Abstract

We present two types of Si photonics-wireless interface (PWI) integrated circuits (ICs) realized in standard Si technology. Our PWI ICs convert optical signals into radio-frequency (RF) signals for downlink remote antenna units in fiber-wireless networks. Characterization and modeling of Si avalanche photodetectors (APDs) fabricated in two different Si technologies are carried out and used for PWI IC design. A 5-GHz RF-over-fiber PWI IC composed of APD, preamplifier, and power amplifier (PA) is fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS technology and its performance is verified by 54-Mb/s wireless local area network data transmission. A 60-GHz baseband-over-fiber PWI IC containing APD, baseband photoreceiver, 60-GHz binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulator, and 60-GHz PA is realized in 0.25-μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. Error-free transmission of 1.6-Gb/s BPSK data in 60 GHz with this PWI IC is successfully achieved.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 319–330 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. J. Gomes, A. Nkansah, and D. Wake, “Radio-over-MMF techniques—part I: RF to microwave frequency systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(15), 2388–2395 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. M. J. Koonen and M. G. Larrodé, “Radio-over-MMF techniques—part II: microwave to millimeter-wave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(15), 2396–2408 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, M. Bakaul, P. Gamage, K.-L. Lee, Y. Yang, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Fiber-wireless networks and subsystem technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 390–405 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Maier, N. Ghazisaidi, and M. Reisslein, “The audacity of fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks,” in Proceedings of ICST International Conference on Access Networks (AccessNets) (ICST, 2008), pp. 16–35.
  6. L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40 Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J. F. Damlencourt, and Y. Lecunff, “42 GHz waveguide germanium-on-silicon vertical PIN photodetector,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE 5th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 185–187.
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated 40GHz germanium waveguide photodetector for on-chip optical interconnects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2009), paper OMR4.
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Seok, D. Shim, C. Mao, R. Han, S. Sankaran, C. Cao, W. Knap, and K. O. Kenneth, “Progress and challenges towards terahertz CMOS integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(8), 1554–1564 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Ko, J.-Y. Kim, M.-J. Lee, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “A silicon balanced subharmonic optoelectronic mixer for 60-GHz fiber-wireless downlink application,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1805–1807 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Ko, J.-M. Lee, M.-J. Lee, and W.-Y. Choi, “A 5-GHz CMOS integrated radio-over-fiber receiver,” presented at the 8th Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (APMP 2013), Gwangju, Korea, 22–24 Apr. 2013.
  14. M. Ko, J.-S. Youn, M.-J. Lee, K.-C. Choi, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “Silicon photonics-wireless interface IC for 60-GHz wireless link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(13), 1112–1114 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M.-J. Lee and W.-Y. Choi, “Area-dependent photodetection frequency response characterization of silicon avalanche photodetectors fabricated with standard CMOS technology,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.60(3), 998–1004 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J.-S. Youn, M.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Park, W.-Y. Choi, and H. Rücker, “Bit-error rate analysis of integrated optoelectronic receiver,” in Proceedings of Photonics Global Conference (PGC) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
    [CrossRef]
  17. M.-J. Lee, H.-S. Kang, and W.-Y. Choi, “Equivalent circuit model for Si avalanche photodetectors fabricated in standard CMOS process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(10), 1115–1117 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Leven, R. Reuter, and Y. Baeyens, “Unified analytical expressions for transimpedance and equivalent input noise current of optical receivers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.48(10), 1701–1706 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Heinemann, R. Barth, D. Knoll, H. Rücker, B. Tillack, and W. Winkler, “High-performance BiCMOS technologies without epitaxially-buried subcollectors and deep trenches,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(1), S153–S157 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. S. Sahota and C. J. Persico, “High dynamic range variable-gain amplifier for CDMA wireless applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 1997), pp. 374–375.
    [CrossRef]
  21. K.-C. Choi, M. Ko, D. Kim, and W.-Y. Choi, “Demonstration of 60-GHz link using a 1.6-Gb/s mixed-mode BPSK demodulator,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E93-C(12), 1704–1707 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

M.-J. Lee and W.-Y. Choi, “Area-dependent photodetection frequency response characterization of silicon avalanche photodetectors fabricated with standard CMOS technology,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.60(3), 998–1004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

M. Ko, J.-S. Youn, M.-J. Lee, K.-C. Choi, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “Silicon photonics-wireless interface IC for 60-GHz wireless link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(13), 1112–1114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

