Abstract

Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) have separately demonstrated high efficiency, low noise, and extremely high speed when detecting single photons. However, achieving all of these simultaneously has been limited by detector subtleties and tradeoffs. Here, we report an SNSPD system with <80 ps timing resolution, kHz noise count rates, and 76% fiber-coupled system detection efficiency in the low-flux limit at 1550 nm. We present a model for determining the detection efficiency penalty due to the detection recovery time, and we validate our method using experimental data obtained at high count rates. We demonstrate improved performance tradeoffs, such as 68% system detection efficiency, including losses due to detector recovery time, when coupled to a Poisson source emitting 100 million photons per second. Our system can provide limited photon number resolution, continuous cryogen-free operation, and scalability to future imaging and GHz-count-rate applications.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys.8(4), 285–291 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Orrit and J. Bernard, “Single pentacene molecules detected by fluorescence excitation in a p-terphenyl crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(21), 2716–2719 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Hemmati, A. Biswas, and D. M. Boroson, “Prospects for Improvement of Interplanetary Laser Communication Data Rates by 30 dB,” Proc. IEEE95(10), 2082–2092 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, K. Amemiya, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Titanium-based transition-edge photon number resolving detector with 98% detection efficiency with index-matched small-gap fiber coupling,” Opt. Express19(2), 870–875 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, F. Zappa, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “High performance silicon single-photon avalanche diode array,” Proc. SPIE7320, 73200H, 73200H-12 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. J. Kerman, D. Rosenberg, and E. A. Dauler, (submitted).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B79(10), 100509 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys.8(4), 285–291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.25(6), 063001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, K. Amemiya, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Titanium-based transition-edge photon number resolving detector with 98% detection efficiency with index-matched small-gap fiber coupling,” Opt. Express19(2), 870–875 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, F. Zappa, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “High performance silicon single-photon avalanche diode array,” Proc. SPIE7320, 73200H, 73200H-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (6)

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hemmati, A. Biswas, and D. M. Boroson, “Prospects for Improvement of Interplanetary Laser Communication Data Rates by 30 dB,” Proc. IEEE95(10), 2082–2092 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Aspect, “Bell’s inequality test: more ideal than ever,” Nature398(6724), 189–190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, “Single pentacene molecules detected by fluorescence excitation in a p-terphenyl crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(21), 2716–2719 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acín, A.

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amemiya, K.

Anant, V.

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Annunziata, A. J.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

A. Aspect, “Bell’s inequality test: more ideal than ever,” Nature398(6724), 189–190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aspuru-Guzik, A.

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys.8(4), 285–291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aull, B. F.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aversa, J. C.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baek, B.

B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bellei, F.

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berggren, K. K.

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, J.

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, “Single pentacene molecules detected by fluorescence excitation in a p-terphenyl crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(21), 2716–2719 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biswas, A.

H. Hemmati, A. Biswas, and D. M. Boroson, “Prospects for Improvement of Interplanetary Laser Communication Data Rates by 30 dB,” Proc. IEEE95(10), 2082–2092 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boroson, D. M.

H. Hemmati, A. Biswas, and D. M. Boroson, “Prospects for Improvement of Interplanetary Laser Communication Data Rates by 30 dB,” Proc. IEEE95(10), 2082–2092 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, N.

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casaburi, A.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, D. C.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, F. Zappa, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “High performance silicon single-photon avalanche diode array,” Proc. SPIE7320, 73200H, 73200H-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cristiano, R.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Csete, M.

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dauler, E.

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dauler, E. A.

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, D. Rosenberg, and E. A. Dauler, (submitted).

Donnelly, J. P.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duerr, E. K.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ejrnaes, M.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frunzio, L.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frydman, A.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, G.

Fujino, H.

Fujiwara, M.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, D.

Funk, J. E.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaggero, A.

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, F. Zappa, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “High performance silicon single-photon avalanche diode array,” Proc. SPIE7320, 73200H, 73200H-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glettler, J. B.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gol’tsman, G.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gol’tsman, G. N.

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gulinatti, A.

I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, F. Zappa, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “High performance silicon single-photon avalanche diode array,” Proc. SPIE7320, 73200H, 73200H-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.25(6), 063001 (2012).
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Hamilton, S. A.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
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H. Hemmati, A. Biswas, and D. M. Boroson, “Prospects for Improvement of Interplanetary Laser Communication Data Rates by 30 dB,” Proc. IEEE95(10), 2082–2092 (2007).
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S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
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Inoue, S.

