Abstract

We establish experimental and numerical evidence that the refractive index sensitivities of various subwavelength plasmonic sensors obey a simple universal scaling relation that the sensitivities linearly increase with λm/neff (where λm is the resonant wavelengths and neff is the effective refractive index of the environment) and exhibit a slope equal to 1 instead of 2 predicted theoretically. The universal scaling relation is independent of the geometrical structures or contributions of multipolar resonances of individual metal structures (i.e. plasmonic atoms). It is also independent of spatial distributions or field-enhancements of electromagnetic hot spots in coupled metal structures (i.e. plasmonic molecules). The universal scaling relation reveals the fundamental standing wave resonances for all plasmonic atoms and the predominant near-field electric couplings for most plasmonic molecules. The established universal relation also helps to exclude some magnetically coupled plasmonic molecules for practical applications due to their reduced sensitivities.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

Yen-Kai Chang, Zong-Xing Lou, Kao-Der Chang, and Chih-Wei Chang, "Universal scaling of plasmonic refractive index sensors: erratum," Opt. Express 21, 2847-2847 (2013)
https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-21-3-2847

References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. G. Sun and Y. N. Xia, “Increased sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoshells compared to that of gold solid colloids in response to environmental changes,” Anal. Chem.74(20), 5297–5305 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. J. Chen, X. S. Kou, Z. Yang, W. H. Ni, and J. F. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. N. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett.5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. E. C. Le Ru and P. G. Etchegoin, “Phenomenological local field enhancement factor distributions around electromagnetic hot spots,” J. Chem. Phys.130(18), 181101 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly Strained Compliant Optical Metamaterials with Large Frequency Tunability,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. I. M. Pryce, Y. A. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. A. Atwater, “Compliant Metamaterials for Resonantly Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Refractive Index Sensing,” ACS Nano5(10), 8167–8174 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnička, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, and J. Homola, “Local refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express19(10), 9213–9220 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (6)

M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnička, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, and J. Homola, “Local refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express19(10), 9213–9220 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Petryayeva and U. J. Krull, “Localized surface plasmon resonance: Nanostructures, bioassays and biosensing--A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta706(1), 8–24 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Lu, J. W. Lin, and P. T. Lee, “High sensitivity plasmonic index sensor using slablike gold nanoring arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Pryce, Y. A. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. A. Atwater, “Compliant Metamaterials for Resonantly Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Refractive Index Sensing,” ACS Nano5(10), 8167–8174 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly Strained Compliant Optical Metamaterials with Large Frequency Tunability,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Tseng and C. W. Chang, “High displacement sensitivity in asymmetric plasmonic nanostructures,” Opt. Express18(17), 18360–18367 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Le Ru and P. G. Etchegoin, “Phenomenological local field enhancement factor distributions around electromagnetic hot spots,” J. Chem. Phys.130(18), 181101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

C. Y. Chen, S. C. Wu, and T. J. Yen, “Experimental verification of standing-wave plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(3), 034110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Chen, X. S. Kou, Z. Yang, W. H. Ni, and J. F. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

C. L. Nehl, H. W. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, “Optical properties of star-shaped gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.6(4), 683–688 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1–2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Sherry, R. C. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. N. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett.5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

Y. G. Sun and Y. N. Xia, “Increased sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoshells compared to that of gold solid colloids in response to environmental changes,” Anal. Chem.74(20), 5297–5305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

I. M. Pryce, Y. A. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. A. Atwater, “Compliant Metamaterials for Resonantly Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Refractive Index Sensing,” ACS Nano5(10), 8167–8174 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly Strained Compliant Optical Metamaterials with Large Frequency Tunability,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avlasevich, Y.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

I. M. Pryce, Y. A. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. A. Atwater, “Compliant Metamaterials for Resonantly Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Refractive Index Sensing,” ACS Nano5(10), 8167–8174 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly Strained Compliant Optical Metamaterials with Large Frequency Tunability,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly Strained Compliant Optical Metamaterials with Large Frequency Tunability,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. W.

