Abstract

In this work the design of Si / hybrid waveguides which contain a vertical infiltrated slot is studied. The case of slots infiltrated with a χ(3) nonlinear material of relatively high refractive index (e.g. chalcogenide glasses) is specifically discussed. An optimized waveguide geometry with periodic refractive index modulation, a nonlinear figure of merit > 1 and minimum effective mode cross section is presented. Introducing a periodic refractive index variation along the waveguide allows the adjustment of the group velocity dispersion (GVD). Choosing the period accordingly, the phase matching condition for degenerate four wave mixing (GVD = 0) can be fulfilled at virtually any desired frequency and independently from the fixed optimized waveguide cross section.

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  1. M. R. Lamont, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of highly nonlinear As2S3 waveguides for parametric gain and wavelength conversion,” Opt. Express15, 9458–9463 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Liang and H. Tsang, “Nonlinear absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10, 1149 – 1153 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2008).
  4. V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejco, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.14, 1140–1142 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express15, 5976–5990 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, “Third order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.77, 5518–5523 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Zhang, Y. Yue, Y. Xiao-Li, J. Wang, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Flat and low dispersion in highly nonlinear slot waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 13187–13193 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Q. Liu, S. Gao, Z. Li, Y. Xie, and S. He, “Dispersion engineering of a silicon-nanocrystal-based slot waveguide for broadband wavelength conversion,” Appl. Opt.50, 1260–1265 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Zhang, Y. Yue, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Flattened dispersion in silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 20529–20534 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Mas, J. Caraquitena, J. V. Galn, P. Sanchis, and J. Mart, “Tailoring the dispersion behavior of silicon nanophotonic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 20839–20844 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Muellner, M. Wellenzohn, and R. Hainberger, “Nonlinearity of optimized silicon photonic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express17, 9282–9287 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic Press, 2006).
  13. C. Tsay, E. Mujagi, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mid-infrared characterization of solution-processed As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 15523–15530 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Tsay, Y. Zha, and C. B. Arnold, “Solution-processed chalcogenide glass for integrated single-mode mid-infrared waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 26744–26753 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. C. Chern, “Spin-coated amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys.53, 6979 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Yue, L. Zhang, J. Wang, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Highly efficient nonlinearity reduction in silicon-on-insulator waveguides using vertical slots,” Opt. Express18, 22061 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Muellner, “Fundamental characteristics of the soi slot waveguide structure,” Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna (2010).
  18. “ www.comsol.com ”.
  19. S. Afshar V. and T. M. Monro, “A full vectorial model for pulse propagation in emerging waveguides with subwavelength structures part i: Kerr nonlinearity,” Opt. Express17, 2298–2318 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, X. Liu, C.-Y. Chou, E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. Osgood, “Nonlinear-optical phase modification in dispersion-engineered si photonic wires,” Opt. Express16, 1280–1299 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express15, 16604–16644 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effective mode area and its optimization in silicon-nanocrystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.37, 2295–2297 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides,” Opt. Express14, 4357–4362 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L. Zhang, Q. Lin, Y. Yue, Y. Yan, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon waveguide with four zero-dispersion wavelengths and its application in on-chip octave-spanning supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express20, 1685–1690 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. Zhang, Y. Yue, Y. Xiao-Li, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Highly dispersive slot waveguides,” Opt. Express17, 7095–7101 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, R. R. Grote, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood, “Width-modulation of Si photonic wires for quasi-phase-matching of four-wave-mixing: experimental and theoretical demonstration,” Opt. Express20, 9227–9242 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. R. Todorov, D. Tsankov, J. Pirov, and K. Petkov, “Structure and optical properties of thin As2S3 In2S3 films,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.44, 305401 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. von Rhein, S. Greulich-Weber, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Multiphysics software gazes into photonic crystals,” Physics Best pp. 38–39 (2007).
  29. J. D. Joannopoulos and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, 2008).
  30. P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lonar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 121106–121106–3 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, “Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express16, 6227–6232 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, G. Li, V. N. Mahajan, E. V. Stryland, and C. MacDonald, Handbook of Optics: Optical Properties of Materials, Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics (McGraw-Hill Prof Med/Tech, 2009).