M. Ko, J.-Y. Kim, M.-J. Lee, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “A silicon balanced subharmonic optoelectronic mixer for 60-GHz fiber-wireless downlink application,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1805–1807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

E. Seok, D. Shim, C. Mao, R. Han, S. Sankaran, C. Cao, W. Knap, and K. O. Kenneth, “Progress and challenges towards terahertz CMOS integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(8), 1554–1564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-C. Choi, M. Ko, D. Kim, and W.-Y. Choi, “Demonstration of 60-GHz link using a 1.6-Gb/s mixed-mode BPSK demodulator,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E93-C(12), 1704–1707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, M. Bakaul, P. Gamage, K.-L. Lee, Y. Yang, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Fiber-wireless networks and subsystem technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 390–405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

B. Heinemann, R. Barth, D. Knoll, H. Rücker, B. Tillack, and W. Winkler, “High-performance BiCMOS technologies without epitaxially-buried subcollectors and deep trenches,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(1), S153–S157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Leven, R. Reuter, and Y. Baeyens, “Unified analytical expressions for transimpedance and equivalent input noise current of optical receivers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.48(10), 1701–1706 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baeyens, Y.

A. Leven, R. Reuter, and Y. Baeyens, “Unified analytical expressions for transimpedance and equivalent input noise current of optical receivers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.48(10), 1701–1706 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bakaul, M.

Barth, R.

B. Heinemann, R. Barth, D. Knoll, H. Rücker, B. Tillack, and W. Winkler, “High-performance BiCMOS technologies without epitaxially-buried subcollectors and deep trenches,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(1), S153–S157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, C.

E. Seok, D. Shim, C. Mao, R. Han, S. Sankaran, C. Cao, W. Knap, and K. O. Kenneth, “Progress and challenges towards terahertz CMOS integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(8), 1554–1564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J. F. Damlencourt, and Y. Lecunff, “42 GHz waveguide germanium-on-silicon vertical PIN photodetector,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE 5th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 185–187.
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K.-C.

M. Ko, J.-S. Youn, M.-J. Lee, K.-C. Choi, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “Silicon photonics-wireless interface IC for 60-GHz wireless link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(13), 1112–1114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K.-C. Choi, M. Ko, D. Kim, and W.-Y. Choi, “Demonstration of 60-GHz link using a 1.6-Gb/s mixed-mode BPSK demodulator,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E93-C(12), 1704–1707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W.-Y.

M.-J. Lee and W.-Y. Choi, “Area-dependent photodetection frequency response characterization of silicon avalanche photodetectors fabricated with standard CMOS technology,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.60(3), 998–1004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Ko, J.-S. Youn, M.-J. Lee, K.-C. Choi, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “Silicon photonics-wireless interface IC for 60-GHz wireless link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(13), 1112–1114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ko, J.-Y. Kim, M.-J. Lee, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “A silicon balanced subharmonic optoelectronic mixer for 60-GHz fiber-wireless downlink application,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1805–1807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-C. Choi, M. Ko, D. Kim, and W.-Y. Choi, “Demonstration of 60-GHz link using a 1.6-Gb/s mixed-mode BPSK demodulator,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E93-C(12), 1704–1707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-J. Lee, H.-S. Kang, and W.-Y. Choi, “Equivalent circuit model for Si avalanche photodetectors fabricated in standard CMOS process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(10), 1115–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Youn, M.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Park, W.-Y. Choi, and H. Rücker, “Bit-error rate analysis of integrated optoelectronic receiver,” in Proceedings of Photonics Global Conference (PGC) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J. F. Damlencourt, and Y. Lecunff, “42 GHz waveguide germanium-on-silicon vertical PIN photodetector,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE 5th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 185–187.
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40 Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Damlencourt, J. F.

L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J. F. Damlencourt, and Y. Lecunff, “42 GHz waveguide germanium-on-silicon vertical PIN photodetector,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE 5th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 185–187.
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J.-M.

L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J. F. Damlencourt, and Y. Lecunff, “42 GHz waveguide germanium-on-silicon vertical PIN photodetector,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE 5th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 185–187.
[CrossRef]

Gamage, P.

Ghazisaidi, N.

M. Maier, N. Ghazisaidi, and M. Reisslein, “The audacity of fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks,” in Proceedings of ICST International Conference on Access Networks (AccessNets) (ICST, 2008), pp. 16–35.

