Abstract

Two different types of lasing modes, vertical Fabry-Perot cavity and random lasing, were observed in ZnO epi-films of different thicknesses grown on Si (111) substrates. Under optical excitation at room temperature by a frequency tripled Nd:YVO4 laser with wavelength of 355 nm, the lasing thresholds are low due to high crystalline quality of the ZnO epitaxial films, which act as microresonators. For the thick ZnO layer (1,200 nm), its lasing action is originated from the random scattering due to the high density of crack networks developed in the thick ZnO film. However, the low crack density of the thin film (555 nm) fails to provide feedback loops essential for random scattering. Nevertheless, even the lower threshold lasing is achieved by the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by two interfaces of the thin ZnO film. The associated lasing modes of the thin ZnO film can be characterized as the transverse Gaussian modes attributed to the smooth curved surfaces.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

M. A. Versteegh, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Room-temperature laser emission of ZnO nanowires explained by many-body theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(15), 157402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Y. T. Chen and Y. F. Chen, “Enhanced random lasing in ZnO nanocombs assisted by Fabry-Perot resonance,” Opt. Express19(9), 8728–8734 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kalusniak, H. J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Random semiconductor lasers: scattered versus Fabry-Perot feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(1), 013901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Lin, W. R. Liu, S. Yang, C. C. Kuo, C.-H. Hsu, W. F. Hsieh, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “The growth of an epitaxial ZnO film on Si(111) with a Gd2O3(Ga2O3) buffer Layer,” Cryst. Growth Des.11(7), 2846–2851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

W.-R. Liu, Y.-H. Li, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “Domain matching epitaxial growth of high-quality ZnO film using a Y2O3 buffer layer on Si (111),” Cryst. Growth Des.9(1), 239 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Ma, X. L. Wei, L. Dai, S. F. Liu, T. Chen, S. Yue, Z. Li, Q. Chen, and G. G. Qin, “Light coupling and modulation in coupled nanowire ring-Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2697–2703 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, K. S. Liang, and F. S.-S. Chien, “Threading dislocations in domain-matching epitaxial films of ZnO,” J. Appl. Cryst.40(5), 924–930 (2007).

2006 (2)

E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV Random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO–SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(13), 1685–1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 221109 (2006).

2005 (1)

H. C. Hsu, C. Y. Wu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Stimulated emission and lasing of random-growth oriented ZnO nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 064315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(17), 3241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, “Controlled growth of ZnO nanowires and their optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(5), 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and absorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.85(11), 7884 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, S.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. C.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

R. M. Ma, X. L. Wei, L. Dai, S. F. Liu, T. Chen, S. Yue, Z. Li, Q. Chen, and G. G. Qin, “Light coupling and modulation in coupled nanowire ring-Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2697–2703 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

R. M. Ma, X. L. Wei, L. Dai, S. F. Liu, T. Chen, S. Yue, Z. Li, Q. Chen, and G. G. Qin, “Light coupling and modulation in coupled nanowire ring-Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2697–2703 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. F.

Chen, Y. T.

Chien, F. S.-S.

W.-R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, K. S. Liang, and F. S.-S. Chien, “Threading dislocations in domain-matching epitaxial films of ZnO,” J. Appl. Cryst.40(5), 924–930 (2007).

Choi, H. J.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, “Controlled growth of ZnO nanowires and their optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(5), 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.-J.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, L.

R. M. Ma, X. L. Wei, L. Dai, S. F. Liu, T. Chen, S. Yue, Z. Li, Q. Chen, and G. G. Qin, “Light coupling and modulation in coupled nanowire ring-Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2697–2703 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dijkhuis, J. I.

M. A. Versteegh, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Room-temperature laser emission of ZnO nanowires explained by many-body theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(15), 157402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, R.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, “Controlled growth of ZnO nanowires and their optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(5), 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Henneberger, F.

S. Kalusniak, H. J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Random semiconductor lasers: scattered versus Fabry-Perot feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(1), 013901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M.