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

Q. Liu, S. Gao, Z. Li, Y. Xie, and S. He, “Dispersion engineering of a silicon-nanocrystal-based slot waveguide for broadband wavelength conversion,” Appl. Opt.50, 1260–1265 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Todorov, D. Tsankov, J. Pirov, and K. Petkov, “Structure and optical properties of thin As2S3 In2S3 films,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.44, 305401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

2009 (4)

2008 (2)

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

T. Liang and H. Tsang, “Nonlinear absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10, 1149 – 1153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, “Third order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.77, 5518–5523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1982 (1)

G. C. Chern, “Spin-coated amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys.53, 6979 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Afshar V., S.

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic Press, 2006).

Agrawal, G. P.

Andrejco, M. J.

Arnold, C. B.

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, “Third order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.77, 5518–5523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, G. Li, V. N. Mahajan, E. V. Stryland, and C. MacDonald, Handbook of Optics: Optical Properties of Materials, Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics (McGraw-Hill Prof Med/Tech, 2009).

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bergman, K.

Caraquitena, J.

Chen, X.

Chern, G. C.

G. C. Chern, “Spin-coated amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys.53, 6979 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C.-Y.

Dadap, J. I.

de Sterke, C. M.

DeCusatis, C.

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, G. Li, V. N. Mahajan, E. V. Stryland, and C. MacDonald, Handbook of Optics: Optical Properties of Materials, Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics (McGraw-Hill Prof Med/Tech, 2009).

DeLong, K. W.

Deotare, P. B.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lonar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 121106–121106–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, J. B.

Dulkeith, E.

Eggleton, B. J.

Enoch, J.

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, G. Li, V. N. Mahajan, E. V. Stryland, and C. MacDonald, Handbook of Optics: Optical Properties of Materials, Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics (McGraw-Hill Prof Med/Tech, 2009).

Foster, M. A.

Frank, I. W.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lonar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 121106–121106–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

Gaeta, A. L.

Galn, J. V.

Gao, S.

Gmachl, C. F.

Gomez-Iglesias, A.

Green, W. M. J.

Greulich-Weber, S.

A. von Rhein, S. Greulich-Weber, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Multiphysics software gazes into photonic crystals,” Physics Best pp. 38–39 (2007).

Grote, R. R.

Hainberger, R.

He, S.

Hsieh, I.-W.

Itoh, H.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, “Third order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.77, 5518–5523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jacome, L.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, 2008).

Kaino, T.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, “Third order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.77, 5518–5523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, T.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, “Third order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.77, 5518–5523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lonar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 121106–121106–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

Krauss, T. F.

Lamont, M. R.

Leuthold, J.

Li, G.

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, G. Li, V. N. Mahajan, E. V. Stryland, and C. MacDonald, Handbook of Optics: Optical Properties of Materials, Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics (McGraw-Hill Prof Med/Tech, 2009).

Li, J.

Li, Z.

Liang, T.

T. Liang and H. Tsang, “Nonlinear absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10, 1149 – 1153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

Liu, Q.

Liu, X.

Lonar, M.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lonar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 121106–121106–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, C.

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, G. Li, V. N. Mahajan, E. V. Stryland, and C. MacDonald, Handbook of Optics: Optical Properties of Materials, Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics (McGraw-Hill Prof Med/Tech, 2009).

Madsen, C. K.

Mahajan, V. N.

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, G. Li, V. N. Mahajan, E. V. Stryland, and C. MacDonald, Handbook of Optics: Optical Properties of Materials, Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics (McGraw-Hill Prof Med/Tech, 2009).

Manolatou, C.

Mart, J.

Mas, S.

McCutcheon, M. W.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lonar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 121106–121106–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Mizrahi, V.

Monro, T. M.

Muellner, P.

