Abstract

Coincident electron-ion detection after photoionization in a “reaction microscope” is a very powerful tool to study atomic and molecular dynamics. However, the implementation of this tool in the field of attosecond science has so far been rather limited, due to the lack of high repetition rate laser sources capable of delivering few-cycle pulses with sufficient energy per pulse. In this article, the development of a Non-collinear Optical Parametric Amplifier (NOPA) capable of delivering Carrier-Envelope Phase (CEP) stable pulses with sub-6 fs duration and pulse energies in the few-µJ range is presented. The potential of combining the high repetition rate source and a reaction microscope operating at this high frequency is demonstrated in a proof-of-principle experiment on strong field ionization of Ar atoms.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2013

A. Fischer, A. Sperl, P. Cörlin, M. Schönwald, H. Rietz, A. Palacios, A. González-Castrillo, F. Martín, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, A. Senftleben, and R. Moshammer, “Electron localization involving doubly excited states in broadband extreme ultraviolet ionization of H2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(21), 213002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett.35(2), 94–96 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Emons, A. Steinmann, T. Binhammer, G. Palmer, M. Schultze, and U. Morgner, “Sub-10-fs pulses from a MHz-NOPA with pulse energies of 0.4 microJ,” Opt. Express18(2), 1191–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, T. Binhammer, A. Steinmann, G. Palmer, M. Emons, and U. Morgner, “Few-cycle OPCPA system at 143 kHz with more than 1 microJ of pulse energy,” Opt. Express18(3), 2836–2841 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, E. Seise, M. Krebs, F. Tavella, A. Willner, S. Düsterer, H. Schlarb, J. Feldhaus, J. Limpert, J. Rossbach, and A. Tünnermann, “High average and peak power few-cycle laser pulses delivered by fiber pumped OPCPA system,” Opt. Express18(12), 12719–12726 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bromage, C. Dorrer, and J. D. Zuegel, “Angular-dispersion-induced spatiotemporal aberrations in noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2251–2253 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, T. Binhammer, G. Palmer, M. Emons, T. Lang, and U. Morgner, “Multi-μJ, CEP-stabilized, two-cycle pulses from an OPCPA system with up to 500 kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express18(26), 27291–27297 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Marchenko, H. G. Muller, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron angular distributions in near-threshold atomic ionization,” J. Phys. B43(9), 095601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

D. G. Arbó, K. I. Dimitriou, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Sub-Poissonian angular momentum distribution near threshold in atomic ionization by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A78(1), 013406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2003

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Innerhofer, T. Südmeyer, F. Brunner, R. Häring, A. Aschwanden, R. Paschotta, C. Hönninger, M. Kumkar, and U. Keller, “60-W average power in 810-fs pulses from a thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett.28(5), 367–369 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

I. N. Ross, P. Matousek, G. H. C. New, and K. Osvay, “Analysis and optimization of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B19(12), 2945–2956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Single-shot measurement of carrier-envelope phase changes by spectral interferometry,” Opt. Lett.26(18), 1436–1438 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

M. Mehendale, S. A. Mitchell, J. P. Likforman, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Method for single-shot measurement of the carrier envelope phase of a few-cycle laser pulse,” Opt. Lett.25(22), 1672–1674 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a 'momentum microscope' to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep.330(2-3), 95–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Shirakawa, I. Sakane, M. Takasaka, and T. Kobayashi, “Sub-5-fs visible pulse generation by pulse-front-matched noncollinear optical parametric amplification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(16), 2268–2270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

1987

D. W. Chandler and P. L. Houston, “Two-dimensional imaging of state-selected photodissociation products detected by multiphoton ionization,” J. Chem. Phys.87(2), 1445–1447 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, I.

Andersen, T. V.

Arbó, D. G.

D. G. Arbó, K. I. Dimitriou, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Sub-Poissonian angular momentum distribution near threshold in atomic ionization by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A78(1), 013406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aschwanden, A.

Baltuška, A.

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binhammer, T.

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bromage, J.

Brunner, F.

Burgdörfer, J.

D. G. Arbó, K. I. Dimitriou, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Sub-Poissonian angular momentum distribution near threshold in atomic ionization by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A78(1), 013406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chandler, D. W.

D. W. Chandler and P. L. Houston, “Two-dimensional imaging of state-selected photodissociation products detected by multiphoton ionization,” J. Chem. Phys.87(2), 1445–1447 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chipperfield, L.

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

Cörlin, P.

