Abstract

We present a novel form of a Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) sensor that exploits dye doped polystyrene microspheres, as active resonators, positioned onto the tip of a Microstructured Optical Fiber (MOF) as a means of overcoming the limited Q-factors for small resonators. We show that it is possible to substantially enhance the fluorescence emission of selected WGMs of the microspheres, resulting in an increase of the signal-to-noise ratio of the modes and of the effective Q-factor. This is done by positioning the resonator into one of the holes of a suspended core MOF and matching the resonator diameter with the hole diameter where it sits, effectively breaking the symmetry of the environment surrounding the sphere. Furthermore we demonstrate that using this experimental configuration, the lasing efficiency of the dye-doped microspheres is also significantly enhanced, which also contributes to an enhancement in the observed Q-factor.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, “Liquid-core optical ring-resonator sensors,” Opt. Lett.31(9), 1319–1321 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett.28(4), 272–274 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. N. Oraevsky, “Whispering-gallery waves,” Quantum Electron.32(5), 377–400 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical Resonators With Whispering Gallery Modes – Part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 3–14 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, “Optical Resonators With Whispering Gallery Modes – Part II: Applications,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 15–32 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Nuhiji and P. Mulvaney, “Detection of Unlabeled Oligonucleotide Targets Using Whispering Gallery Modes in Single, Fluorescent Microspheres,” Small3(8), 1408–1414 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Himmelhaus, S. Krishnamoorthy, and A. François, “Optical Sensors Based on Whispering Gallery Modes in Fluorescent Microbeads: Response to Specific Interactions,” Sensors (Basel)10(6), 6257–6274 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6113 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Bianucci, J. R. Rodríguez, C. Clements, C. M. Hessel, J. G. C. Veinot, and A. Meldrum, “Whispering gallery modes in silicon nanocrystal coated microcavities,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.206(5), 973–975 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. J. Rowland, A. François, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, “Fluorescent polymer coated capillaries as optofluidic refractometric sensors,” Opt. Express21(9), 11492–11505 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods5(7), 591–596 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. T. Beier, G. L. Coté, and K. E. Meissner, “Modeling whispering gallery modes in quantum dot embedded polystyrene microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(3), 536–543 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, Z. Wan, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Tan, L. Shi, and X. Chen, “Modeling of an Optical Sensor Based on Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) on the Surface Guiding Layer of Glass Filaments,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(10), 6761–6768 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, “High-Q whispering-gallery mode sensor in liquids,” Proc. SPIE 4629, Laser Resonators and Beam ControlV, 172–180 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. François and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensor operated in the stimulated emission regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(3), 031101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. François, K. J. Rowland, and T. M. Monro, “Highly efficient excitation and detection of whispering gallery modes in a dye-doped microsphere using a microstructured optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 141111 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Kosma, G. Zito, K. Schuster, and S. Pissadakis, “Whispering gallery mode microsphere resonator integrated inside a microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Lett.38(8), 1301–1303 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. E. Gómez, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and P. Mulvaney, “Tunable Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from Quantum-Dot-Doped Microspheres,” Small1(2), 238–241 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. G. Schneider, G. Decher, N. Nerambourg, R. Praho, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Distance-dependent fluorescence quenching on gold nanoparticles ensheathed with layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolytes,” Nano Lett.6(3), 530–536 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. I. T. S. Li and G. C. Walker, “Interfacial Free Energy Governs Single Poystyrene Chain Collapse in Water and Aqueous Solutions,” JACS132(18), 6530–6540 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Klier, J. H. Shen, and A. C. Zettlemoyer, “Water on Silica and Silicate Surfaces. I. Partially Hydrophobic Silicas,” J. Phys. Chem.77(11), 1458–1465 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, “Laser Emission from Dye-Doped Polystyrene Microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 2A), 99–101 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. François and M. Himmelhaus, “Optical Sensors Based on Whispering Gallery Modes in Fluorescent Microbeads: Size Dependence and Influence of Substrate,” Sensors (Basel)9(9), 6836–6852 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. Zhang, J. Liu, S. Wang, P. Zhan, Z. Wang, and N. Ming, “Facile Methods to Coat Polystyrene and Silica Colloids with Metal,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(11), 1089–1096 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, “Fiber-coupled erbium microlasers on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(5), 825 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