P. Muellner, M. Wellenzohn, and R. Hainberger, “Nonlinearity of optimized silicon photonic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express17, 9282–9287 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Muellner, “Fundamental characteristics of the soi slot waveguide structure,” Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna (2010).

Mujagi, E.

Naganuma, K.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, “Third order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.77, 5518–5523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

Ophir, N.

Osgood, R.

Osgood, R. M.

Painter, O. J.

Panoiu, N. C.

Petkov, K.

R. Todorov, D. Tsankov, J. Pirov, and K. Petkov, “Structure and optical properties of thin As2S3 In2S3 films,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.44, 305401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pirov, J.

R. Todorov, D. Tsankov, J. Pirov, and K. Petkov, “Structure and optical properties of thin As2S3 In2S3 films,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.44, 305401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C.

Premaratne, M.

Rukhlenko, I. D.

Saifi, M. A.

Sanchis, P.

Schmidt, B. S.

Sekaric, L.

Sharping, J. E.

Stegeman, G. I.

Stryland, E. V.

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, G. Li, V. N. Mahajan, E. V. Stryland, and C. MacDonald, Handbook of Optics: Optical Properties of Materials, Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics (McGraw-Hill Prof Med/Tech, 2009).

Todorov, R.

R. Todorov, D. Tsankov, J. Pirov, and K. Petkov, “Structure and optical properties of thin As2S3 In2S3 films,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.44, 305401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H.

T. Liang and H. Tsang, “Nonlinear absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10, 1149 – 1153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsankov, D.

R. Todorov, D. Tsankov, J. Pirov, and K. Petkov, “Structure and optical properties of thin As2S3 In2S3 films,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.44, 305401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, C.

Turner, A. C.

Vlasov, Y. A.

von Rhein, A.

A. von Rhein, S. Greulich-Weber, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Multiphysics software gazes into photonic crystals,” Physics Best pp. 38–39 (2007).

Wang, J.

Wehrspohn, R. B.

A. von Rhein, S. Greulich-Weber, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Multiphysics software gazes into photonic crystals,” Physics Best pp. 38–39 (2007).

Wellenzohn, M.

White, T. P.

Willner, A. E.

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, 2008).

Xia, F.

Xiao-Li, Y.

Xie, Y.

Yan, Y.

Yue, Y.

Zha, Y.

Zhang, L.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lonar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 121106–121106–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Liang and H. Tsang, “Nonlinear absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10, 1149 – 1153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, “Third order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.77, 5518–5523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chern, “Spin-coated amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys.53, 6979 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Todorov, D. Tsankov, J. Pirov, and K. Petkov, “Structure and optical properties of thin As2S3 In2S3 films,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.44, 305401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (17)

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides,” Opt. Express14, 4357–4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express15, 5976–5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Lamont, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of highly nonlinear As2S3 waveguides for parametric gain and wavelength conversion,” Opt. Express15, 9458–9463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express15, 16604–16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, X. Liu, C.-Y. Chou, E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. Osgood, “Nonlinear-optical phase modification in dispersion-engineered si photonic wires,” Opt. Express16, 1280–1299 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, “Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express16, 6227–6232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Afshar V. and T. M. Monro, “A full vectorial model for pulse propagation in emerging waveguides with subwavelength structures part i: Kerr nonlinearity,” Opt. Express17, 2298–2318 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, Y. Yue, Y. Xiao-Li, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Highly dispersive slot waveguides,” Opt. Express17, 7095–7101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Muellner, M. Wellenzohn, and R. Hainberger, “Nonlinearity of optimized silicon photonic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express17, 9282–9287 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, Y. Yue, Y. Xiao-Li, J. Wang, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Flat and low dispersion in highly nonlinear slot waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 13187–13193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tsay, E. Mujagi, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mid-infrared characterization of solution-processed As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 15523–15530 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, Y. Yue, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Flattened dispersion in silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 20529–20534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mas, J. Caraquitena, J. V. Galn, P. Sanchis, and J. Mart, “Tailoring the dispersion behavior of silicon nanophotonic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 20839–20844 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, L. Zhang, J. Wang, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Highly efficient nonlinearity reduction in silicon-on-insulator waveguides using vertical slots,” Opt. Express18, 22061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tsay, Y. Zha, and C. B. Arnold, “Solution-processed chalcogenide glass for integrated single-mode mid-infrared waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 26744–26753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, Q. Lin, Y. Yue, Y. Yan, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon waveguide with four zero-dispersion wavelengths and its application in on-chip octave-spanning supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express20, 1685–1690 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, R. R. Grote, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood, “Width-modulation of Si photonic wires for quasi-phase-matching of four-wave-mixing: experimental and theoretical demonstration,” Opt. Express20, 9227–9242 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Physics Best (1)