B. H. Lin, W. R. Liu, S. Yang, C. C. Kuo, C.-H. Hsu, W. F. Hsieh, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “The growth of an epitaxial ZnO film on Si(111) with a Gd2O3(Ga2O3) buffer Layer,” Cryst. Growth Des.11(7), 2846–2851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W.-R. Liu, Y.-H. Li, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “Domain matching epitaxial growth of high-quality ZnO film using a Y2O3 buffer layer on Si (111),” Cryst. Growth Des.9(1), 239 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W. F.

B. H. Lin, W. R. Liu, S. Yang, C. C. Kuo, C.-H. Hsu, W. F. Hsieh, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “The growth of an epitaxial ZnO film on Si(111) with a Gd2O3(Ga2O3) buffer Layer,” Cryst. Growth Des.11(7), 2846–2851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W.-R. Liu, Y.-H. Li, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “Domain matching epitaxial growth of high-quality ZnO film using a Y2O3 buffer layer on Si (111),” Cryst. Growth Des.9(1), 239 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W.-R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, K. S. Liang, and F. S.-S. Chien, “Threading dislocations in domain-matching epitaxial films of ZnO,” J. Appl. Cryst.40(5), 924–930 (2007).

H. C. Hsu, C. Y. Wu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Stimulated emission and lasing of random-growth oriented ZnO nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 064315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C.-H.

B. H. Lin, W. R. Liu, S. Yang, C. C. Kuo, C.-H. Hsu, W. F. Hsieh, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “The growth of an epitaxial ZnO film on Si(111) with a Gd2O3(Ga2O3) buffer Layer,” Cryst. Growth Des.11(7), 2846–2851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W.-R. Liu, Y.-H. Li, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “Domain matching epitaxial growth of high-quality ZnO film using a Y2O3 buffer layer on Si (111),” Cryst. Growth Des.9(1), 239 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W.-R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, K. S. Liang, and F. S.-S. Chien, “Threading dislocations in domain-matching epitaxial films of ZnO,” J. Appl. Cryst.40(5), 924–930 (2007).

Hsu, H. C.

H. C. Hsu, C. Y. Wu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Stimulated emission and lasing of random-growth oriented ZnO nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 064315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y. K.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. F.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jen, Y. J.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, J.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, “Controlled growth of ZnO nanowires and their optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(5), 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. C.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalusniak, S.

S. Kalusniak, H. J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Random semiconductor lasers: scattered versus Fabry-Perot feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(1), 013901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knutsen, K. P.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolbas, R. M.

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and absorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.85(11), 7884 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. C.

B. H. Lin, W. R. Liu, S. Yang, C. C. Kuo, C.-H. Hsu, W. F. Hsieh, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “The growth of an epitaxial ZnO film on Si(111) with a Gd2O3(Ga2O3) buffer Layer,” Cryst. Growth Des.11(7), 2846–2851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwo, J.

B. H. Lin, W. R. Liu, S. Yang, C. C. Kuo, C.-H. Hsu, W. F. Hsieh, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “The growth of an epitaxial ZnO film on Si(111) with a Gd2O3(Ga2O3) buffer Layer,” Cryst. Growth Des.11(7), 2846–2851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W.-R. Liu, Y.-H. Li, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “Domain matching epitaxial growth of high-quality ZnO film using a Y2O3 buffer layer on Si (111),” Cryst. Growth Des.9(1), 239 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lau, S. P.

E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 221109 (2006).

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(17), 3241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W. C.

B. H. Lin, W. R. Liu, S. Yang, C. C. Kuo, C.-H. Hsu, W. F. Hsieh, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “The growth of an epitaxial ZnO film on Si(111) with a Gd2O3(Ga2O3) buffer Layer,” Cryst. Growth Des.11(7), 2846–2851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W.-R. Liu, Y.-H. Li, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “Domain matching epitaxial growth of high-quality ZnO film using a Y2O3 buffer layer on Si (111),” Cryst. Growth Des.9(1), 239 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

B. H. Lin, W. R. Liu, S. Yang, C. C. Kuo, C.-H. Hsu, W. F. Hsieh, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “The growth of an epitaxial ZnO film on Si(111) with a Gd2O3(Ga2O3) buffer Layer,” Cryst. Growth Des.11(7), 2846–2851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W.-R. Liu, Y.-H. Li, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “Domain matching epitaxial growth of high-quality ZnO film using a Y2O3 buffer layer on Si (111),” Cryst. Growth Des.9(1), 239 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leong, E. S. P.