Ishii, H.

Itatani, T.

Jensen, K. E.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keicher, W. E.

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kerman, A. J.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
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J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
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A. J. Kerman, D. Rosenberg, and E. A. Dauler, (submitted).

Leoni, R.

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liau, Z. L.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lita, A. E.

B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mahan, J. M.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mahoney, L. J.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, S.

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marsili, F.

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massar, S.

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattioli, F.

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, K. A.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miki, S.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Molnar, R. J.

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Molvar, K. M.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, F.

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, S.

B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, C. M.

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.25(6), 063001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Numata, T.

O¿Donnell, F. J.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oakley, D. C.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
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S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pagano, S.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pironio, S.

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prober, D. E.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, W.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quaranta, O.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rech, I.

I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, F. Zappa, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “High performance silicon single-photon avalanche diode array,” Proc. SPIE7320, 73200H, 73200H-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Renzi, M. J.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. S.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, D.

A. J. Kerman, D. Rosenberg, and E. A. Dauler, (submitted).

Rosfjord, K. M.

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Santavicca, D. F.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scarani, V.

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaver, D. C.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. M.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, M. G.

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.25(6), 063001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, H.

Tyrrell, B. M.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verghese, S.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verma, V.

B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vineis, C. J.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B. M.

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Walther, P.

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys.8(4), 285–291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. K. W.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshizawa, A.

Zama, T.

Zappa, F.

I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, F. Zappa, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “High performance silicon single-photon avalanche diode array,” Proc. SPIE7320, 73200H, 73200H-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (1)

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys.8(4), 285–291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Aspect, “Bell’s inequality test: more ideal than ever,” Nature398(6724), 189–190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, “Single pentacene molecules detected by fluorescence excitation in a p-terphenyl crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(21), 2716–2719 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. Hemmati, A. Biswas, and D. M. Boroson, “Prospects for Improvement of Interplanetary Laser Communication Data Rates by 30 dB,” Proc. IEEE95(10), 2082–2092 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, F. Zappa, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “High performance silicon single-photon avalanche diode array,” Proc. SPIE7320, 73200H, 73200H-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Supercond. Sci. Technol. (2)

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.25(6), 063001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. J. Kerman, D. Rosenberg, and E. A. Dauler, (submitted).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Total system detection efficiency summed over all four detector channels. Variations of efficiency between devices were minimal, so only the sum is shown for clarity. The system detection efficiency exhibits a weak saturation near the critical current, implying high internal detection efficiency (note that this saturation is visible with the detection efficiency plotted on a linear scale). (b) Dark count rate. The color lines indicate the dark count rate per device, and the heavy black line is the total dark count rate summed over the four channels. The dark count rate decreases quickly away from the critical current, and then displays a weaker bias-current dependence at lower currents. This behavior was also observed in [19], where the weaker dependence at lower currents arises from the fact that in this regime the “dark” count rate is dominated by background photons rather than true dark counts. (c) Timing resolution as a function of bias current, for each of the four channels. The line colors correspond to the same detector channels as for part (b) of the figure. The timing jitter degrades as the bias current is lowered, which may be due to either a change in the timescales governing destruction of the superconducting state or the lower signal-to-noise ratio, or both. Variations in one or both of these is likely responsible for the difference in jitter between different channels. The inset shows a histogram of the electrical pulse arrival time relative to the optical pulse, for one of the devices, where the absolute value on the horizontal axis has been (arbitrarily) centered on the measured distribution.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detection efficiency recovery following a detection event at t = 0. At time t = nδt, the efficiency is defined as εn. At long times, the detector efficiency recovers to its baseline value ε0.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effects of reset time on detector performance at high count rate. The left-hand axis displays the sum of the count rates across the four detector channels, and the right-hand axis shows the (average) effective extra loss due to the reset time for a Poissonian source.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R obs = R in ε (1-R obs τ dead )
p( ε n )=p( ε n1 )×(1 R in ε n δt).
R obs = R in ε 0 R in n=1 N ( ε 0 ε n )p( ε n ) ,
p( ε n )=p( ε n1 )×(1( R in ε n + R dark ( ε n ))×δt)
R obs = R in ε 0 + R dark ( ε 0 ) n=1 N [R in ( ε 0 ε n )+ R dark ( ε 0 ) R dark ( ε n )]p( ε n ) .

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