Chang, K. D.

Chang, S. H.

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. N. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett.5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, Y. C.

Chen, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen, S. C. Wu, and T. J. Yen, “Experimental verification of standing-wave plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(3), 034110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. J.

H. J. Chen, X. S. Kou, Z. Yang, W. H. Ni, and J. F. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornelius, T. W.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eigenthaler, U.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etchegoin, P. G.

E. C. Le Ru and P. G. Etchegoin, “Phenomenological local field enhancement factor distributions around electromagnetic hot spots,” J. Chem. Phys.130(18), 181101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etrich, C.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1–2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fahsold, G.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. H.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Galler, N.

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1–2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1–2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hafner, J. H.

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Nehl, H. W. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, “Optical properties of star-shaped gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.6(4), 683–688 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirscher, M.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homola, J.

Huang, C. J.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, R. C.

L. J. Sherry, R. C. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karim, S.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kelaita, Y. A.

I. M. Pryce, Y. A. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. A. Atwater, “Compliant Metamaterials for Resonantly Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Refractive Index Sensing,” ACS Nano5(10), 8167–8174 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly Strained Compliant Optical Metamaterials with Large Frequency Tunability,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinkhabwala, A.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kolb, T.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kou, X. S.

H. J. Chen, X. S. Kou, Z. Yang, W. H. Ni, and J. F. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

Krull, U. J.

E. Petryayeva and U. J. Krull, “Localized surface plasmon resonance: Nanostructures, bioassays and biosensing--A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta706(1), 8–24 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhl, J.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1–2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kvasnicka, P.

Lagae, L.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langguth, L.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lazarides, A. A.

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Ru, E. C.

E. C. Le Ru and P. G. Etchegoin, “Phenomenological local field enhancement factor distributions around electromagnetic hot spots,” J. Chem. Phys.130(18), 181101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1–2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P. T.

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Lu, J. W. Lin, and P. T. Lee, “High sensitivity plasmonic index sensor using slablike gold nanoring arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, H. W.

C. L. Nehl, H. W. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, “Optical properties of star-shaped gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.6(4), 683–688 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, J. W.

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Lu, J. W. Lin, and P. T. Lee, “High sensitivity plasmonic index sensor using slablike gold nanoring arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1–2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loa, I.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1–2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lodewijks, K.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lovrincic, R.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S. P.

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Lu, J. W. Lin, and P. T. Lee, “High sensitivity plasmonic index sensor using slablike gold nanoring arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayer, K. M.

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, M. M.

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkin, C. A.

L. J. Sherry, R. C. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moshchalkov, V. V.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullen, K.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nehl, C. L.

C. L. Nehl, H. W. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, “Optical properties of star-shaped gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.6(4), 683–688 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neubrech, F.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, R.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ni, W. H.

H. J. Chen, X. S. Kou, Z. Yang, W. H. Ni, and J. F. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petryayeva, E.

E. Petryayeva and U. J. Krull, “Localized surface plasmon resonance: Nanostructures, bioassays and biosensing--A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta706(1), 8–24 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piliarik, M.

Pryce, I. M.

I. M. Pryce, Y. A. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. A. Atwater, “Compliant Metamaterials for Resonantly Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Refractive Index Sensing,” ACS Nano5(10), 8167–8174 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly Strained Compliant Optical Metamaterials with Large Frequency Tunability,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pucci, A.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1–2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

L. J. Sherry, R. C. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. N. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett.5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherry, L. J.

L. J. Sherry, R. C. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. N. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett.5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sönnichsen, C.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y. G.

Y. G. Sun and Y. N. Xia, “Increased sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoshells compared to that of gold solid colloids in response to environmental changes,” Anal. Chem.74(20), 5297–5305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Syassen, K.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1–2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toimil-Molares, M. E.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. Y.

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Lu, J. W. Lin, and P. T. Lee, “High sensitivity plasmonic index sensor using slablike gold nanoring arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, H. C.

