Abstract

A real-time drift correction and calibration method using spectral correlation based on a revolving in-line gas cell for laser-based spectroscopic trace-gas measurements has been developed and evaluated experimentally. This technique is relatively simple to implement in laser spectroscopy systems and assures long-term stability of trace-gas measurements by minimizing the effects of external sources of drift in real-time. Spectroscopic sensitivity sufficient for environmental monitoring and effective drift suppression has been achieved for long-term measurements of CO2 with a quantum cascade laser based spectrometer.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (2)

K. Sun, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, M. A. Khan, and M. A. Zondlo, “Inline Multi-harmonic Calibration Method for Open-path Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 213–222 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Smith, S. So, L. Xia, S. Pitz, K. Szlavecz, D. Carlson, A. Terzis, and G. Wysocki, “Wireless laser spectroscopic sensor node for atmospheric CO2 monitoring—laboratory and field test,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 241–248 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

P. Werle, “Accuracy and precision of laser spectrometers for trace gas sensing in the presence of optical fringes and atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Phys. B102(2), 313–329 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, J. D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49(11), 111124 (2010).

2009 (2)

E. A. Kozlova and A. C. Manning, “Methodology and calibration for continuous measurements of biogeochemical trace gas and O2 concentrations from a 300-m tall tower in central Siberia,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.2(1), 205–220 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Dunn, S. C. Wofsy, and A. H. Bright, “Landscape heterogeneity, soil climate, and carbon exchange in a boreal black spruce forest,” Ecol. Appl.19(2), 495–504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ma, M. Richards, M. Ghanem, Y. Guo, and J. Hassard, “Air pollution monitoring and mining based on sensor Grid in London,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(6), 3601–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, “Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance,” Appl. Phys. B85(2-3), 207–218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. W. M. Moeskops, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Sub-part-per-billion monitoring of nitric oxide by use of wavelength modulation spectroscopy in combination with a thermoelectrically cooled, continuous-wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett.31(6), 823–825 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem–atmosphere CO2 exchange,” Agric. For. Meteorol.118(1-2), 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Jones, P. Cox, and C. Huntingford, “Uncertainty in climate–carbon-cycle projections associated with the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol.55(2), 642–648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “How good is the polarization selection rule for intersubband transitions?” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(14), 1682–1684 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, and D. Lloyd, “Measurement of Trace Gas Fluxes Using Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy [and Discussion],” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A351(1696), 371–382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

H. Schiff, G. Mackay, and J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” Res. Chem. Intermed.20(3), 525–556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

Adler-Golden, S.

Allen, M. G.

Amann, M. C.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bakhirkin, Y.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bechara, J.

H. Schiff, G. Mackay, and J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” Res. Chem. Intermed.20(3), 525–556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bien, F.

Bowling, D. R.

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem–atmosphere CO2 exchange,” Agric. For. Meteorol.118(1-2), 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bright, A. H.

A. L. Dunn, S. C. Wofsy, and A. H. Bright, “Landscape heterogeneity, soil climate, and carbon exchange in a boreal black spruce forest,” Ecol. Appl.19(2), 495–504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchanan, M.

H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “How good is the polarization selection rule for intersubband transitions?” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(14), 1682–1684 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Camp, M.

Capasso, F.

Carlson, D.

C. J. Smith, S. So, L. Xia, S. Pitz, K. Szlavecz, D. Carlson, A. Terzis, and G. Wysocki, “Wireless laser spectroscopic sensor node for atmospheric CO2 monitoring—laboratory and field test,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 241–248 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

Cox, P.

C. D. Jones, P. Cox, and C. Huntingford, “Uncertainty in climate–carbon-cycle projections associated with the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol.55(2), 642–648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cristescu, S. M.

Csuzdi, C.

K. Szlavecz, M. McCormick, L. Xia, J. Saunders, T. Morcol, D. Whigham, T. Filley, and C. Csuzdi, “Ecosystem effects of non-native earthworms in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests,” Biol. Invasions13(5), 1165–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, A. L.

A. L. Dunn, S. C. Wofsy, and A. H. Bright, “Landscape heterogeneity, soil climate, and carbon exchange in a boreal black spruce forest,” Ecol. Appl.19(2), 495–504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyroff, C.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, “Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance,” Appl. Phys. B85(2-3), 207–218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ehleringer, J. R.

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem–atmosphere CO2 exchange,” Agric. For. Meteorol.118(1-2), 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Filley, T.