2012

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, Z. Wan, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

A. François, K. J. Rowland, and T. M. Monro, “Highly efficient excitation and detection of whispering gallery modes in a dye-doped microsphere using a microstructured optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 141111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

I. T. S. Li and G. C. Walker, “Interfacial Free Energy Governs Single Poystyrene Chain Collapse in Water and Aqueous Solutions,” JACS132(18), 6530–6540 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Himmelhaus, S. Krishnamoorthy, and A. François, “Optical Sensors Based on Whispering Gallery Modes in Fluorescent Microbeads: Response to Specific Interactions,” Sensors (Basel)10(6), 6257–6274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Beier, G. L. Coté, and K. E. Meissner, “Modeling whispering gallery modes in quantum dot embedded polystyrene microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(3), 536–543 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. François and M. Himmelhaus, “Optical Sensors Based on Whispering Gallery Modes in Fluorescent Microbeads: Size Dependence and Influence of Substrate,” Sensors (Basel)9(9), 6836–6852 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bianucci, J. R. Rodríguez, C. Clements, C. M. Hessel, J. G. C. Veinot, and A. Meldrum, “Whispering gallery modes in silicon nanocrystal coated microcavities,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.206(5), 973–975 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. François and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensor operated in the stimulated emission regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(3), 031101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Tan, L. Shi, and X. Chen, “Modeling of an Optical Sensor Based on Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) on the Surface Guiding Layer of Glass Filaments,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(10), 6761–6768 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nuhiji and P. Mulvaney, “Detection of Unlabeled Oligonucleotide Targets Using Whispering Gallery Modes in Single, Fluorescent Microspheres,” Small3(8), 1408–1414 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical Resonators With Whispering Gallery Modes – Part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 3–14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, “Optical Resonators With Whispering Gallery Modes – Part II: Applications,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 15–32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, “Liquid-core optical ring-resonator sensors,” Opt. Lett.31(9), 1319–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schneider, G. Decher, N. Nerambourg, R. Praho, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Distance-dependent fluorescence quenching on gold nanoparticles ensheathed with layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolytes,” Nano Lett.6(3), 530–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. E. Gómez, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and P. Mulvaney, “Tunable Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from Quantum-Dot-Doped Microspheres,” Small1(2), 238–241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, J. Liu, S. Wang, P. Zhan, Z. Wang, and N. Ming, “Facile Methods to Coat Polystyrene and Silica Colloids with Metal,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(11), 1089–1096 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

A. N. Oraevsky, “Whispering-gallery waves,” Quantum Electron.32(5), 377–400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, “High-Q whispering-gallery mode sensor in liquids,” Proc. SPIE 4629, Laser Resonators and Beam ControlV, 172–180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, “Laser Emission from Dye-Doped Polystyrene Microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 2A), 99–101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1973

K. Klier, J. H. Shen, and A. C. Zettlemoyer, “Water on Silica and Silicate Surfaces. I. Partially Hydrophobic Silicas,” J. Phys. Chem.77(11), 1458–1465 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armani, D. K.

L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, “Fiber-coupled erbium microlasers on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(5), 825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, Z. Wan, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett.28(4), 272–274 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bearman, G. H.

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, “High-Q whispering-gallery mode sensor in liquids,” Proc. SPIE 4629, Laser Resonators and Beam ControlV, 172–180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beier, H. T.

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bianucci, P.

P. Bianucci, J. R. Rodríguez, C. Clements, C. M. Hessel, J. G. C. Veinot, and A. Meldrum, “Whispering gallery modes in silicon nanocrystal coated microcavities,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.206(5), 973–975 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard-Desce, M.