Van Dorpe, P.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

L. J. Sherry, R. C. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. N. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett.5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vandenbosch, G. A. E.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verellen, N.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. F.

H. J. Chen, X. S. Kou, Z. Yang, W. H. Ni, and J. F. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiley, B. J.

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. N. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett.5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. C.

C. Y. Chen, S. C. Wu, and T. J. Yen, “Experimental verification of standing-wave plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(3), 034110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y. N.

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. N. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett.5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. G. Sun and Y. N. Xia, “Increased sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoshells compared to that of gold solid colloids in response to environmental changes,” Anal. Chem.74(20), 5297–5305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.

H. J. Chen, X. S. Kou, Z. Yang, W. H. Ni, and J. F. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

C. Y. Chen, S. C. Wu, and T. J. Yen, “Experimental verification of standing-wave plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(3), 034110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z. F.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1–2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

I. M. Pryce, Y. A. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. A. Atwater, “Compliant Metamaterials for Resonantly Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Refractive Index Sensing,” ACS Nano5(10), 8167–8174 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

Y. G. Sun and Y. N. Xia, “Increased sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoshells compared to that of gold solid colloids in response to environmental changes,” Anal. Chem.74(20), 5297–5305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

E. Petryayeva and U. J. Krull, “Localized surface plasmon resonance: Nanostructures, bioassays and biosensing--A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta706(1), 8–24 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1–2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Lu, J. W. Lin, and P. T. Lee, “High sensitivity plasmonic index sensor using slablike gold nanoring arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, S. C. Wu, and T. J. Yen, “Experimental verification of standing-wave plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(3), 034110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

E. C. Le Ru and P. G. Etchegoin, “Phenomenological local field enhancement factor distributions around electromagnetic hot spots,” J. Chem. Phys.130(18), 181101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (1)

H. J. Chen, X. S. Kou, Z. Yang, W. H. Ni, and J. F. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (6)

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. N. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett.5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, R. C. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Nehl, H. W. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, “Optical properties of star-shaped gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.6(4), 683–688 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly Strained Compliant Optical Metamaterials with Large Frequency Tunability,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Summarized refractive index sensitivities vs. λm/neff of various plasmonic atoms reported in earlier experiments (Ref [18].). The theoretical predictions by Miller and Lazarides (Ref [9], dotted line) and the standing wave model (Eq. (2), dashed line) are shown for comparison.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a, b) SEM images of the fabricated Molecules A and B with inter-molecular separation s = 20nm. (c, d) Electric field (hot spot) distributions of Molecules A and B at the respective antisymmetric resonant modes. (e, f) Electric field (hot spot) distributions of Molecules A and B at the respective symmetric resonant modes. The arrows denote the flows of the surface currents.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a, b) SEM images of the fabricated Molecules C with inter-molecular separation s = 11nm and 20nm. (c, d) Electric field (hot spot) distributions at the respective antisymmetric resonant modes. (e, f) Electric field (hot spot) distributions at the respective symmetric resonant modes. The arrows denote the flows of the surface currents. Note that the field-enhancement is more pronounced for the symmetric mode at s = 11nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental (solid curves) and simulated (dashed curves) transmission spectra of Molecules (a) A, (b) B, (c) C (s = 11nm), and (d) C (s = 20nm) before (blue curves) and after (red curves) dropping water refractive index tests.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Summarized (a) experimental and (b) simulated (without substrates) refractive index sensitivities vs. λm/neff of various plasmonic molecules. The universal scaling relation established in Eq. (2) is shown as the dashed line.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ m =2 n eff ( L m ) λ 0
d λ m d n eff = λ 0 n eff +( λ 0 n eff d λ 0 d n eff )
ω= ω a + M e ε + μ M m
d λ m / d n eff λ m / n eff = dω / d n eff ω/ n eff = d ω a / d n eff + M e / n eff 2 ω a / n eff + M e / n eff 2 + M m / n eff
d λ m / d n eff λ m / n eff 1O( M m ω a )

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