Abstract

A maximal enhancement of ~6.5 times of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) for SiNx-based light-emitting devices (LEDs) is achieved by magnetron sputtering a silver nanostructures layer onto the active matrix. The enhancement of EQE is affected by the dimension and morphology of silver nanostructures, which can be controlled by the sputtering time and the post treatment of rapid thermal annealing. The optimal size of silver nanostructures is about 100 nm in diameter by comparing the integrated electroluminescence intensity under the same input power. The optimization of EQE for SiNx-based LEDs is discussed by considering the contributions of the enhancement of light-extraction efficiency induced by the surface roughening of the front electrode, internal quantum efficiency due to the coupling between excitons and localized surface plasmons, and carrier injection efficiency. Our work may provide an alternative approach for the fabrication of Si-based light sources with promising luminescence efficiency.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (7)

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Ze Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Enhancement of light-extraction efficiency of SiNx light emitting devices through a rough Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Cheng, C.-L. Wu, C.-C. Chen, L.-H. Tsai, Y.-H. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Si-rich SixC1-x light-emitting diodes with buried Si quantum dots,” IEEE Photon. J4(5), 1762–1775 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “The coupling between localized surface plasmons and excitons via Purcell effect,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 669 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Li, F. Wang, C. Ren, and D. Yang, “Improved electroluminescence from silicon nitride light emitting devices by localized surface plasmons,” Opt. Mater. Express2(6), 872–877 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, F. Wang, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Electrically tunable electroluminescence from SiNx-based light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express20(16), 17359–17366 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, M. Wang, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon resonance enhanced photoluminescence from SiNx with different N/Si ratios,” Opt. Mater. Express2(10), 1437–1448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (8)

Y. Liu, J. Xu, H. Sun, S. Sun, W. Xu, L. Xu, and K. Chen, “Depth-dependent anti-reflection and enhancement of luminescence from Si quantum dots-based multilayer on nano-patterned Si substrates,” Opt. Express19(4), 3347–3352 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhuang, D. Marpaung, M. Burla, W. Beeker, A. Leinse, and C. Roeloffzen, “Low-loss, high-index-contrast Si₃N₄/SiO₂ optical waveguides for optical delay lines in microwave photonics signal processing,” Opt. Express19(23), 23162–23170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep.498(4–5), 189–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Power efficiency estimation of silicon nanocrystals based light emitting devices in alternating current regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

G. R. Lin, Y. H. Pai, C. T. Lin, and C. C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 263514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Huh, K.-H. Kim, B. K. Kim, W. Kim, H. Ko, C.-J. Choi, and G. Y. Sung, “Enhancement in light emission efficiency of a silicon nanocrystal light-emitting diode by multiple-luminescent structures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(44), 5058–5062 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Kuech and L. J. Mawst, “Nanofabrication of III–V semiconductors employing diblock copolymer lithography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(18), 183001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, “Pulsed pumping of silicon nanocrystal light emitting devices,” Opt. Express18(11), 10924–10930 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, L. Ding, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, S. F. Yu, and W. P. Goh, “Electrically tunable white-color electroluminescence from Si-implanted silicon nitride thin film,” Opt. Express18(19), 20439–20444 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, J.-S. Mun, M.-K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J.-S. Kim, C.-C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the external quantum efficiency of a silicon quantum dot light-emitting diode by localized surface plasmons,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, M. Xie, L. Ferraioli, Z. Yuan, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNX films. I. Room temperature band tail states photoluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNX film. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, and C.-K. Lin, “Enhanced Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effect in nanocrystallite Si based LED with interfacial Si nano-pyramids,” Opt. Express15(5), 2555–2563 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. S. Biteen, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, H. Mertens, and A. Polman, “Spectral tuning of plasmon-enhanced silicon quantum dot luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 131109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, S.-J. Park, N.-M. Park, and G. Y. Sung, “Ni/Au contact to silicon quantum dot light-emitting diodes for the enhancement of carrier injection and light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 063509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Shin, N.-M. Park, C. Huh, T.-Y. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. C. Hong, and G. Y. Sung, “Enhancement of light extraction from a silicon quantum dot light-emitting diode containing a rugged surface pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(19), 191120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. S. Biteen, D. Pacifici, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced radiative emission rate and quantum efficiency in coupled silicon nanocrystal-nanostructured gold emitters,” Nano Lett.5(9), 1768–1773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

N.-M. Park, C.-J. Choi, T.-Y. Seong, and S.-J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

G. Aberle, “Surface passivation of crystalline silicon solar cells: a review,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.8(5), 473–487 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

R. T. Tung, “Electron transport at metal-semiconductor interfaces: General theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter45(23), 13509–13523 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

H. J. Stein, “Thermally annealed silicon nitride films: Electrical characteristics and radiation effects,” J. Appl. Phys.57(6), 2040–2047 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. Robertson and M. J. Powell, “Gap states in silicon-nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.44(4), 415–417 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aberle, G.