Gomes, N. J.

Han, R.

E. Seok, D. Shim, C. Mao, R. Han, S. Sankaran, C. Cao, W. Knap, and K. O. Kenneth, “Progress and challenges towards terahertz CMOS integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(8), 1554–1564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heinemann, B.

B. Heinemann, R. Barth, D. Knoll, H. Rücker, B. Tillack, and W. Winkler, “High-performance BiCMOS technologies without epitaxially-buried subcollectors and deep trenches,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(1), S153–S157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.-S.

M.-J. Lee, H.-S. Kang, and W.-Y. Choi, “Equivalent circuit model for Si avalanche photodetectors fabricated in standard CMOS process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(10), 1115–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kenneth, K. O.

E. Seok, D. Shim, C. Mao, R. Han, S. Sankaran, C. Cao, W. Knap, and K. O. Kenneth, “Progress and challenges towards terahertz CMOS integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(8), 1554–1564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

K.-C. Choi, M. Ko, D. Kim, and W.-Y. Choi, “Demonstration of 60-GHz link using a 1.6-Gb/s mixed-mode BPSK demodulator,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E93-C(12), 1704–1707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-Y.

M. Ko, J.-Y. Kim, M.-J. Lee, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “A silicon balanced subharmonic optoelectronic mixer for 60-GHz fiber-wireless downlink application,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1805–1807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Knap, W.

E. Seok, D. Shim, C. Mao, R. Han, S. Sankaran, C. Cao, W. Knap, and K. O. Kenneth, “Progress and challenges towards terahertz CMOS integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(8), 1554–1564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, D.

B. Heinemann, R. Barth, D. Knoll, H. Rücker, B. Tillack, and W. Winkler, “High-performance BiCMOS technologies without epitaxially-buried subcollectors and deep trenches,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(1), S153–S157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ko, M.

M. Ko, J.-S. Youn, M.-J. Lee, K.-C. Choi, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “Silicon photonics-wireless interface IC for 60-GHz wireless link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(13), 1112–1114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ko, J.-Y. Kim, M.-J. Lee, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “A silicon balanced subharmonic optoelectronic mixer for 60-GHz fiber-wireless downlink application,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1805–1807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-C. Choi, M. Ko, D. Kim, and W.-Y. Choi, “Demonstration of 60-GHz link using a 1.6-Gb/s mixed-mode BPSK demodulator,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E93-C(12), 1704–1707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koonen, A. M. J.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40 Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Larrodé, M. G.

Laval, S.

L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J. F. Damlencourt, and Y. Lecunff, “42 GHz waveguide germanium-on-silicon vertical PIN photodetector,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE 5th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 185–187.
[CrossRef]

Lecunff, Y.

L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J. F. Damlencourt, and Y. Lecunff, “42 GHz waveguide germanium-on-silicon vertical PIN photodetector,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE 5th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 185–187.
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-L.

Lee, M.-J.

M.-J. Lee and W.-Y. Choi, “Area-dependent photodetection frequency response characterization of silicon avalanche photodetectors fabricated with standard CMOS technology,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.60(3), 998–1004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Ko, J.-S. Youn, M.-J. Lee, K.-C. Choi, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “Silicon photonics-wireless interface IC for 60-GHz wireless link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(13), 1112–1114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ko, J.-Y. Kim, M.-J. Lee, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “A silicon balanced subharmonic optoelectronic mixer for 60-GHz fiber-wireless downlink application,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1805–1807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M.-J. Lee, H.-S. Kang, and W.-Y. Choi, “Equivalent circuit model for Si avalanche photodetectors fabricated in standard CMOS process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(10), 1115–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Youn, M.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Park, W.-Y. Choi, and H. Rücker, “Bit-error rate analysis of integrated optoelectronic receiver,” in Proceedings of Photonics Global Conference (PGC) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Leven, A.

A. Leven, R. Reuter, and Y. Baeyens, “Unified analytical expressions for transimpedance and equivalent input noise current of optical receivers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.48(10), 1701–1706 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40 Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40 Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Maier, M.

M. Maier, N. Ghazisaidi, and M. Reisslein, “The audacity of fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks,” in Proceedings of ICST International Conference on Access Networks (AccessNets) (ICST, 2008), pp. 16–35.

Mangeney, J.

L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J. F. Damlencourt, and Y. Lecunff, “42 GHz waveguide germanium-on-silicon vertical PIN photodetector,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE 5th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 185–187.
[CrossRef]

Mao, C.

