Abstract

We present high average power picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery at 1030 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths respectively through a novel hollow-core Negative Curvature Fiber (NCF) for high-precision micro-machining applications. Picosecond pulses with an average power above 36 W and energies of 92 µJ, corresponding to a peak power density of 1.5 TWcm−2 have been transmitted through the fiber without introducing any damage to the input and output fiber end-faces. High-energy nanosecond pulses (>1 mJ), which are ideal for micro-machining have been successfully delivered through the NCF with a coupling efficiency of 92%. Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery have been demonstrated in fiber-based laser micro-machining of fused silica, aluminum and titanium.

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  1. J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express12(4), 717–723 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  3. A. Kuhn, P. French, D. P. Hand, I. J. Blewett, M. Richmond, and J. D. C. Jones, “Preparation of fiber optics for the delivery of high-energy high-beam-quality Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Appl. Opt.39(33), 6136–6143 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Su, A. A. B. Boechat, and J. D. C. Jones, “Optimum beam launching conditions for graded-index optical fibers - theory and practice,” IEE Proc. J 140, 221–226 (1993).
  5. A. Kuhn, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, P. French, M. Richmond, and J. D. C. Jones, “Optical fibre beam delivery of high-energy laser pulses: beam quality preservation and fibre end-preparation,” Opt. Lasers Eng.34(4-6), 273–288 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. P. Parry, T. J. Stephens, J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, and D. P. Hand, “Analysis of optical damage mechanisms in hollow-core waveguides delivering nanosecond pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Opt.45(36), 9160–9167 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, B. J. Mangan, S. Renshaw, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Delivery of high energy Er:YAG pulsed laser light at 2.94 µm through a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Express20(6), 6677–6684 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, A. F. Kosolapov, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of a waveguide regime for a silica hollow--core microstructured optical fiber with a negative curvature of the core boundary in the spectral region > 3.5 μm,” Opt. Express19(2), 1441–1448 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, F. Yu, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Flexible delivery of Er:YAG radiation at 2.94 µm with negative curvature silica glass fibers: a new solution for minimally invasive surgical procedures,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(2), 193–205 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. Mann, J. Vogel, R. Preuss, P. Vaziri, M. Zoheidi, M. Eberstein, and J. Kruger, “Nanosecond laser-induced surface damage of optical multimode fibers and their preforms,” Appl. Opt. A92, 853–857 (2008).

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2008 (1)

G. Mann, J. Vogel, R. Preuss, P. Vaziri, M. Zoheidi, M. Eberstein, and J. Kruger, “Nanosecond laser-induced surface damage of optical multimode fibers and their preforms,” Appl. Opt. A92, 853–857 (2008).

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

A. Kuhn, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, P. French, M. Richmond, and J. D. C. Jones, “Optical fibre beam delivery of high-energy laser pulses: beam quality preservation and fibre end-preparation,” Opt. Lasers Eng.34(4-6), 273–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuhn, P. French, D. P. Hand, I. J. Blewett, M. Richmond, and J. D. C. Jones, “Preparation of fiber optics for the delivery of high-energy high-beam-quality Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Appl. Opt.39(33), 6136–6143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abeeluck, A. K.

Alharbi, M.

Argyros, A.

Auguste, J.-L.

Beaudou, B.

Benabid, F.

Biriukov, A. S.

Blewett, I. J.

A. Kuhn, P. French, D. P. Hand, I. J. Blewett, M. Richmond, and J. D. C. Jones, “Preparation of fiber optics for the delivery of high-energy high-beam-quality Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Appl. Opt.39(33), 6136–6143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kuhn, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, P. French, M. Richmond, and J. D. C. Jones, “Optical fibre beam delivery of high-energy laser pulses: beam quality preservation and fibre end-preparation,” Opt. Lasers Eng.34(4-6), 273–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blondy, J.-M.

Bouwmans, G.

Bradley, T. D.

Couny, F.

Dianov, E. M.

Dutin, C. F.

Eberstein, M.

G. Mann, J. Vogel, R. Preuss, P. Vaziri, M. Zoheidi, M. Eberstein, and J. Kruger, “Nanosecond laser-induced surface damage of optical multimode fibers and their preforms,” Appl. Opt. A92, 853–857 (2008).

Eggleton, B. J.

Emaury, F.

French, P.

