Abstract

We report on strong UV third-harmonic generation from silicon nitride films and resonant waveguide gratings. We determine the absolute value of third-order susceptibility of silicon nitride at wavelength of 1064 nm to be χ(3) (-3ω,ω,ω,ω) = (2.8 ± 0.6) × 10−20 m2/V2, which is two orders of magnitude larger than that of fused silica. The third-harmonic generation is further enhanced by a factor of 2000 by fabricating a resonant waveguide grating onto a silicon nitride film. Our results extend the operating range of CMOS-compatible nonlinear materials to the UV spectral regime.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (7)

2011 (3)

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Harmonic generation in silicon nitride ring resonators,” Opt. Express19(12), 11415–11421 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Dominguez-Juarez, G. Kozyreff, and J. Martorell, “Whispering gallery microresonators for second harmonic light generation from a low number of small molecules,” Nat Commun2, 254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

A. Saari, G. Genty, M. Siltanen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Giant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in multiple diffraction orders from sub-wavelength resonant waveguide grating,” Opt. Express18(12), 12298–12303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Group velocity dispersion and self phase modulation in silicon nitride waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 061101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett.10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, and M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

B. Kim, S. Han, T. Kim, B. Kim, and I. Shim, “Modeling refraction characteristics of silicon nitride film deposited in a SiH4-NH3-N2 plasma using neural network,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.31(3), 317–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, W. Jiang, A. R. Cowan, and J. F. Young, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation from planar photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett.28(24), 2500–2502 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

U. Gubler and C. Bosshard, “Optical third-harmonic generation of fused silica in gas atmosphere: Absolute value of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3),” Phys. Rev. B61(16), 10702–10710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (3)

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, “Surface second-harmonic generation from chiral materials,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter51(3), 1425–1434 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A12(5), 1068–1076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, S. W. Brown, and S. C. Rand, “Optical properties of silicon nitride films deposited by hot filament chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.77(12), 6534–6541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Alic, N.

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, S. V.

Bianco, F.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanchard, R.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett.10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borel, P. I.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borga, E.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosshard, C.

U. Gubler and C. Bosshard, “Optical third-harmonic generation of fused silica in gas atmosphere: Absolute value of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3),” Phys. Rev. B61(16), 10702–10710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bourgin, Y.

Brown, S. W.

S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, S. W. Brown, and S. C. Rand, “Optical properties of silicon nitride films deposited by hot filament chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.77(12), 6534–6541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett.10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cazzanelli, M.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cowan, A. R.

Degoli, E.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deshpande, S. V.

S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, S. W. Brown, and S. C. Rand, “Optical properties of silicon nitride films deposited by hot filament chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.77(12), 6534–6541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dominguez-Juarez, J. L.

J. L. Dominguez-Juarez, G. Kozyreff, and J. Martorell, “Whispering gallery microresonators for second harmonic light generation from a low number of small molecules,” Nat Commun2, 254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fage-Pedersen, J.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Group velocity dispersion and self phase modulation in silicon nitride waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 061101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, and Y. Fainman, “Thermal and Kerr nonlinear properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride/ silicon dioxide waveguides,” Opt. Express16(17), 12987–12994 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, M. A.

Frandsen, L. H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gatzogiannis, E.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett.10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaylord, T. K.

Genevet, P.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett.10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genty, G.

Ghulinyan, M.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gondarenko, A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grann, E. B.

Gubler, U.

U. Gubler and C. Bosshard, “Optical third-harmonic generation of fused silica in gas atmosphere: Absolute value of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3),” Phys. Rev. B61(16), 10702–10710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gulari, E.

S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, S. W. Brown, and S. C. Rand, “Optical properties of silicon nitride films deposited by hot filament chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.77(12), 6534–6541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Halir, R.

Han, S.

B. Kim, S. Han, T. Kim, B. Kim, and I. Shim, “Modeling refraction characteristics of silicon nitride film deposited in a SiH4-NH3-N2 plasma using neural network,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.31(3), 317–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, O.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyvärinen, O.

T. Ning, H. Pietarinen, O. Hyvärinen, J. Simonen, G. Genty, and M. Kauranen, “Strong second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(16), 161902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Ning, H. Pietarinen, O. Hyvärinen, R. Kumar, T. Kaplas, M. Kauranen, and G. Genty, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride resonant waveguide gratings,” Opt. Lett.37(20), 4269–4271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, K.