A. Fischer, A. Sperl, P. Cörlin, M. Schönwald, H. Rietz, A. Palacios, A. González-Castrillo, F. Martín, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, A. Senftleben, and R. Moshammer, “Electron localization involving doubly excited states in broadband extreme ultraviolet ionization of H2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(21), 213002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtis, A. H.

B. A. Reagan, A. H. Curtis, K. A. Wernsing, F. J. Furch, B. M. Luther, and J. J. Rocca, “Development of high energy diode-pumped thick-disk Yb:YAG chirped-pulse-amplification lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(6), 827–835 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

Demmler, S.

Dimitriou, K. I.

D. G. Arbó, K. I. Dimitriou, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Sub-Poissonian angular momentum distribution near threshold in atomic ionization by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A78(1), 013406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, A.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dörner, R.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a 'momentum microscope' to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep.330(2-3), 95–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dorrer, C.

Drescher, M.

O. Ghafur, W. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. F. Kling, M. Drescher, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “A velocity map imaging detector with an integrated gas injection system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(3), 033110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, T. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312(5771), 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Düsterer, S.

Eidam, T.

Eikema, K. S. E.

Emons, M.

Feldhaus, J.

Ferencz, K.

Ferrari, F.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, A.

A. Fischer, A. Sperl, P. Cörlin, M. Schönwald, H. Rietz, A. Palacios, A. González-Castrillo, F. Martín, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, A. Senftleben, and R. Moshammer, “Electron localization involving doubly excited states in broadband extreme ultraviolet ionization of H2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(21), 213002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuji, T.

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujihira, Y.

Furch, F. J.

B. A. Reagan, A. H. Curtis, K. A. Wernsing, F. J. Furch, B. M. Luther, and J. J. Rocca, “Development of high energy diode-pumped thick-disk Yb:YAG chirped-pulse-amplification lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(6), 827–835 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gabler, T.

Ghafur, O.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Schlarb, H.

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Schultze, M.

Seise, E.

Senftleben, A.

A. Fischer, A. Sperl, P. Cörlin, M. Schönwald, H. Rietz, A. Palacios, A. González-Castrillo, F. Martín, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, A. Senftleben, and R. Moshammer, “Electron localization involving doubly excited states in broadband extreme ultraviolet ionization of H2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(21), 213002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirakawa, A.

A. Shirakawa, I. Sakane, M. Takasaka, and T. Kobayashi, “Sub-5-fs visible pulse generation by pulse-front-matched noncollinear optical parametric amplification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(16), 2268–2270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Siedschlag, Ch.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, T. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312(5771), 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siu, W.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Ghafur, W. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. F. Kling, M. Drescher, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “A velocity map imaging detector with an integrated gas injection system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(3), 033110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skrobol, C.

Sperl, A.

A. Fischer, A. Sperl, P. Cörlin, M. Schönwald, H. Rietz, A. Palacios, A. González-Castrillo, F. Martín, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, A. Senftleben, and R. Moshammer, “Electron localization involving doubly excited states in broadband extreme ultraviolet ionization of H2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(21), 213002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielberger, L.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a 'momentum microscope' to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep.330(2-3), 95–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett.22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

Steinmann, A.

Steinmeyer, G.

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament,” Opt. Lett.31(2), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stibenz, G.

Stiel, H.

Südmeyer, T.

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

Swoboda, M.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szipöcs, R.

Takada, H.

Takahashi, H.

Takasaka, M.

A. Shirakawa, I. Sakane, M. Takasaka, and T. Kobayashi, “Sub-5-fs visible pulse generation by pulse-front-matched noncollinear optical parametric amplification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(16), 2268–2270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tavella, F.

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

Trushin, S. A.

Tümmler, J.

Tünnermann, A.

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Hädrich, J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, S. Demmler, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Improving carrier-envelope phase stability in optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers by control of timing jitter,” Opt. Lett.37(23), 4910–4912 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, J. Bromage, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Control of nonlinear spectral phase induced by ultra-broadband optical parametric amplification,” Opt. Lett.37(19), 3933–3935 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rothhardt, S. Demmler, S. Hädrich, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Octave-spanning OPCPA system delivering CEP-stable few-cycle pulses and 22 W of average power at 1 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express20(10), 10870–10878 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett.35(2), 94–96 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, E. Seise, M. Krebs, F. Tavella, A. Willner, S. Düsterer, H. Schlarb, J. Feldhaus, J. Limpert, J. Rossbach, and A. Tünnermann, “High average and peak power few-cycle laser pulses delivered by fiber pumped OPCPA system,” Opt. Express18(12), 12719–12726 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Schimpf, J. Rothhardt, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, and D. C. Hanna, “Theoretical analysis of the gain bandwidth for noncollinear parametric amplification of ultrafast pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24(11), 2837–2846 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ubachs, W.