G. Schneider, G. Decher, N. Nerambourg, R. Praho, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Distance-dependent fluorescence quenching on gold nanoparticles ensheathed with layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolytes,” Nano Lett.6(3), 530–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

W. Tan, L. Shi, and X. Chen, “Modeling of an Optical Sensor Based on Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) on the Surface Guiding Layer of Glass Filaments,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(10), 6761–6768 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clements, C.

P. Bianucci, J. R. Rodríguez, C. Clements, C. M. Hessel, J. G. C. Veinot, and A. Meldrum, “Whispering gallery modes in silicon nanocrystal coated microcavities,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.206(5), 973–975 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coté, G. L.

Dantham, V. R.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, Z. Wan, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Decher, G.

G. Schneider, G. Decher, N. Nerambourg, R. Praho, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Distance-dependent fluorescence quenching on gold nanoparticles ensheathed with layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolytes,” Nano Lett.6(3), 530–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ema, K.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, “Laser Emission from Dye-Doped Polystyrene Microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 2A), 99–101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

François, A.

K. J. Rowland, A. François, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, “Fluorescent polymer coated capillaries as optofluidic refractometric sensors,” Opt. Express21(9), 11492–11505 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. François, K. J. Rowland, and T. M. Monro, “Highly efficient excitation and detection of whispering gallery modes in a dye-doped microsphere using a microstructured optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 141111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Himmelhaus, S. Krishnamoorthy, and A. François, “Optical Sensors Based on Whispering Gallery Modes in Fluorescent Microbeads: Response to Specific Interactions,” Sensors (Basel)10(6), 6257–6274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. François and M. Himmelhaus, “Optical Sensors Based on Whispering Gallery Modes in Fluorescent Microbeads: Size Dependence and Influence of Substrate,” Sensors (Basel)9(9), 6836–6852 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. François and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensor operated in the stimulated emission regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(3), 031101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gómez, D. E.

D. E. Gómez, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and P. Mulvaney, “Tunable Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from Quantum-Dot-Doped Microspheres,” Small1(2), 238–241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hessel, C. M.

P. Bianucci, J. R. Rodríguez, C. Clements, C. M. Hessel, J. G. C. Veinot, and A. Meldrum, “Whispering gallery modes in silicon nanocrystal coated microcavities,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.206(5), 973–975 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Himmelhaus, M.

M. Himmelhaus, S. Krishnamoorthy, and A. François, “Optical Sensors Based on Whispering Gallery Modes in Fluorescent Microbeads: Response to Specific Interactions,” Sensors (Basel)10(6), 6257–6274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. François and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensor operated in the stimulated emission regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(3), 031101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. François and M. Himmelhaus, “Optical Sensors Based on Whispering Gallery Modes in Fluorescent Microbeads: Size Dependence and Influence of Substrate,” Sensors (Basel)9(9), 6836–6852 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, P.

Holler, S.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, Z. Wan, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett.28(4), 272–274 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical Resonators With Whispering Gallery Modes – Part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 3–14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, “Optical Resonators With Whispering Gallery Modes – Part II: Applications,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 15–32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, “High-Q whispering-gallery mode sensor in liquids,” Proc. SPIE 4629, Laser Resonators and Beam ControlV, 172–180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khoshsima, M.

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klier, K.

K. Klier, J. H. Shen, and A. C. Zettlemoyer, “Water on Silica and Silicate Surfaces. I. Partially Hydrophobic Silicas,” J. Phys. Chem.77(11), 1458–1465 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kolchenko, V.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, Z. Wan, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kosma, K.

Kossakovski, D.

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, “High-Q whispering-gallery mode sensor in liquids,” Proc. SPIE 4629, Laser Resonators and Beam ControlV, 172–180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, S.

M. Himmelhaus, S. Krishnamoorthy, and A. François, “Optical Sensors Based on Whispering Gallery Modes in Fluorescent Microbeads: Response to Specific Interactions,” Sensors (Basel)10(6), 6257–6274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, “Laser Emission from Dye-Doped Polystyrene Microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 2A), 99–101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, I. T. S.

