H. Lee, C.-F. Huang, S. T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Package-strain-enhanced device and circuit performance,” IEDM. Tech. Dig., 233–236 (2004).

Chen, C.-H.

Chen, J. N.

J. N. Chen, G. Conache, M. E. Pistol, S. M. Gray, M. T. Borgström, H. Xu, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, and U. Håkanson, “Probing strain in bent semiconductor nanowires with Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1280–1286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

B. Yan, R. Chen, W. W. Zhou, J. X. Zhang, H. D. Sun, H. Gong, and T. Yu, “Localized suppression of longitudinal-optical-phonon-exciton coupling in bent ZnO nanowires,” Nanotechnology21(44), 445706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X. W.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett.5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conache, G.

J. N. Chen, G. Conache, M. E. Pistol, S. M. Gray, M. T. Borgström, H. Xu, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, and U. Håkanson, “Probing strain in bent semiconductor nanowires with Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1280–1286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Copeland, R. G.

P. L. Gourley, J. K. Hendricks, A. E. McDonald, R. G. Copeland, K. E. Barrett, C. R. Gourley, and R. K. Naviaux, “Ultrafast nanolaser flow device for detecting cancer in single cells,” Biomed. Microdevices7(4), 331–339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

Y. Huang, X. Duan, Y. Cui, L. J. Lauhon, K. H. Kim, and C. M. Lieber, “Logic gates and computation from assembled nanowire building blocks,” Science294(5545), 1313–1317 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, L.

Y. Xiao, C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. Ye, H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, F. X. Gu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Single-nanowire single-mode Laser,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1122–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

C. Ma, Y. Ding, D. Moore, X. D. Wang, and Z. L. Wang, “Single-crystal CdSe nanosaws,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(3), 708–709 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, X.

Y. Huang, X. Duan, Y. Cui, L. J. Lauhon, K. H. Kim, and C. M. Lieber, “Logic gates and computation from assembled nanowire building blocks,” Science294(5545), 1313–1317 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for optical excitation and bending process. (b) Bright-field optical images of a 50 μm length 650 nm diameter CdSe NW with gradually decreased bending radius without optical excitation. (c) Dark-field optical images for the corresponding bending process under the same intensity of optical excitation. Two of the most weakened optical emissions from the bending end of the NW are indicated by the white arrows. Scale bar in (b) applies to (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of phase front in a bent NW. R is bending radius, and Rc represents for the critical radius, where the phase front travels as fast as local light speed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Integrated emission intensity versus pump power of a 60 µm length 500 nm diameter CdSe NW with different bending radius: ∞, 36, 13, 11 μm, respectively. (b) The plot of threshold and differential efficiency versus bending angles. Bending angles are reversely proportional to the bending radius since the length of the bending portion of the NWs keeps almost the same during the bending process. (c) Red shift output spectra of a 60 μm length 500 nm diameter CdSe NW under the same pump power with different bending radius: ∞, 36, 13, 11 μm. (d) Mode-reduction spectra of a 40 μm length 500 nm diameter CdSe NW under the same pump power with different bending radius: ∞, 22, 13 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The plot of bending loss versus bending radius of a 37 μm length 310 nm diameter CdSe NW. Black exponential line is for PL, and red one for laser. (b) Simulation results of diameter-dependent bending losses of PL. (c) The electric field intensity distributions in x-z plane, the corresponding output mode profiles are shown above. The NW diameter D is 400 nm, and the bending radius are 0.75 μm and 4μm, respectively. (d) Diameter-dependent bending losses of laser obtained from experiments. The blue square dots represent a 35 μm length 410 nm diameter NW, and the purple round dots represent a 38 μm length 260 nm diameter NW. (e) Simulation results of bending losses for the first three guided modes. Diameter of NW used here is 300 nm. (f) The input (left) and output (right) mode profiles in y-z plane of the first three guided modes. The NW diameter is 300 nm, and the bending radius is 2 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a), (b) Polar plots of the laser emission from the bending endface parallel to the substrate with the bending angles of 0 and 90 degrees, respectively. θ represents the polarization angle. Insets, the dark-field optical images of the straight and 90-degree-bent CdSe NW, respectively. Scale bar in (a) applies to (b). (c) SEM image of a 40 μm length 260 nm diameter CdSe NW. Inset, a close view of the bending end of the NW with a flat endface. Scale bar, 500nm. (d) The linear fitting of polarization angles versus bending angles.

Equations (2)

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α b =10log I 2 I 1 ,
α ' b =10log I ' 2 I ' 1 =N α b .

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