E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 221109 (2006).

E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV Random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO–SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(13), 1685–1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-H.

W.-R. Liu, Y.-H. Li, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “Domain matching epitaxial growth of high-quality ZnO film using a Y2O3 buffer layer on Si (111),” Cryst. Growth Des.9(1), 239 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

R. M. Ma, X. L. Wei, L. Dai, S. F. Liu, T. Chen, S. Yue, Z. Li, Q. Chen, and G. G. Qin, “Light coupling and modulation in coupled nanowire ring-Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2697–2703 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, K. S.

W.-R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, K. S. Liang, and F. S.-S. Chien, “Threading dislocations in domain-matching epitaxial films of ZnO,” J. Appl. Cryst.40(5), 924–930 (2007).

Lin, B. H.

B. H. Lin, W. R. Liu, S. Yang, C. C. Kuo, C.-H. Hsu, W. F. Hsieh, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “The growth of an epitaxial ZnO film on Si(111) with a Gd2O3(Ga2O3) buffer Layer,” Cryst. Growth Des.11(7), 2846–2851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. F.

R. M. Ma, X. L. Wei, L. Dai, S. F. Liu, T. Chen, S. Yue, Z. Li, Q. Chen, and G. G. Qin, “Light coupling and modulation in coupled nanowire ring-Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2697–2703 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T. A.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W. R.

B. H. Lin, W. R. Liu, S. Yang, C. C. Kuo, C.-H. Hsu, W. F. Hsieh, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “The growth of an epitaxial ZnO film on Si(111) with a Gd2O3(Ga2O3) buffer Layer,” Cryst. Growth Des.11(7), 2846–2851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.-R.

W.-R. Liu, Y.-H. Li, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “Domain matching epitaxial growth of high-quality ZnO film using a Y2O3 buffer layer on Si (111),” Cryst. Growth Des.9(1), 239 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W.-R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, K. S. Liang, and F. S.-S. Chien, “Threading dislocations in domain-matching epitaxial films of ZnO,” J. Appl. Cryst.40(5), 924–930 (2007).

Lo, H. C.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, R. M.

R. M. Ma, X. L. Wei, L. Dai, S. F. Liu, T. Chen, S. Yue, Z. Li, Q. Chen, and G. G. Qin, “Light coupling and modulation in coupled nanowire ring-Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2697–2703 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, X.

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, “Controlled growth of ZnO nanowires and their optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(5), 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, N.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, “Controlled growth of ZnO nanowires and their optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(5), 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muth, J. F.

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and absorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.85(11), 7884 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Narayan, J.

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and absorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.85(11), 7884 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oktyabrsky, S.

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and absorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.85(11), 7884 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. L.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, W. I.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(17), 3241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C. Y.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pham, J.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, “Controlled growth of ZnO nanowires and their optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(5), 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G. G.

R. M. Ma, X. L. Wei, L. Dai, S. F. Liu, T. Chen, S. Yue, Z. Li, Q. Chen, and G. G. Qin, “Light coupling and modulation in coupled nanowire ring-Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2697–2703 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russo, R.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, “Controlled growth of ZnO nanowires and their optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(5), 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saykally, R.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, “Controlled growth of ZnO nanowires and their optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(5), 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaller, R. D.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, A. K.

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and absorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.85(11), 7884 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

M. A. Versteegh, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Room-temperature laser emission of ZnO nanowires explained by many-body theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(15), 157402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Versteegh, M. A.

M. A. Versteegh, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Room-temperature laser emission of ZnO nanowires explained by many-body theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(15), 157402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, X. L.

R. M. Ma, X. L. Wei, L. Dai, S. F. Liu, T. Chen, S. Yue, Z. Li, Q. Chen, and G. G. Qin, “Light coupling and modulation in coupled nanowire ring-Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2697–2703 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C. Y.