Uiberacker, M.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, T. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312(5771), 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

A. Fischer, A. Sperl, P. Cörlin, M. Schönwald, H. Rietz, A. Palacios, A. González-Castrillo, F. Martín, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, A. Senftleben, and R. Moshammer, “Electron localization involving doubly excited states in broadband extreme ultraviolet ionization of H2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(21), 213002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a 'momentum microscope' to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep.330(2-3), 95–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Uphues, T.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, T. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312(5771), 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhoef, A. J.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, T. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312(5771), 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

Vrakking, M. J. J.

T. Marchenko, H. G. Muller, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron angular distributions in near-threshold atomic ionization,” J. Phys. B43(9), 095601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Ghafur, W. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. F. Kling, M. Drescher, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “A velocity map imaging detector with an integrated gas injection system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(3), 033110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, T. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312(5771), 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wandt, C.

Weitenberg, J.

Wernsing, K. A.

B. A. Reagan, A. H. Curtis, K. A. Wernsing, F. J. Furch, B. M. Luther, and J. J. Rocca, “Development of high energy diode-pumped thick-disk Yb:YAG chirped-pulse-amplification lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(6), 827–835 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A.

Wirth, C.

Witte, S.

Wolf, A. L.

Zaïr, A.

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhavoronkov, N.

Zherebtsov, S.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zinkstok, R. T.

Znakovskaya, I.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuegel, J. D.

Appl. Phys. B

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Shirakawa, I. Sakane, M. Takasaka, and T. Kobayashi, “Sub-5-fs visible pulse generation by pulse-front-matched noncollinear optical parametric amplification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(16), 2268–2270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

B. A. Reagan, A. H. Curtis, K. A. Wernsing, F. J. Furch, B. M. Luther, and J. J. Rocca, “Development of high energy diode-pumped thick-disk Yb:YAG chirped-pulse-amplification lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(6), 827–835 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

D. W. Chandler and P. L. Houston, “Two-dimensional imaging of state-selected photodissociation products detected by multiphoton ionization,” J. Chem. Phys.87(2), 1445–1447 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. B

T. Marchenko, H. G. Muller, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron angular distributions in near-threshold atomic ionization,” J. Phys. B43(9), 095601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, A. L. Wolf, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “A source of 2 terawatt, 2.7 cycle laser pulses based on noncollinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Express14(18), 8168–8177 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Emons, A. Steinmann, T. Binhammer, G. Palmer, M. Schultze, and U. Morgner, “Sub-10-fs pulses from a MHz-NOPA with pulse energies of 0.4 microJ,” Opt. Express18(2), 1191–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, T. Binhammer, A. Steinmann, G. Palmer, M. Emons, and U. Morgner, “Few-cycle OPCPA system at 143 kHz with more than 1 microJ of pulse energy,” Opt. Express18(3), 2836–2841 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, E. Seise, M. Krebs, F. Tavella, A. Willner, S. Düsterer, H. Schlarb, J. Feldhaus, J. Limpert, J. Rossbach, and A. Tünnermann, “High average and peak power few-cycle laser pulses delivered by fiber pumped OPCPA system,” Opt. Express18(12), 12719–12726 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, T. Binhammer, G. Palmer, M. Emons, T. Lang, and U. Morgner, “Multi-μJ, CEP-stabilized, two-cycle pulses from an OPCPA system with up to 500 kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express18(26), 27291–27297 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Klingebiel, C. Wandt, C. Skrobol, I. Ahmad, S. A. Trushin, Z. Major, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, “High energy picosecond Yb:YAG CPA system at 10 Hz repetition rate for pumping optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express19(6), 5357–5363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rothhardt, S. Demmler, S. Hädrich, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Octave-spanning OPCPA system delivering CEP-stable few-cycle pulses and 22 W of average power at 1 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express20(10), 10870–10878 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Russbueldt, T. Mans, G. Rotarius, J. Weitenberg, H. D. Hoffmann, and R. Poprawe, “400 W Yb:YAG innoslab fs-amplifier,” Opt. Express17(15), 12230–12245 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett.35(2), 94–96 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, J. Bromage, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Control of nonlinear spectral phase induced by ultra-broadband optical parametric amplification,” Opt. Lett.37(19), 3933–3935 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hädrich, J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, S. Demmler, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Improving carrier-envelope phase stability in optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers by control of timing jitter,” Opt. Lett.37(23), 4910–4912 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bromage, C. Dorrer, and J. D. Zuegel, “Angular-dispersion-induced spatiotemporal aberrations in noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2251–2253 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tümmler, R. Jung, H. Stiel, P. V. Nickles, and W. Sandner, “High-repetition-rate chirped-pulse-amplification thin-disk laser system with joule-level pulse energy,” Opt. Lett.34(9), 1378–1380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Innerhofer, T. Südmeyer, F. Brunner, R. Häring, A. Aschwanden, R. Paschotta, C. Hönninger, M. Kumkar, and U. Keller, “60-W average power in 810-fs pulses from a thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett.28(5), 367–369 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament,” Opt. Lett.31(2), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett.22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, and S. De Silvestri, “Sub-8-fs pulses from an ultrabroadband optical parametric amplifier in the visible,” Opt. Lett.23(16), 1283–1285 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mehendale, S. A. Mitchell, J. P. Likforman, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Method for single-shot measurement of the carrier envelope phase of a few-cycle laser pulse,” Opt. Lett.25(22), 1672–1674 (2000).
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M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Single-shot measurement of carrier-envelope phase changes by spectral interferometry,” Opt. Lett.26(18), 1436–1438 (2001).
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Phys. Rep.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a 'momentum microscope' to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep.330(2-3), 95–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