G. Aberle, “Surface passivation of crystalline silicon solar cells: a review,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.8(5), 473–487 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anopchenko, A.

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Power efficiency estimation of silicon nanocrystals based light emitting devices in alternating current regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNX film. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. S. Biteen, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, H. Mertens, and A. Polman, “Spectral tuning of plasmon-enhanced silicon quantum dot luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 131109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Biteen, D. Pacifici, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced radiative emission rate and quantum efficiency in coupled silicon nanocrystal-nanostructured gold emitters,” Nano Lett.5(9), 1768–1773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beeker, W.

Biteen, J. S.

J. S. Biteen, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, H. Mertens, and A. Polman, “Spectral tuning of plasmon-enhanced silicon quantum dot luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 131109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Biteen, D. Pacifici, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced radiative emission rate and quantum efficiency in coupled silicon nanocrystal-nanostructured gold emitters,” Nano Lett.5(9), 1768–1773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourianoff, G. I.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burla, M.

Byeon, C.-C.

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, J.-S. Mun, M.-K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J.-S. Kim, C.-C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the external quantum efficiency of a silicon quantum dot light-emitting diode by localized surface plasmons,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cen, Z. H.

Chen, C. C.

G. R. Lin, Y. H. Pai, C. T. Lin, and C. C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 263514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

C.-H. Cheng, C.-L. Wu, C.-C. Chen, L.-H. Tsai, Y.-H. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Si-rich SixC1-x light-emitting diodes with buried Si quantum dots,” IEEE Photon. J4(5), 1762–1775 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

Chen, T. P.

Cheng, C.-H.

C.-H. Cheng, C.-L. Wu, C.-C. Chen, L.-H. Tsai, Y.-H. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Si-rich SixC1-x light-emitting diodes with buried Si quantum dots,” IEEE Photon. J4(5), 1762–1775 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.-H.

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, J.-S. Mun, M.-K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J.-S. Kim, C.-C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the external quantum efficiency of a silicon quantum dot light-emitting diode by localized surface plasmons,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, S.-J. Park, N.-M. Park, and G. Y. Sung, “Ni/Au contact to silicon quantum dot light-emitting diodes for the enhancement of carrier injection and light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 063509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, K.-S.

K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Shin, N.-M. Park, C. Huh, T.-Y. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. C. Hong, and G. Y. Sung, “Enhancement of light extraction from a silicon quantum dot light-emitting diode containing a rugged surface pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(19), 191120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.-J.

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Kim, B. K.

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K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Shin, N.-M. Park, C. Huh, T.-Y. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. C. Hong, and G. Y. Sung, “Enhancement of light extraction from a silicon quantum dot light-emitting diode containing a rugged surface pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(19), 191120 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, J.-S. Mun, M.-K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J.-S. Kim, C.-C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the external quantum efficiency of a silicon quantum dot light-emitting diode by localized surface plasmons,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
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J. S. Biteen, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, H. Mertens, and A. Polman, “Spectral tuning of plasmon-enhanced silicon quantum dot luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 131109 (2006).
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F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Enhancement of light-extraction efficiency of SiNx light emitting devices through a rough Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(3), 031113 (2012).
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F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “The coupling between localized surface plasmons and excitons via Purcell effect,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 669 (2012).
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M. Wang, M. Xie, L. Ferraioli, Z. Yuan, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNX films. I. Room temperature band tail states photoluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083504 (2008).
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M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNX film. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083505 (2008).
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X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 489–499 (2011).
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C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
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G. R. Lin, Y. H. Pai, C. T. Lin, and C. C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 263514 (2010).
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Liu, Z.

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C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
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Mawst, L. J.