A. Kuhn, P. French, D. P. Hand, I. J. Blewett, M. Richmond, and J. D. C. Jones, “Preparation of fiber optics for the delivery of high-energy high-beam-quality Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Appl. Opt.39(33), 6136–6143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kuhn, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, P. French, M. Richmond, and J. D. C. Jones, “Optical fibre beam delivery of high-energy laser pulses: beam quality preservation and fibre end-preparation,” Opt. Lasers Eng.34(4-6), 273–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gerome, F.

Gerôme, F.

Hand, D. P.

A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, F. Yu, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Flexible delivery of Er:YAG radiation at 2.94 µm with negative curvature silica glass fibers: a new solution for minimally invasive surgical procedures,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(2), 193–205 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, B. J. Mangan, S. Renshaw, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Delivery of high energy Er:YAG pulsed laser light at 2.94 µm through a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Express20(6), 6677–6684 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Parry, T. J. Stephens, J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, and D. P. Hand, “Analysis of optical damage mechanisms in hollow-core waveguides delivering nanosecond pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Opt.45(36), 9160–9167 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, F. Couny, P. St. J. Russell, J. D. C. Jones, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, “Improved hollow-core photonic crystal fiber design for delivery of nanosecond pulses in laser micromachining applications,” Appl. Opt.44(21), 4582–4588 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express12(4), 717–723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kuhn, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, P. French, M. Richmond, and J. D. C. Jones, “Optical fibre beam delivery of high-energy laser pulses: beam quality preservation and fibre end-preparation,” Opt. Lasers Eng.34(4-6), 273–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuhn, P. French, D. P. Hand, I. J. Blewett, M. Richmond, and J. D. C. Jones, “Preparation of fiber optics for the delivery of high-energy high-beam-quality Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Appl. Opt.39(33), 6136–6143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Headley, C.

Heckl, O. H.

Humbert, G.

Issa, N. A.

Jones, J. D. C.

Keller, U.

Knight, J. C.

Kosolapov, A. F.

Kruger, J.

G. Mann, J. Vogel, R. Preuss, P. Vaziri, M. Zoheidi, M. Eberstein, and J. Kruger, “Nanosecond laser-induced surface damage of optical multimode fibers and their preforms,” Appl. Opt. A92, 853–857 (2008).

Kuhn, A.

A. Kuhn, P. French, D. P. Hand, I. J. Blewett, M. Richmond, and J. D. C. Jones, “Preparation of fiber optics for the delivery of high-energy high-beam-quality Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Appl. Opt.39(33), 6136–6143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kuhn, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, P. French, M. Richmond, and J. D. C. Jones, “Optical fibre beam delivery of high-energy laser pulses: beam quality preservation and fibre end-preparation,” Opt. Lasers Eng.34(4-6), 273–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Litchinitser, N. M.

Maier, R. R. J.

Mangan, B. J.

Mann, G.

G. Mann, J. Vogel, R. Preuss, P. Vaziri, M. Zoheidi, M. Eberstein, and J. Kruger, “Nanosecond laser-induced surface damage of optical multimode fibers and their preforms,” Appl. Opt. A92, 853–857 (2008).

Parry, J. P.

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Preuss, R.

G. Mann, J. Vogel, R. Preuss, P. Vaziri, M. Zoheidi, M. Eberstein, and J. Kruger, “Nanosecond laser-induced surface damage of optical multimode fibers and their preforms,” Appl. Opt. A92, 853–857 (2008).

Pryamikov, A. D.

Renshaw, S.

Richmond, M.

A. Kuhn, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, P. French, M. Richmond, and J. D. C. Jones, “Optical fibre beam delivery of high-energy laser pulses: beam quality preservation and fibre end-preparation,” Opt. Lasers Eng.34(4-6), 273–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuhn, P. French, D. P. Hand, I. J. Blewett, M. Richmond, and J. D. C. Jones, “Preparation of fiber optics for the delivery of high-energy high-beam-quality Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Appl. Opt.39(33), 6136–6143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

Saraceno, C. J.

Schriber, C.

Semjonov, S. L.

Shephard, J. D.

Stephens, T. J.

Südmeyer, T.

Trant, M.

Urich, A.

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

Vaziri, P.

G. Mann, J. Vogel, R. Preuss, P. Vaziri, M. Zoheidi, M. Eberstein, and J. Kruger, “Nanosecond laser-induced surface damage of optical multimode fibers and their preforms,” Appl. Opt. A92, 853–857 (2008).