D. G. Arbó, K. I. Dimitriou, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Sub-Poissonian angular momentum distribution near threshold in atomic ionization by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A78(1), 013406 (2008).
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Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fischer, A. Sperl, P. Cörlin, M. Schönwald, H. Rietz, A. Palacios, A. González-Castrillo, F. Martín, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, A. Senftleben, and R. Moshammer, “Electron localization involving doubly excited states in broadband extreme ultraviolet ionization of H2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(21), 213002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 163–234 (2009).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum.

O. Ghafur, W. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. F. Kling, M. Drescher, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “A velocity map imaging detector with an integrated gas injection system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(3), 033110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, T. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312(5771), 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. Nillon, S. Montant, J. Boullet, R. Desmarchelier, Y. Zaouter, E. Cormier, and S. Petit, “15-fs, 1-µJ, 100-kHz pulses by direct seeding of a NOPA and its fiber pump by a CEP stabilized Ti:Sapphire oscillator,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Optical Society of America 2009, paper MF8.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the octave-spanning oscillator, fiber amplifier and parametric amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output spectra of the amplified pulses. OPA 1 and 2 are the amplified spectra after the 1st and 2nd crystal respectively. The seed spectrum has also been included for comparison

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SPIDER reconstruction of the compressed amplified pulses. The Fig. on the left shows the spectrum in blue and the spectral phase in green. The Fig. on the right shows the square of the reconstructed pulse envelope in blue and the temporal phase in green.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interferometric autocorrelations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output power measurement at 400 kHz.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

M2 measurements and beam profiles of the amplified beams after the first (a) and second (b) BBO crystals. The plots show beam width measurements across the x- (in blue) and y- (in red) direction as a function of the propagation coordinate. The black lines are second order polynomial fits.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a. Output spectra of the f-to-2f interferometer as a function of time. When the locking system in the oscillator is turned on, a modulation arises in the spectrum. b. Measured modulated spectra for a particular time in Fig. 7(a) (indicated with a green vertical line). c. Additional measurement showing fringe stability over tens of seconds. d. CEP stability calculation from the spectral fringe pattern shown in Fig. 7(c).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Cut through the main chamber of the reaction microscope. The red line illustrates the direction of propagation of the laser while the light blue line represents the molecular beam. ED: Electron detector. ID: Ion detector

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Momentum map illustrating the velocity distribution of photoelectrons corresponding to single ionization of Ar atoms. The map shows the number of detected electrons N(p,p) per bin dp dp. The momentum is expressed in atomic units. N(p,p) is proportional to |ψ(p,p)|2 p where ψ(p,p) is the wavefunction of the outgoing electron. For this measurement 6 fs pulses were focused to an intensity of approximately 7∙1013 W/cm2.

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