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Kuech and L. J. Mawst, “Nanofabrication of III–V semiconductors employing diblock copolymer lithography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(18), 183001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. S. Biteen, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, H. Mertens, and A. Polman, “Spectral tuning of plasmon-enhanced silicon quantum dot luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 131109 (2006).
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Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
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B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, J.-S. Mun, M.-K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J.-S. Kim, C.-C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the external quantum efficiency of a silicon quantum dot light-emitting diode by localized surface plasmons,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
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Nam, D.

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Ze Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
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K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
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K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
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K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. S. Biteen, D. Pacifici, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced radiative emission rate and quantum efficiency in coupled silicon nanocrystal-nanostructured gold emitters,” Nano Lett.5(9), 1768–1773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pai, Y. H.

G. R. Lin, Y. H. Pai, C. T. Lin, and C. C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 263514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Shin, N.-M. Park, C. Huh, T.-Y. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. C. Hong, and G. Y. Sung, “Enhancement of light extraction from a silicon quantum dot light-emitting diode containing a rugged surface pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(19), 191120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, S.-J. Park, N.-M. Park, and G. Y. Sung, “Ni/Au contact to silicon quantum dot light-emitting diodes for the enhancement of carrier injection and light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 063509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N.-M. Park, C.-J. Choi, T.-Y. Seong, and S.-J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S.-J.

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, J.-S. Mun, M.-K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J.-S. Kim, C.-C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the external quantum efficiency of a silicon quantum dot light-emitting diode by localized surface plasmons,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, S.-J. Park, N.-M. Park, and G. Y. Sung, “Ni/Au contact to silicon quantum dot light-emitting diodes for the enhancement of carrier injection and light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 063509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N.-M. Park, C.-J. Choi, T.-Y. Seong, and S.-J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, T.-Y.

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, J.-S. Mun, M.-K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J.-S. Kim, C.-C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the external quantum efficiency of a silicon quantum dot light-emitting diode by localized surface plasmons,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Power efficiency estimation of silicon nanocrystals based light emitting devices in alternating current regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNX film. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, M. Xie, L. Ferraioli, Z. Yuan, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNX films. I. Room temperature band tail states photoluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

J. S. Biteen, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, H. Mertens, and A. Polman, “Spectral tuning of plasmon-enhanced silicon quantum dot luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 131109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. Robertson and M. J. Powell, “Gap states in silicon-nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.44(4), 415–417 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

Pucker, G.

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Power efficiency estimation of silicon nanocrystals based light emitting devices in alternating current regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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D. Li, F. Wang, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Electrically tunable electroluminescence from SiNx-based light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express20(16), 17359–17366 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Enhancement of light-extraction efficiency of SiNx light emitting devices through a rough Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “The coupling between localized surface plasmons and excitons via Purcell effect,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 669 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Enhancement of orange-yellow electroluminescence extraction from SiNx light-emitting devices by silver nanostructures,” Opt. Express. in progress.

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Ren, C.

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Rohatgi, A.

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B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Ze Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N.-M. Park, C.-J. Choi, T.-Y. Seong, and S.-J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Shin, N.-M. Park, C. Huh, T.-Y. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. C. Hong, and G. Y. Sung, “Enhancement of light extraction from a silicon quantum dot light-emitting diode containing a rugged surface pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(19), 191120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, R.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stein, H. J.

H. J. Stein, “Thermally annealed silicon nitride films: Electrical characteristics and radiation effects,” J. Appl. Phys.57(6), 2040–2047 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sukhdeo, D. S.

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Ze Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

Sun, S.

Sun, X.

Sung, G. Y.

C. Huh, K.-H. Kim, B. K. Kim, W. Kim, H. Ko, C.-J. Choi, and G. Y. Sung, “Enhancement in light emission efficiency of a silicon nanocrystal light-emitting diode by multiple-luminescent structures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(44), 5058–5062 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Shin, N.-M. Park, C. Huh, T.-Y. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. C. Hong, and G. Y. Sung, “Enhancement of light extraction from a silicon quantum dot light-emitting diode containing a rugged surface pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(19), 191120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, S.-J. Park, N.-M. Park, and G. Y. Sung, “Ni/Au contact to silicon quantum dot light-emitting diodes for the enhancement of carrier injection and light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 063509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tong, H.

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, L.-H.