I. T. S. Li and G. C. Walker, “Interfacial Free Energy Governs Single Poystyrene Chain Collapse in Water and Aqueous Solutions,” JACS132(18), 6530–6540 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Zhang, J. Liu, S. Wang, P. Zhan, Z. Wang, and N. Ming, “Facile Methods to Coat Polystyrene and Silica Colloids with Metal,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(11), 1089–1096 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, “High-Q whispering-gallery mode sensor in liquids,” Proc. SPIE 4629, Laser Resonators and Beam ControlV, 172–180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical Resonators With Whispering Gallery Modes – Part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 3–14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, “Optical Resonators With Whispering Gallery Modes – Part II: Applications,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 15–32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, K. E.

Meldrum, A.

P. Bianucci, J. R. Rodríguez, C. Clements, C. M. Hessel, J. G. C. Veinot, and A. Meldrum, “Whispering gallery modes in silicon nanocrystal coated microcavities,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.206(5), 973–975 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ming, N.

J. Zhang, J. Liu, S. Wang, P. Zhan, Z. Wang, and N. Ming, “Facile Methods to Coat Polystyrene and Silica Colloids with Metal,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(11), 1089–1096 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

K. J. Rowland, A. François, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, “Fluorescent polymer coated capillaries as optofluidic refractometric sensors,” Opt. Express21(9), 11492–11505 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. François, K. J. Rowland, and T. M. Monro, “Highly efficient excitation and detection of whispering gallery modes in a dye-doped microsphere using a microstructured optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 141111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mulvaney, P.

E. Nuhiji and P. Mulvaney, “Detection of Unlabeled Oligonucleotide Targets Using Whispering Gallery Modes in Single, Fluorescent Microspheres,” Small3(8), 1408–1414 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Gómez, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and P. Mulvaney, “Tunable Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from Quantum-Dot-Doped Microspheres,” Small1(2), 238–241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nadeau, J. L.

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, “High-Q whispering-gallery mode sensor in liquids,” Proc. SPIE 4629, Laser Resonators and Beam ControlV, 172–180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nerambourg, N.

G. Schneider, G. Decher, N. Nerambourg, R. Praho, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Distance-dependent fluorescence quenching on gold nanoparticles ensheathed with layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolytes,” Nano Lett.6(3), 530–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuhiji, E.

E. Nuhiji and P. Mulvaney, “Detection of Unlabeled Oligonucleotide Targets Using Whispering Gallery Modes in Single, Fluorescent Microspheres,” Small3(8), 1408–1414 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A. N.

A. N. Oraevsky, “Whispering-gallery waves,” Quantum Electron.32(5), 377–400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oveys, H.

Pastoriza-Santos, I.

D. E. Gómez, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and P. Mulvaney, “Tunable Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from Quantum-Dot-Doped Microspheres,” Small1(2), 238–241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pissadakis, S.

Praho, R.

G. Schneider, G. Decher, N. Nerambourg, R. Praho, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Distance-dependent fluorescence quenching on gold nanoparticles ensheathed with layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolytes,” Nano Lett.6(3), 530–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodríguez, J. R.

P. Bianucci, J. R. Rodríguez, C. Clements, C. M. Hessel, J. G. C. Veinot, and A. Meldrum, “Whispering gallery modes in silicon nanocrystal coated microcavities,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.206(5), 973–975 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rowland, K. J.

K. J. Rowland, A. François, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, “Fluorescent polymer coated capillaries as optofluidic refractometric sensors,” Opt. Express21(9), 11492–11505 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. François, K. J. Rowland, and T. M. Monro, “Highly efficient excitation and detection of whispering gallery modes in a dye-doped microsphere using a microstructured optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 141111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G.

G. Schneider, G. Decher, N. Nerambourg, R. Praho, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Distance-dependent fluorescence quenching on gold nanoparticles ensheathed with layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolytes,” Nano Lett.6(3), 530–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuster, K.

Shen, J. H.