Vogel, J.

G. Mann, J. Vogel, R. Preuss, P. Vaziri, M. Zoheidi, M. Eberstein, and J. Kruger, “Nanosecond laser-induced surface damage of optical multimode fibers and their preforms,” Appl. Opt. A92, 853–857 (2008).

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, Y. Y.

Yu, F.

Zagari, J.

Zoheidi, M.

G. Mann, J. Vogel, R. Preuss, P. Vaziri, M. Zoheidi, M. Eberstein, and J. Kruger, “Nanosecond laser-induced surface damage of optical multimode fibers and their preforms,” Appl. Opt. A92, 853–857 (2008).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Opt. A (1)

G. Mann, J. Vogel, R. Preuss, P. Vaziri, M. Zoheidi, M. Eberstein, and J. Kruger, “Nanosecond laser-induced surface damage of optical multimode fibers and their preforms,” Appl. Opt. A92, 853–857 (2008).

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Express (6)

F. Emaury, C. F. Dutin, C. J. Saraceno, M. Trant, O. H. Heckl, Y. Y. Wang, C. Schriber, F. Gerome, T. Südmeyer, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “Beam delivery and pulse compression to sub-50 fs of a modelocked thin-disk laser in a gas-filled Kagome-type HC-PCF fiber,” Opt. Express21(4), 4986–4994 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Low loss silica hollow core fibers for 3-4 μm spectral region,” Opt. Express20(10), 11153–11158 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, A. F. Kosolapov, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of a waveguide regime for a silica hollow--core microstructured optical fiber with a negative curvature of the core boundary in the spectral region > 3.5 μm,” Opt. Express19(2), 1441–1448 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, B. J. Mangan, S. Renshaw, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Delivery of high energy Er:YAG pulsed laser light at 2.94 µm through a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Express20(6), 6677–6684 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Issa, A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, and J. Zagari, “Identifying hollow waveguide guidance in air-cored microstructured optical fibres,” Opt. Express11(9), 996–1001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express12(4), 717–723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

A. Kuhn, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, P. French, M. Richmond, and J. D. C. Jones, “Optical fibre beam delivery of high-energy laser pulses: beam quality preservation and fibre end-preparation,” Opt. Lasers Eng.34(4-6), 273–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear fiber optics,” (Academic, New York, 2001).

S. Fevrier, D. Gruppi, P. Viale, C. Humbert, R. Jamier, B. Beadou, A. Hirth, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Y. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, “High-energy nanosecond pulse delivery through singlemode large mode area all-solid bandgap fibers,” presented at European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), Cannes, 24–28 Sept. 2006.

D. Su, A. A. B. Boechat, and J. D. C. Jones, “Optimum beam launching conditions for graded-index optical fibers - theory and practice,” IEE Proc. J 140, 221–226 (1993).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of the NCF used in the experiments. (b) SEM picture of the capillary forming the negative curvature of the fiber core wall.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Attenuation spectrum of the NCF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Overall loss in 4.1 m long NCF due to fiber attenuation and coiling.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Different fiber-delivered near-field beam profiles for different diameter fiber coils.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Overall loss in 3.1 m long NCF introduced by fiber attenuation and 180° bend.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Different fiber-delivered near-field beam profiles associated with single 180° bend.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

False-color profiles of: (a) ns laser beam; (b) fiber-delivered beam.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

False-color profiles of: (a) ps laser beam; (b) fiber-delivered beam.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Results of an M2 measurements of the NCF-delivered beam for: (a) highest beam quality that can be delivered through the fiber when exciting the fundamental mode; (b) typical beam profile delivered through the fiber.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Intensity autocorrelation of: (a) laser pulse; (b) pulse delivered through 1 m of NCF; (c) pulse transmitted through 8 m of coiled (Ø 23cm) NCF (different scale on time delay axis) .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The experimental setup for ns and ps fiber-based micro-machining. HWP: half-wave plate; PBS: polarizing beam splitter; L: lens; M: mirror.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Example of cutting through of the 0.3 mm thick aluminum sheet with the ns laser.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Examples of ns marking in titanium: source bitmaps (left) and machined patterns (right).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Micro-milled patterns in fused silica with ps fiber-delivered pulses.

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