C.-H. Cheng, C.-L. Wu, C.-C. Chen, L.-H. Tsai, Y.-H. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Si-rich SixC1-x light-emitting diodes with buried Si quantum dots,” IEEE Photon. J4(5), 1762–1775 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tung, R. T.

R. T. Tung, “Electron transport at metal-semiconductor interfaces: General theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter45(23), 13509–13523 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vulovic, B. M.

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Ze Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “The coupling between localized surface plasmons and excitons via Purcell effect,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 669 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Enhancement of light-extraction efficiency of SiNx light emitting devices through a rough Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, F. Wang, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Electrically tunable electroluminescence from SiNx-based light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express20(16), 17359–17366 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Li, F. Wang, C. Ren, and D. Yang, “Improved electroluminescence from silicon nitride light emitting devices by localized surface plasmons,” Opt. Mater. Express2(6), 872–877 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, M. Wang, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon resonance enhanced photoluminescence from SiNx with different N/Si ratios,” Opt. Mater. Express2(10), 1437–1448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Enhancement of orange-yellow electroluminescence extraction from SiNx light-emitting devices by silver nanostructures,” Opt. Express. in progress.

Wang, M.

F. Wang, M. Wang, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon resonance enhanced photoluminescence from SiNx with different N/Si ratios,” Opt. Mater. Express2(10), 1437–1448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNX film. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, M. Xie, L. Ferraioli, Z. Yuan, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNX films. I. Room temperature band tail states photoluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wong, J. I.

Wu, C.-L.

C.-H. Cheng, C.-L. Wu, C.-C. Chen, L.-H. Tsai, Y.-H. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Si-rich SixC1-x light-emitting diodes with buried Si quantum dots,” IEEE Photon. J4(5), 1762–1775 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xie, M.

M. Wang, M. Xie, L. Ferraioli, Z. Yuan, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNX films. I. Room temperature band tail states photoluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Xu, L.

Xu, W.

Yang, D.

F. Wang, M. Wang, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon resonance enhanced photoluminescence from SiNx with different N/Si ratios,” Opt. Mater. Express2(10), 1437–1448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Enhancement of light-extraction efficiency of SiNx light emitting devices through a rough Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “The coupling between localized surface plasmons and excitons via Purcell effect,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 669 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Li, F. Wang, C. Ren, and D. Yang, “Improved electroluminescence from silicon nitride light emitting devices by localized surface plasmons,” Opt. Mater. Express2(6), 872–877 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, F. Wang, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Electrically tunable electroluminescence from SiNx-based light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express20(16), 17359–17366 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Li, J. Huang, and D. Yang, “Enhanced electroluminescence of silicon-rich silicon nitride light-emitting devices by NH3 plasma and annealing treatment,” Physica E41(6), 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, M. Xie, L. Ferraioli, Z. Yuan, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNX films. I. Room temperature band tail states photoluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNX film. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Enhancement of orange-yellow electroluminescence extraction from SiNx light-emitting devices by silver nanostructures,” Opt. Express. in progress.

Yang, M.

Yu, S. F.

Yuan, Z.

M. Wang, M. Xie, L. Ferraioli, Z. Yuan, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNX films. I. Room temperature band tail states photoluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNX film. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ze Yuan,

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Ze Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhmakin, A. I.

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep.498(4–5), 189–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, L.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

C. Huh, K.-H. Kim, B. K. Kim, W. Kim, H. Ko, C.-J. Choi, and G. Y. Sung, “Enhancement in light emission efficiency of a silicon nanocrystal light-emitting diode by multiple-luminescent structures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(44), 5058–5062 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, J.-S. Mun, M.-K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J.-S. Kim, C.-C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the external quantum efficiency of a silicon quantum dot light-emitting diode by localized surface plasmons,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

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Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, S.-J. Park, N.-M. Park, and G. Y. Sung, “Ni/Au contact to silicon quantum dot light-emitting diodes for the enhancement of carrier injection and light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 063509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Shin, N.-M. Park, C. Huh, T.-Y. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. C. Hong, and G. Y. Sung, “Enhancement of light extraction from a silicon quantum dot light-emitting diode containing a rugged surface pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(19), 191120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Lin, Y. H. Pai, C. T. Lin, and C. C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 263514 (2010).
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J. S. Biteen, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, H. Mertens, and A. Polman, “Spectral tuning of plasmon-enhanced silicon quantum dot luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 131109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Enhancement of light-extraction efficiency of SiNx light emitting devices through a rough Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Power efficiency estimation of silicon nanocrystals based light emitting devices in alternating current regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J (2)