K. Klier, J. H. Shen, and A. C. Zettlemoyer, “Water on Silica and Silicate Surfaces. I. Partially Hydrophobic Silicas,” J. Phys. Chem.77(11), 1458–1465 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

W. Tan, L. Shi, and X. Chen, “Modeling of an Optical Sensor Based on Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) on the Surface Guiding Layer of Glass Filaments,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(10), 6761–6768 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, K.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, “Laser Emission from Dye-Doped Polystyrene Microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 2A), 99–101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tan, W.

W. Tan, L. Shi, and X. Chen, “Modeling of an Optical Sensor Based on Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) on the Surface Guiding Layer of Glass Filaments,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(10), 6761–6768 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, “Fiber-coupled erbium microlasers on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(5), 825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veinot, J. G. C.

P. Bianucci, J. R. Rodríguez, C. Clements, C. M. Hessel, J. G. C. Veinot, and A. Meldrum, “Whispering gallery modes in silicon nanocrystal coated microcavities,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.206(5), 973–975 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett.28(4), 272–274 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, G. C.

I. T. S. Li and G. C. Walker, “Interfacial Free Energy Governs Single Poystyrene Chain Collapse in Water and Aqueous Solutions,” JACS132(18), 6530–6540 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wan, Z.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, Z. Wan, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

J. Zhang, J. Liu, S. Wang, P. Zhan, Z. Wang, and N. Ming, “Facile Methods to Coat Polystyrene and Silica Colloids with Metal,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(11), 1089–1096 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

J. Zhang, J. Liu, S. Wang, P. Zhan, Z. Wang, and N. Ming, “Facile Methods to Coat Polystyrene and Silica Colloids with Metal,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(11), 1089–1096 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Werts, M. H. V.

G. Schneider, G. Decher, N. Nerambourg, R. Praho, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Distance-dependent fluorescence quenching on gold nanoparticles ensheathed with layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolytes,” Nano Lett.6(3), 530–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, I. M.

Yang, L.

L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, “Fiber-coupled erbium microlasers on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(5), 825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, H.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, “Laser Emission from Dye-Doped Polystyrene Microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 2A), 99–101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zettlemoyer, A. C.

K. Klier, J. H. Shen, and A. C. Zettlemoyer, “Water on Silica and Silicate Surfaces. I. Partially Hydrophobic Silicas,” J. Phys. Chem.77(11), 1458–1465 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, P.

J. Zhang, J. Liu, S. Wang, P. Zhan, Z. Wang, and N. Ming, “Facile Methods to Coat Polystyrene and Silica Colloids with Metal,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(11), 1089–1096 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, J. Liu, S. Wang, P. Zhan, Z. Wang, and N. Ming, “Facile Methods to Coat Polystyrene and Silica Colloids with Metal,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(11), 1089–1096 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zito, G.

Adv. Funct. Mater.

J. Zhang, J. Liu, S. Wang, P. Zhan, Z. Wang, and N. Ming, “Facile Methods to Coat Polystyrene and Silica Colloids with Metal,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(11), 1089–1096 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, “Fiber-coupled erbium microlasers on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(5), 825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, Z. Wan, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. François and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensor operated in the stimulated emission regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(3), 031101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. François, K. J. Rowland, and T. M. Monro, “Highly efficient excitation and detection of whispering gallery modes in a dye-doped microsphere using a microstructured optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 141111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, “Optical Resonators With Whispering Gallery Modes – Part II: Applications,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 15–32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical Resonators With Whispering Gallery Modes – Part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 3–14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem.

K. Klier, J. H. Shen, and A. C. Zettlemoyer, “Water on Silica and Silicate Surfaces. I. Partially Hydrophobic Silicas,” J. Phys. Chem.77(11), 1458–1465 (1973).
[CrossRef]

JACS

I. T. S. Li and G. C. Walker, “Interfacial Free Energy Governs Single Poystyrene Chain Collapse in Water and Aqueous Solutions,” JACS132(18), 6530–6540 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, “Laser Emission from Dye-Doped Polystyrene Microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 2A), 99–101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

G. Schneider, G. Decher, N. Nerambourg, R. Praho, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Distance-dependent fluorescence quenching on gold nanoparticles ensheathed with layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolytes,” Nano Lett.6(3), 530–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.