E. Seok, D. Shim, C. Mao, R. Han, S. Sankaran, C. Cao, W. Knap, and K. O. Kenneth, “Progress and challenges towards terahertz CMOS integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(8), 1554–1564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J. F. Damlencourt, and Y. Lecunff, “42 GHz waveguide germanium-on-silicon vertical PIN photodetector,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE 5th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 185–187.
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nirmalathas, A.

Nkansah, A.

Novak, D.

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-Y.

J.-S. Youn, M.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Park, W.-Y. Choi, and H. Rücker, “Bit-error rate analysis of integrated optoelectronic receiver,” in Proceedings of Photonics Global Conference (PGC) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Persico, C. J.

G. S. Sahota and C. J. Persico, “High dynamic range variable-gain amplifier for CDMA wireless applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 1997), pp. 374–375.
[CrossRef]

Raj, K.

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40 Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Reisslein, M.

M. Maier, N. Ghazisaidi, and M. Reisslein, “The audacity of fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks,” in Proceedings of ICST International Conference on Access Networks (AccessNets) (ICST, 2008), pp. 16–35.

Reuter, R.

A. Leven, R. Reuter, and Y. Baeyens, “Unified analytical expressions for transimpedance and equivalent input noise current of optical receivers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.48(10), 1701–1706 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rücker, H.

M. Ko, J.-S. Youn, M.-J. Lee, K.-C. Choi, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “Silicon photonics-wireless interface IC for 60-GHz wireless link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(13), 1112–1114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ko, J.-Y. Kim, M.-J. Lee, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “A silicon balanced subharmonic optoelectronic mixer for 60-GHz fiber-wireless downlink application,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1805–1807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Heinemann, R. Barth, D. Knoll, H. Rücker, B. Tillack, and W. Winkler, “High-performance BiCMOS technologies without epitaxially-buried subcollectors and deep trenches,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(1), S153–S157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Youn, M.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Park, W.-Y. Choi, and H. Rücker, “Bit-error rate analysis of integrated optoelectronic receiver,” in Proceedings of Photonics Global Conference (PGC) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Sahota, G. S.

G. S. Sahota and C. J. Persico, “High dynamic range variable-gain amplifier for CDMA wireless applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 1997), pp. 374–375.
[CrossRef]

Sankaran, S.

E. Seok, D. Shim, C. Mao, R. Han, S. Sankaran, C. Cao, W. Knap, and K. O. Kenneth, “Progress and challenges towards terahertz CMOS integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(8), 1554–1564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seok, E.

E. Seok, D. Shim, C. Mao, R. Han, S. Sankaran, C. Cao, W. Knap, and K. O. Kenneth, “Progress and challenges towards terahertz CMOS integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(8), 1554–1564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shim, D.

E. Seok, D. Shim, C. Mao, R. Han, S. Sankaran, C. Cao, W. Knap, and K. O. Kenneth, “Progress and challenges towards terahertz CMOS integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(8), 1554–1564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, I.

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40 Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40 Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Tillack, B.

B. Heinemann, R. Barth, D. Knoll, H. Rücker, B. Tillack, and W. Winkler, “High-performance BiCMOS technologies without epitaxially-buried subcollectors and deep trenches,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(1), S153–S157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J. F. Damlencourt, and Y. Lecunff, “42 GHz waveguide germanium-on-silicon vertical PIN photodetector,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE 5th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 185–187.
[CrossRef]

Wake, D.

Waterhouse, R.

Winkler, W.

B. Heinemann, R. Barth, D. Knoll, H. Rücker, B. Tillack, and W. Winkler, “High-performance BiCMOS technologies without epitaxially-buried subcollectors and deep trenches,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(1), S153–S157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Yao, J.

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40 Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Youn, J.-S.