K. Szlavecz, M. McCormick, L. Xia, J. Saunders, T. Morcol, D. Whigham, T. Filley, and C. Csuzdi, “Ecosystem effects of non-native earthworms in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests,” Biol. Invasions13(5), 1165–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Flesch, G. J.

Fraser, M.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, “Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance,” Appl. Phys. B85(2-3), 207–218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghanem, M.

Y. J. Ma, M. Richards, M. Ghanem, Y. Guo, and J. Hassard, “Air pollution monitoring and mining based on sensor Grid in London,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(6), 3601–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

Goldstein, N.

Grego, J.

Guo, Y.

Y. J. Ma, M. Richards, M. Ghanem, Y. Guo, and J. Hassard, “Air pollution monitoring and mining based on sensor Grid in London,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(6), 3601–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hangauer, A.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harren, F. J. M.

Hassard, J.

Y. J. Ma, M. Richards, M. Ghanem, Y. Guo, and J. Hassard, “Air pollution monitoring and mining based on sensor Grid in London,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(6), 3601–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herman, R. L.

Herndon, S.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, J. D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49(11), 111124 (2010).

Huntingford, C.

C. D. Jones, P. Cox, and C. Huntingford, “Uncertainty in climate–carbon-cycle projections associated with the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol.55(2), 642–648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeffers, J. D.

Jones, C. D.

C. D. Jones, P. Cox, and C. Huntingford, “Uncertainty in climate–carbon-cycle projections associated with the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol.55(2), 642–648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kebabian, P. L.

M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, and D. Lloyd, “Measurement of Trace Gas Fluxes Using Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy [and Discussion],” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A351(1696), 371–382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

K. Sun, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, M. A. Khan, and M. A. Zondlo, “Inline Multi-harmonic Calibration Method for Open-path Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 213–222 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

Kosterev, A.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

Kozlova, E. A.

E. A. Kozlova and A. C. Manning, “Methodology and calibration for continuous measurements of biogeochemical trace gas and O2 concentrations from a 300-m tall tower in central Siberia,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.2(1), 205–220 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

Lewicki, R.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

S. So, A. A. Sani, Z. Lin, F. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Demo abstract: Laser-based trace-gas chemical sensors for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in IPSN:ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (2009), pp. 427–428.

Liu, H. C.

H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “How good is the polarization selection rule for intersubband transitions?” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(14), 1682–1684 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd, D.

M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, and D. Lloyd, “Measurement of Trace Gas Fluxes Using Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy [and Discussion],” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A351(1696), 371–382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y. J.

Y. J. Ma, M. Richards, M. Ghanem, Y. Guo, and J. Hassard, “Air pollution monitoring and mining based on sensor Grid in London,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(6), 3601–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, G.

H. Schiff, G. Mackay, and J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” Res. Chem. Intermed.20(3), 525–556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Manning, A. C.

E. A. Kozlova and A. C. Manning, “Methodology and calibration for continuous measurements of biogeochemical trace gas and O2 concentrations from a 300-m tall tower in central Siberia,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.2(1), 205–220 (2009).
[CrossRef]

May, R. D.

McCann, P. J.

McCormick, M.

K. Szlavecz, M. McCormick, L. Xia, J. Saunders, T. Morcol, D. Whigham, T. Filley, and C. Csuzdi, “Ecosystem effects of non-native earthworms in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests,” Biol. Invasions13(5), 1165–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J. B.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, J. D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49(11), 111124 (2010).

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B75(2-3), 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, and D. Lloyd, “Measurement of Trace Gas Fluxes Using Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy [and Discussion],” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A351(1696), 371–382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. J.

K. Sun, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, M. A. Khan, and M. A. Zondlo, “Inline Multi-harmonic Calibration Method for Open-path Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 213–222 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mock, A.

Moeskops, B. W. M.

Morcol, T.

K. Szlavecz, M. McCormick, L. Xia, J. Saunders, T. Morcol, D. Whigham, T. Filley, and C. Csuzdi, “Ecosystem effects of non-native earthworms in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests,” Biol. Invasions13(5), 1165–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moyer, E. J.

Mücke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Namjou, K.

Nelson, D. D.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B75(2-3), 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, and D. Lloyd, “Measurement of Trace Gas Fluxes Using Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy [and Discussion],” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A351(1696), 371–382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. D. D.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, J. D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49(11), 111124 (2010).

Pitz, S.

C. J. Smith, S. So, L. Xia, S. Pitz, K. Szlavecz, D. Carlson, A. Terzis, and G. Wysocki, “Wireless laser spectroscopic sensor node for atmospheric CO2 monitoring—laboratory and field test,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 241–248 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Richards, M.