P. Bianucci, J. R. Rodríguez, C. Clements, C. M. Hessel, J. G. C. Veinot, and A. Meldrum, “Whispering gallery modes in silicon nanocrystal coated microcavities,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.206(5), 973–975 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE 4629, Laser Resonators and Beam Control

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, “High-Q whispering-gallery mode sensor in liquids,” Proc. SPIE 4629, Laser Resonators and Beam ControlV, 172–180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron.

A. N. Oraevsky, “Whispering-gallery waves,” Quantum Electron.32(5), 377–400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel Switzerland)

W. Tan, L. Shi, and X. Chen, “Modeling of an Optical Sensor Based on Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) on the Surface Guiding Layer of Glass Filaments,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(10), 6761–6768 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (Basel)

A. François and M. Himmelhaus, “Optical Sensors Based on Whispering Gallery Modes in Fluorescent Microbeads: Size Dependence and Influence of Substrate,” Sensors (Basel)9(9), 6836–6852 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Himmelhaus, S. Krishnamoorthy, and A. François, “Optical Sensors Based on Whispering Gallery Modes in Fluorescent Microbeads: Response to Specific Interactions,” Sensors (Basel)10(6), 6257–6274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small

E. Nuhiji and P. Mulvaney, “Detection of Unlabeled Oligonucleotide Targets Using Whispering Gallery Modes in Single, Fluorescent Microspheres,” Small3(8), 1408–1414 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Gómez, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and P. Mulvaney, “Tunable Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from Quantum-Dot-Doped Microspheres,” Small1(2), 238–241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Whispering gallery mode spectra of dye doped polystyrene microspheres with a nominal diameter of (A) 15 μm, (B) 20 μm and (C) 25 μm, free floating and positioned into a hole of a suspended core microstuctured optical fiber (Øhole = 17μm). (D) and (E) are images of a fluorescing 15 μm polystyrene microsphere sitting onto the tip of the microstructured optical fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) and (B) Whispering Gallery Mode spectra of a 15 μm dye doped polystyrene microsphere excited below and above lasing threshold respectively, before and after positioning onto the suspended core fiber. (C) Resonance intensity as function of the pump power for the same 15 μm dye doped polystyrene microsphere before and after positioning it onto the suspended core fiber tip.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the system and solution domain used in the 2D approximate numerical model, to relative scale. Solid black line: flux plane used to calculate the field's spectrum and power distribution. Dashed boundary: the edges of the simulation domain, surrounded by the perfectly matched layers required to eliminate artificial reflections of the radiated light. Solid black circle: position of the dipole source.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Top: Calculated power distributions along the flux plane (Fig. 4) for TE (Ey) and TM (Ex) polarised sources (Fig. 6). Black: free standing resonator. Red: resonator surrounded by glass blocks (Fig. 4). Note the enhancement of the local radiated power for the TE light appearing to come from the contact points of the resonator and glass regions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated spectra of the radiated fields from the cylinder described above (Fig. 4). Grey line: dipole source without cylinder or blocks. Black: cylinder without surrounding blocks. Red: cylinder with surrounding blocks. Cyan: difference of the black and red spectral lines, indicating alteration of the observed spectrum of the radiated light due to the presence of the adjacent high-index structure. Top: Ey, y-polarized dipole (TE polarization). Bottom: Ex, x-polarized dipole (TM polarization).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(A) Whispering Gallery Mode spectra of dye doped polystyrene microspheres with a nominal diameter of 5 μm free floating and positioned into a hole of a tapered suspended core microstuctured optical fiber (Øhole ~5μm). (B) and (C) shows the details of the WGM spectra with a Gaussian fitting of the mode in the case of a free floating sphere and the same sphere once attached to the suspended core fiber, respectively

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Theoretical calculations of the detection limit for different WGM sensor configurations.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

3σ=3 σ Ampl 2 + σ Spectral 2 + σ Therml 2
σ Ampl = Δλ 4.5 ( SNR ) 0.25
SNR=20×log( Signal Amplitude Noise Amplitude )

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