A. von Rhein, S. Greulich-Weber, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Multiphysics software gazes into photonic crystals,” Physics Best pp. 38–39 (2007).

Other (6)

J. D. Joannopoulos and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, 2008).

P. Muellner, “Fundamental characteristics of the soi slot waveguide structure,” Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna (2010).

“ www.comsol.com ”.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic Press, 2006).

G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2008).

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, G. Li, V. N. Mahajan, E. V. Stryland, and C. MacDonald, Handbook of Optics: Optical Properties of Materials, Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics (McGraw-Hill Prof Med/Tech, 2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Schematic drawing of the waveguides investigated in this paper. The SOI slot waveguide is infiltrated and surrounded by a layer of the chalcogenide glass As2S3 with a refractive index of 2.34. b) Cross section of the TE-like mode profile of the infiltrated slotted Si waveguide. The inset shows the field intensity along the depicted line

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Figure of merit of such a waveguide. The circle indicates the maximum point of the 1/Aeff plot. At this point the value of the FOM is1.3. b) 1/Aeff as defined in Ref. [5] for constant slot width wslot = 100 nm and varying height hwg and width wwg of a chalcogenide coated slot waveguide. The optimum parameters were found to be hwg = 210 nm and wwg = 420 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Schematic drawing of the investigated waveguide structure with index modulation along the waveguide. In the simulations wslot is set to 100 nm. wwg and hwg are set to the optimized parameters hwg = 210 nm and wwg = 420 nm. The refractive indices of the cladding are varied with periodicity a between n1 and n2 = n1 + 0.05. n1 corresponds to the refractive index of unexposed As2S3 (compare Table 1) and n2 to the index of the exposed As2S3. b) Dispersion of a periodic slot waveguide with lattice constant a = 380 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) GVD parameters for optimized transverse waveguide profile and a lattice constant a varying between a = 300 nm and a = 400 nm. The inset shows the linear dependence of the GVD = 0 wavelength and the period of the index modulation. b) Bandwidth (|ΔβL| < π/2) of the wavelength conversion for different waveguide lengths L. c) GVD parameters for fixed lattice constant a = 340 nm and thickness of the cladding layer Δhwg

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Material parameters used in this work

Equations (11)

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γ = ε 0 μ 0 n 2 ( x , y ) ( ω / c n 2 ( x , y ) + i / 2 β ( x , y ) ) | e | 4 d A | ( e × h * ) z d A | 2 .
A eff = 1 n A s 2 S 3 2 μ 0 ε 0 | ( e × h * ) z d A | 2 D A s 2 S 3 | e | 4 d A .
ω i = 2 ω p ω s
k i = 2 k p k s
ω i = ω p Δ ω
ω s = ω p + Δ ω ,
k i = k p d k d ω | ω p Δ ω + 1 2 d 2 k d ω 2 | ω p Δ ω 2
k s = k p + d k d ω | ω p Δ ω + 1 2 d 2 k d ω 2 | ω p Δ ω 2
d 2 k d ω 2 = 0 .
2 π c λ 2 d 2 k d ω 2 = 2 π c λ 2 ( d ω d k ) 3 d 2 ω d k 2 .
n 0 2 ( λ ) = 1 + i B i λ 2 λ 2 C i

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