Y. J. Ma, M. Richards, M. Ghanem, Y. Guo, and J. Hassard, “Air pollution monitoring and mining based on sensor Grid in London,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(6), 3601–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, “Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance,” Appl. Phys. B85(2-3), 207–218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roller, C.

Sani, A. A.

S. So, A. A. Sani, Z. Lin, F. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Demo abstract: Laser-based trace-gas chemical sensors for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in IPSN:ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (2009), pp. 427–428.

Sargent, S. D.

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem–atmosphere CO2 exchange,” Agric. For. Meteorol.118(1-2), 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, J.

K. Szlavecz, M. McCormick, L. Xia, J. Saunders, T. Morcol, D. Whigham, T. Filley, and C. Csuzdi, “Ecosystem effects of non-native earthworms in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests,” Biol. Invasions13(5), 1165–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schiff, H.

H. Schiff, G. Mackay, and J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” Res. Chem. Intermed.20(3), 525–556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scott, D. C.

Shorter, J. H.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, J. D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49(11), 111124 (2010).

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B75(2-3), 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

Slanton, A. C.

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. J.

C. J. Smith, S. So, L. Xia, S. Pitz, K. Szlavecz, D. Carlson, A. Terzis, and G. Wysocki, “Wireless laser spectroscopic sensor node for atmospheric CO2 monitoring—laboratory and field test,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 241–248 (2013).
[CrossRef]

So, S.

C. J. Smith, S. So, L. Xia, S. Pitz, K. Szlavecz, D. Carlson, A. Terzis, and G. Wysocki, “Wireless laser spectroscopic sensor node for atmospheric CO2 monitoring—laboratory and field test,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 241–248 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. So, A. A. Sani, Z. Lin, F. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Demo abstract: Laser-based trace-gas chemical sensors for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in IPSN:ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (2009), pp. 427–428.

Strzoda, R.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, K.

K. Sun, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, M. A. Khan, and M. A. Zondlo, “Inline Multi-harmonic Calibration Method for Open-path Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 213–222 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Szlavecz, K.

C. J. Smith, S. So, L. Xia, S. Pitz, K. Szlavecz, D. Carlson, A. Terzis, and G. Wysocki, “Wireless laser spectroscopic sensor node for atmospheric CO2 monitoring—laboratory and field test,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 241–248 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Szlavecz, M. McCormick, L. Xia, J. Saunders, T. Morcol, D. Whigham, T. Filley, and C. Csuzdi, “Ecosystem effects of non-native earthworms in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests,” Biol. Invasions13(5), 1165–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, B. D.

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem–atmosphere CO2 exchange,” Agric. For. Meteorol.118(1-2), 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tao, L.

K. Sun, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, M. A. Khan, and M. A. Zondlo, “Inline Multi-harmonic Calibration Method for Open-path Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 213–222 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Terzis, A.

C. J. Smith, S. So, L. Xia, S. Pitz, K. Szlavecz, D. Carlson, A. Terzis, and G. Wysocki, “Wireless laser spectroscopic sensor node for atmospheric CO2 monitoring—laboratory and field test,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 241–248 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. So, A. A. Sani, Z. Lin, F. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Demo abstract: Laser-based trace-gas chemical sensors for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in IPSN:ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (2009), pp. 427–428.

Tittel, F. K.

Walega, J. G.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, “Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance,” Appl. Phys. B85(2-3), 207–218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, Z. R.

H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “How good is the polarization selection rule for intersubband transitions?” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(14), 1682–1684 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Webster, C. R.

Wehe, S.

Wehr, R.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, J. D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49(11), 111124 (2010).

Weibring, P.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, “Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance,” Appl. Phys. B85(2-3), 207–218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, “Accuracy and precision of laser spectrometers for trace gas sensing in the presence of optical fringes and atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Phys. B102(2), 313–329 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Whigham, D.

K. Szlavecz, M. McCormick, L. Xia, J. Saunders, T. Morcol, D. Whigham, T. Filley, and C. Csuzdi, “Ecosystem effects of non-native earthworms in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests,” Biol. Invasions13(5), 1165–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wofsy, S. C.

A. L. Dunn, S. C. Wofsy, and A. H. Bright, “Landscape heterogeneity, soil climate, and carbon exchange in a boreal black spruce forest,” Ecol. Appl.19(2), 495–504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, E.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, J. D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49(11), 111124 (2010).

Wysocki, G.