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Ze Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Cheng, C.-L. Wu, C.-C. Chen, L.-H. Tsai, Y.-H. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Si-rich SixC1-x light-emitting diodes with buried Si quantum dots,” IEEE Photon. J4(5), 1762–1775 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

M. Wang, M. Xie, L. Ferraioli, Z. Yuan, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNX films. I. Room temperature band tail states photoluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNX film. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Stein, “Thermally annealed silicon nitride films: Electrical characteristics and radiation effects,” J. Appl. Phys.57(6), 2040–2047 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

T. F. Kuech and L. J. Mawst, “Nanofabrication of III–V semiconductors employing diblock copolymer lithography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(18), 183001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. S. Biteen, D. Pacifici, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced radiative emission rate and quantum efficiency in coupled silicon nanocrystal-nanostructured gold emitters,” Nano Lett.5(9), 1768–1773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (2)

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “The coupling between localized surface plasmons and excitons via Purcell effect,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 669 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
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Nature (1)

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Opt. Express (8)

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, and C.-K. Lin, “Enhanced Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effect in nanocrystallite Si based LED with interfacial Si nano-pyramids,” Opt. Express15(5), 2555–2563 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Enhancement of orange-yellow electroluminescence extraction from SiNx light-emitting devices by silver nanostructures,” Opt. Express. in progress.

D. Li, F. Wang, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Electrically tunable electroluminescence from SiNx-based light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express20(16), 17359–17366 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, “Pulsed pumping of silicon nanocrystal light emitting devices,” Opt. Express18(11), 10924–10930 (2010).
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Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, L. Ding, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, S. F. Yu, and W. P. Goh, “Electrically tunable white-color electroluminescence from Si-implanted silicon nitride thin film,” Opt. Express18(19), 20439–20444 (2010).
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Y. Liu, J. Xu, H. Sun, S. Sun, W. Xu, L. Xu, and K. Chen, “Depth-dependent anti-reflection and enhancement of luminescence from Si quantum dots-based multilayer on nano-patterned Si substrates,” Opt. Express19(4), 3347–3352 (2011).
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L. Zhuang, D. Marpaung, M. Burla, W. Beeker, A. Leinse, and C. Roeloffzen, “Low-loss, high-index-contrast Si₃N₄/SiO₂ optical waveguides for optical delay lines in microwave photonics signal processing,” Opt. Express19(23), 23162–23170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep.498(4–5), 189–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

R. T. Tung, “Electron transport at metal-semiconductor interfaces: General theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter45(23), 13509–13523 (1992).
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N.-M. Park, C.-J. Choi, T.-Y. Seong, and S.-J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
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Physica E (1)

D. Li, J. Huang, and D. Yang, “Enhanced electroluminescence of silicon-rich silicon nitride light-emitting devices by NH3 plasma and annealing treatment,” Physica E41(6), 920–922 (2009).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication process diagrams of the SiNx-based LEDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)-(d) SEM images and (e)-(h) the size distributions of Ag nanostructures with sputtering time (a) and (e) 20 s, (b) and (f) 40 s, (c) and (g) 60 s, and (d) and (h) 80 s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extinction spectra of Ag nanostructures with different sputtering time.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

EL spectra of SiNx-based LEDs for (a) Ag0, (c) Ag40, and (e) Ag80 measured at different injected current. Their Gauss fittings are also provided on the right side, (b) for Ag0, (d) for Ag40, and (f) for Ag80.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Integrated EL intensity of the devices with different sputtering times of Ag nanostructures layer vs. the input power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Enhancement factor of the integrated PL intensity for Ag20-Ag80 comparing to Ag0, (b) EL and PL enhancement factor for Ag40, and (c) The surface coverage of Ag nanostructures (left axis) and the average distance between Ag nanostructures (right axis) for Ag20-Ag80 with the model for this calculation inset.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

AFM images of ITO for (a) Ag0, (b) Ag40, and (c) Ag80.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Current density (J) vs. applied voltage (V) plot for Ag0-Ag80 with the values of J for Ag0, Ag60, and Ag80 multiplied by 10 times.

Equations (1)

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η s =π [ r/(d+2r) ] 2

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