M. Ko, J.-S. Youn, M.-J. Lee, K.-C. Choi, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “Silicon photonics-wireless interface IC for 60-GHz wireless link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(13), 1112–1114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Youn, M.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Park, W.-Y. Choi, and H. Rücker, “Bit-error rate analysis of integrated optoelectronic receiver,” in Proceedings of Photonics Global Conference (PGC) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40 Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

M.-J. Lee, H.-S. Kang, and W.-Y. Choi, “Equivalent circuit model for Si avalanche photodetectors fabricated in standard CMOS process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(10), 1115–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

E. Seok, D. Shim, C. Mao, R. Han, S. Sankaran, C. Cao, W. Knap, and K. O. Kenneth, “Progress and challenges towards terahertz CMOS integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(8), 1554–1564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Ko, J.-Y. Kim, M.-J. Lee, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “A silicon balanced subharmonic optoelectronic mixer for 60-GHz fiber-wireless downlink application,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1805–1807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ko, J.-S. Youn, M.-J. Lee, K.-C. Choi, H. Rücker, and W.-Y. Choi, “Silicon photonics-wireless interface IC for 60-GHz wireless link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(13), 1112–1114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

M.-J. Lee and W.-Y. Choi, “Area-dependent photodetection frequency response characterization of silicon avalanche photodetectors fabricated with standard CMOS technology,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.60(3), 998–1004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

A. Leven, R. Reuter, and Y. Baeyens, “Unified analytical expressions for transimpedance and equivalent input noise current of optical receivers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.48(10), 1701–1706 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

K.-C. Choi, M. Ko, D. Kim, and W.-Y. Choi, “Demonstration of 60-GHz link using a 1.6-Gb/s mixed-mode BPSK demodulator,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E93-C(12), 1704–1707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. Heinemann, R. Barth, D. Knoll, H. Rücker, B. Tillack, and W. Winkler, “High-performance BiCMOS technologies without epitaxially-buried subcollectors and deep trenches,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(1), S153–S157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

G. S. Sahota and C. J. Persico, “High dynamic range variable-gain amplifier for CDMA wireless applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 1997), pp. 374–375.
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Youn, M.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Park, W.-Y. Choi, and H. Rücker, “Bit-error rate analysis of integrated optoelectronic receiver,” in Proceedings of Photonics Global Conference (PGC) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

M. Ko, J.-M. Lee, M.-J. Lee, and W.-Y. Choi, “A 5-GHz CMOS integrated radio-over-fiber receiver,” presented at the 8th Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (APMP 2013), Gwangju, Korea, 22–24 Apr. 2013.

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40 Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J. F. Damlencourt, and Y. Lecunff, “42 GHz waveguide germanium-on-silicon vertical PIN photodetector,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE 5th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 185–187.
[CrossRef]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated 40GHz germanium waveguide photodetector for on-chip optical interconnects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2009), paper OMR4.
[CrossRef]

M. Maier, N. Ghazisaidi, and M. Reisslein, “The audacity of fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks,” in Proceedings of ICST International Conference on Access Networks (AccessNets) (ICST, 2008), pp. 16–35.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic block diagrams of (a) fiber-wireless network and (b) three different fiber-wireless network schemes: RF over fiber, IF over fiber, and baseband over fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagrams of Si integrated RAUs for (a) RF-over-fiber, (b) IF-over-fiber, and (c) baseband-over-fiber optical data distribution schemes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Cross-section view and (b) port configuration of APD.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Small-signal equivalent circuit model of APD.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a),(b) Measured and fitted results of input impedance on impedance Smith chart normalized by 500 Ω and (c),(d) photodetection frequency responses of APDs realized with CMOS and BiCMOS technologies.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Block diagram of 5-GHz PWI IC for RF-over-fiber RAU.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of 5-GHz PWI IC.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulated (a) transimpedance gain and (b) input and output noise characteristics of 5-GHz PWI IC.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Chip photo of 5-GHz PWI IC.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Demonstration setup for 54-Mb/s WLAN data transmission using 5-GHz PWI IC.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) EVM at different optical input powers and (b) constellation of demodulated data at optical input power of −8 dBm.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Block diagram of 60-GHz PWI IC for baseband-over-fiber RAU.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Schematics of (a) TIA, (b) DC-balanced buffer, and (c) VGA in 60-GHz PWI IC.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Simulated (a) transimpedance gain and input noise current of TIA with DC-balanced buffer and (b) total transimpedance gain of baseband photoreceiver at VGA output.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Schematics of (a) BPSK modulator and (b) PA in 60-GHz PWI IC.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Simulated voltage conversion gain of 60-GHz transmitter at different (a) LO frequencies and (b) IF frequencies.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Chip photo of 60-GHz PWI IC.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Demonstration setup for 1.6-Gb/s BPSK data transmission using 60-GHz PWI IC.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Measured (a) BER at different optical input powers and eye diagrams of demodulated data at optical input powers of (b) −6 and (c) −3 dBm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 APD Parameters

Metrics