C. J. Smith, S. So, L. Xia, S. Pitz, K. Szlavecz, D. Carlson, A. Terzis, and G. Wysocki, “Wireless laser spectroscopic sensor node for atmospheric CO2 monitoring—laboratory and field test,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 241–248 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. So, A. A. Sani, Z. Lin, F. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Demo abstract: Laser-based trace-gas chemical sensors for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in IPSN:ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (2009), pp. 427–428.

Xia, L.

C. J. Smith, S. So, L. Xia, S. Pitz, K. Szlavecz, D. Carlson, A. Terzis, and G. Wysocki, “Wireless laser spectroscopic sensor node for atmospheric CO2 monitoring—laboratory and field test,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 241–248 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Szlavecz, M. McCormick, L. Xia, J. Saunders, T. Morcol, D. Whigham, T. Filley, and C. Csuzdi, “Ecosystem effects of non-native earthworms in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests,” Biol. Invasions13(5), 1165–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, J. D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49(11), 111124 (2010).

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B75(2-3), 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, and D. Lloyd, “Measurement of Trace Gas Fluxes Using Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy [and Discussion],” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A351(1696), 371–382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zondlo, M. A.

K. Sun, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, M. A. Khan, and M. A. Zondlo, “Inline Multi-harmonic Calibration Method for Open-path Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 213–222 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Agric. For. Meteorol. (1)

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem–atmosphere CO2 exchange,” Agric. For. Meteorol.118(1-2), 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. B (8)

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Sun, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, M. A. Khan, and M. A. Zondlo, “Inline Multi-harmonic Calibration Method for Open-path Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 213–222 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Smith, S. So, L. Xia, S. Pitz, K. Szlavecz, D. Carlson, A. Terzis, and G. Wysocki, “Wireless laser spectroscopic sensor node for atmospheric CO2 monitoring—laboratory and field test,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 241–248 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, “Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance,” Appl. Phys. B85(2-3), 207–218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, “Accuracy and precision of laser spectrometers for trace gas sensing in the presence of optical fringes and atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Phys. B102(2), 313–329 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B75(2-3), 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “How good is the polarization selection rule for intersubband transitions?” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(14), 1682–1684 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

E. A. Kozlova and A. C. Manning, “Methodology and calibration for continuous measurements of biogeochemical trace gas and O2 concentrations from a 300-m tall tower in central Siberia,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.2(1), 205–220 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biol. Invasions (1)

K. Szlavecz, M. McCormick, L. Xia, J. Saunders, T. Morcol, D. Whigham, T. Filley, and C. Csuzdi, “Ecosystem effects of non-native earthworms in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests,” Biol. Invasions13(5), 1165–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ecol. Appl. (1)

A. L. Dunn, S. C. Wofsy, and A. H. Bright, “Landscape heterogeneity, soil climate, and carbon exchange in a boreal black spruce forest,” Ecol. Appl.19(2), 495–504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, J. D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49(11), 111124 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A (1)

M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, and D. Lloyd, “Measurement of Trace Gas Fluxes Using Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy [and Discussion],” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A351(1696), 371–382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Res. Chem. Intermed. (1)

H. Schiff, G. Mackay, and J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” Res. Chem. Intermed.20(3), 525–556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel Switzerland) (1)

Y. J. Ma, M. Richards, M. Ghanem, Y. Guo, and J. Hassard, “Air pollution monitoring and mining based on sensor Grid in London,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(6), 3601–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. (1)

C. D. Jones, P. Cox, and C. Huntingford, “Uncertainty in climate–carbon-cycle projections associated with the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol.55(2), 642–648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

F. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, “Mid-Infrared Laser Applications in Spectroscopy,” in Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources (2003), pp. 458–529.

M. B. Frish, R. T. Wainner, M. C. Laderer, K. R. Parameswaran, D. M. Sonnenfroh, and M. A. Druy, “Precision and accuracy of miniature tunable diode laser absorption spectrometers,” in Proc. SPIE 8032, 803209 (2011), A. D. Mark, and A. C. Richard, eds. (2011).

L. S. Rothman, “The HITRAN Database.” http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/hitran/

S. So, A. A. Sani, Z. Lin, F. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Demo abstract: Laser-based trace-gas chemical sensors for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in IPSN:ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (2009), pp. 427–428.

C. J. Smith, M. A. Khan, M. A. Zondlo, and G. Wysocki, “In-Line Reference Cell for Real-Time Calibration of Laser Absorption Spectrometers,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012)(2012), p. CW3B.1.

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