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Group velocity dispersion and self phase modulation in silicon nitride waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 061101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, and Y. Fainman, “Thermal and Kerr nonlinear properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride/ silicon dioxide waveguides,” Opt. Express16(17), 12987–12994 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, R. S.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, W.

Jourlin, Y.

Kaplas, T.

Karvinen, P.

A. Saari, G. Genty, M. Siltanen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Giant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in multiple diffraction orders from sub-wavelength resonant waveguide grating,” Opt. Express18(12), 12298–12303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, and M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kats, M. A.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett.10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauranen, M.

T. Ning, H. Pietarinen, O. Hyvärinen, R. Kumar, T. Kaplas, M. Kauranen, and G. Genty, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride resonant waveguide gratings,” Opt. Lett.37(20), 4269–4271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ning, H. Pietarinen, O. Hyvärinen, J. Simonen, G. Genty, and M. Kauranen, “Strong second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(16), 161902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Saari, G. Genty, M. Siltanen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Giant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in multiple diffraction orders from sub-wavelength resonant waveguide grating,” Opt. Express18(12), 12298–12303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, and M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, “Surface second-harmonic generation from chiral materials,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter51(3), 1425–1434 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khunsin, W.

Kim, B.

B. Kim, S. Han, T. Kim, B. Kim, and I. Shim, “Modeling refraction characteristics of silicon nitride film deposited in a SiH4-NH3-N2 plasma using neural network,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.31(3), 317–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Kim, S. Han, T. Kim, B. Kim, and I. Shim, “Modeling refraction characteristics of silicon nitride film deposited in a SiH4-NH3-N2 plasma using neural network,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.31(3), 317–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.

B. Kim, S. Han, T. Kim, B. Kim, and I. Shim, “Modeling refraction characteristics of silicon nitride film deposited in a SiH4-NH3-N2 plasma using neural network,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.31(3), 317–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kozyreff, G.

J. L. Dominguez-Juarez, G. Kozyreff, and J. Martorell, “Whispering gallery microresonators for second harmonic light generation from a low number of small molecules,” Nat Commun2, 254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kristensen, M.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuittinen, M.

A. Saari, G. Genty, M. Siltanen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Giant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in multiple diffraction orders from sub-wavelength resonant waveguide grating,” Opt. Express18(12), 12298–12303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, and M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, R.

Lavrinenko, A. V.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leivo, S.

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, and M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Levy, J. S.

Li, L.

Lipson, M.

Luppi, E.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maki, J. J.

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, “Surface second-harmonic generation from chiral materials,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter51(3), 1425–1434 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martorell, J.

J. L. Dominguez-Juarez, G. Kozyreff, and J. Martorell, “Whispering gallery microresonators for second harmonic light generation from a low number of small molecules,” Nat Commun2, 254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minissale, S.

S. Minissale, S. Yerci, and L. Nero, “Nonlinear optical properties of low temperature annealed silicon-rich oxide and silicon-rich nitride materials for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(2), 021109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Modotto, D.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moharam, M. G.

Mondia, J. P.

Moulin, G.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nero, L.

S. Minissale, S. Yerci, and L. Nero, “Nonlinear optical properties of low temperature annealed silicon-rich oxide and silicon-rich nitride materials for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(2), 021109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ning, T.

T. Ning, H. Pietarinen, O. Hyvärinen, J. Simonen, G. Genty, and M. Kauranen, “Strong second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(16), 161902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Ning, H. Pietarinen, O. Hyvärinen, R. Kumar, T. Kaplas, M. Kauranen, and G. Genty, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride resonant waveguide gratings,” Opt. Lett.37(20), 4269–4271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okawachi, Y.

Ossicini, S.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ou, H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parriaux, O.

Pavesi, L.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedersen, K.

Persoons, A.

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, “Surface second-harmonic generation from chiral materials,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter51(3), 1425–1434 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peucheret, C.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierobon, R.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pietarinen, H.

T. Ning, H. Pietarinen, O. Hyvärinen, R. Kumar, T. Kaplas, M. Kauranen, and G. Genty, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride resonant waveguide gratings,” Opt. Lett.37(20), 4269–4271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ning, H. Pietarinen, O. Hyvärinen, J. Simonen, G. Genty, and M. Kauranen, “Strong second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(16), 161902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pommet, D. A.