H. C. Hsu, C. Y. Wu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Stimulated emission and lasing of random-growth oriented ZnO nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 064315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wünsche, H. J.

S. Kalusniak, H. J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Random semiconductor lasers: scattered versus Fabry-Perot feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(1), 013901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, “Controlled growth of ZnO nanowires and their optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(5), 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, D.

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, “Controlled growth of ZnO nanowires and their optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(5), 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

B. H. Lin, W. R. Liu, S. Yang, C. C. Kuo, C.-H. Hsu, W. F. Hsieh, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “The growth of an epitaxial ZnO film on Si(111) with a Gd2O3(Ga2O3) buffer Layer,” Cryst. Growth Des.11(7), 2846–2851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G.-C.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(17), 3241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. F.

E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 221109 (2006).

E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV Random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO–SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(13), 1685–1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(17), 3241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yue, S.

R. M. Ma, X. L. Wei, L. Dai, S. F. Liu, T. Chen, S. Yue, Z. Li, Q. Chen, and G. G. Qin, “Light coupling and modulation in coupled nanowire ring-Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2697–2703 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuen, C.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(17), 3241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, “Controlled growth of ZnO nanowires and their optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(5), 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV Random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO–SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(13), 1685–1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 221109 (2006).

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(17), 3241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Growth Des. (2)

W.-R. Liu, Y.-H. Li, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “Domain matching epitaxial growth of high-quality ZnO film using a Y2O3 buffer layer on Si (111),” Cryst. Growth Des.9(1), 239 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Lin, W. R. Liu, S. Yang, C. C. Kuo, C.-H. Hsu, W. F. Hsieh, W. C. Lee, Y. J. Lee, M. Hong, and J. Kwo, “The growth of an epitaxial ZnO film on Si(111) with a Gd2O3(Ga2O3) buffer Layer,” Cryst. Growth Des.11(7), 2846–2851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Cryst. (1)

W.-R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, C.-H. Hsu, K. S. Liang, and F. S.-S. Chien, “Threading dislocations in domain-matching epitaxial films of ZnO,” J. Appl. Cryst.40(5), 924–930 (2007).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and absorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.85(11), 7884 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Hsu, C. Y. Wu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Stimulated emission and lasing of random-growth oriented ZnO nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 064315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

R. M. Ma, X. L. Wei, L. Dai, S. F. Liu, T. Chen, S. Yue, Z. Li, Q. Chen, and G. G. Qin, “Light coupling and modulation in coupled nanowire ring-Fabry-Pérot cavity,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2697–2703 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. A. Versteegh, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Room-temperature laser emission of ZnO nanowires explained by many-body theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(15), 157402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalusniak, H. J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Random semiconductor lasers: scattered versus Fabry-Perot feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(1), 013901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. T. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics (3rd ed. Prentice Hall, 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pumping power dependent lasing spectra of the ZnO epi-layers with thicknesses of (a) 1,200 nm and (b) 555 nm grown on Si(111). The insets show the corresponding linear scale plots of emission intensity versus pumping power.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The contour (left) and 3D (top right) intensity plots of lasing beam profiles of the (a) 1,200 and (b) 555 nm thick ZnO films, as pumped above the lasing threshold. The line profiles across the center of the excitation area are shown on the bottom right of the corresponding figure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission spectra of the (a) 1,200 and (b) 555 nm thick ZnO films taken under fixed pump power and variable excitation area. The blue, red, and black curves, were taken with pumping area of 1.13 × 10−4 (A1), 7.85 × 10−5 (A2), and 5.03 × 10−5 cm2 (A3), respectively. The insets illustrate the optical microscope images of the sample surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Emission spectrum from the thin film above the lasing threshold. The solid and dashed lines mark the center of the lasing modes from the vertical cavity model and transverse Hermite-Gaussian modes, respectively. (b) Cross-sectional SEM images of the ZnO epi-layers, the ZnO layer thickness of the upper and lower images are 1,200 and 555 nm, respectively.

Equations (1)

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v h,k,q = c 2nL [ q+ 1+h+k π cos 1 ( 1 L R ) 1 2 ]

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