Pucker, G.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rand, S. C.

S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, S. W. Brown, and S. C. Rand, “Optical properties of silicon nitride films deposited by hot filament chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.77(12), 6534–6541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, S.

Saari, A.

Saperstein, R. E.

Scully, M. O.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett.10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shahabadi, M.

Shim, I.

B. Kim, S. Han, T. Kim, B. Kim, and I. Shim, “Modeling refraction characteristics of silicon nitride film deposited in a SiH4-NH3-N2 plasma using neural network,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.31(3), 317–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Siltanen, M.

A. Saari, G. Genty, M. Siltanen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Giant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in multiple diffraction orders from sub-wavelength resonant waveguide grating,” Opt. Express18(12), 12298–12303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, and M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simonen, J.

T. Ning, H. Pietarinen, O. Hyvärinen, J. Simonen, G. Genty, and M. Kauranen, “Strong second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(16), 161902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

Soppera, O.

Spangenberg, A.

Stehlin, F.

Sun, P. C.

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Group velocity dispersion and self phase modulation in silicon nitride waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 061101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Talebi, N.

Tan, D. T. H.

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Group velocity dispersion and self phase modulation in silicon nitride waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 061101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tetienne, J. P.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett.10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vahimaa, P.

A. Saari, G. Genty, M. Siltanen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Giant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in multiple diffraction orders from sub-wavelength resonant waveguide grating,” Opt. Express18(12), 12298–12303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, and M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

Véniard, V.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogelgesang, R.

Voima, P.

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, and M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wabnitz, S.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieder, F.

Yerci, S.

S. Minissale, S. Yerci, and L. Nero, “Nonlinear optical properties of low temperature annealed silicon-rich oxide and silicon-rich nitride materials for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(2), 021109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

Zsigri, B.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Group velocity dispersion and self phase modulation in silicon nitride waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 061101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Minissale, S. Yerci, and L. Nero, “Nonlinear optical properties of low temperature annealed silicon-rich oxide and silicon-rich nitride materials for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(2), 021109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Ning, H. Pietarinen, O. Hyvärinen, J. Simonen, G. Genty, and M. Kauranen, “Strong second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(16), 161902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, and M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

B. Kim, S. Han, T. Kim, B. Kim, and I. Shim, “Modeling refraction characteristics of silicon nitride film deposited in a SiH4-NH3-N2 plasma using neural network,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.31(3), 317–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, S. W. Brown, and S. C. Rand, “Optical properties of silicon nitride films deposited by hot filament chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.77(12), 6534–6541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Nano Lett. (1)

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett.10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun (1)

J. L. Dominguez-Juarez, G. Kozyreff, and J. Martorell, “Whispering gallery microresonators for second harmonic light generation from a low number of small molecules,” Nat Commun2, 254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

U. Gubler and C. Bosshard, “Optical third-harmonic generation of fused silica in gas atmosphere: Absolute value of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3),” Phys. Rev. B61(16), 10702–10710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, “Surface second-harmonic generation from chiral materials,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter51(3), 1425–1434 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. N. Prasad, Introduction to Biophotonics (John Wiley & Sons, 2003).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup used for the THG measurement. M, mirror; L, Lens; GP, Glan prism; WP, wave-plate; LP, long-pass filter; SP, short-pass filter; IF, interference filter; RS, rotation stage, and PMT, photomultiplier tube. The Cartesian coordinate system (x, y, z) associated with the samples is also shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally measured polarization-dependent THG Maker-fringe patterns, pin-pout (black circle) and sin-sout (blue square), from the reference fused silica and SiN samples under the same condition. The solid lines (black and blue) indicate theoretical fits. There is no detectable signal for the polarization configuration pin-sout and sin-pout.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of the fabricated RWG and (b) schematic image of cross-section of the SiN RWG sample. (c) shows the calculated square of the amplitude of the electric field |E/E0|2 normalized to the incident field E0 in the vicinity of the RWG structure at resonant angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimentally measured dependence of the linear transmission and of the THG intensity on the angle of incidence for different fundamental laser powers. The inset shows the cubic relation between the THG intensity and fundamental laser power for the SiN RWG and film. (b) p and s-polarized THG intensities as a function of the polarization of the fundamental beam (modulated by a half wave plate (HWP)). The states of polarization p and s are indicated.

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