Abstract

We demonstrate high-speed silicon modulators based on carrier depletion in interleaved pn junctions fabricated on 300mm-SOI wafers using CMOS foundry facilities. 950µm-long Mach Zehnder (MZ) and ring resonator (RR) modulator with a 100µm radius, were designed, fabricated and characterized. 40 Gbit/s data transmission has been demonstrated for both devices. The MZ modulator exhibited a high extinction ratio of 7.9 dB with only 4 dB on-chip losses at the operating point.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express21(10), 11869–11876 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Luo, Q. Fang, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express21(10), 12776–12782 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (4)

2011 (3)

2009 (1)

K.-H. Koo, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Compact performance models and comparisons for gigascale on-chip global interconnect technologies,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.56(9), 1787–1798 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Absil, P.

Akiyama, S.

Alloatti, L.

Baba, T.

Baets, R.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

Bouville, D.

Cassan, E.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.-K.

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Emerson, N. G.

Fang, Q.

Fathpour, S.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Fournier, M.

Gardes, F. Y.

Grosse, P.

Hillerkuss, D.

Hirayama, N.

Horikawa, T.

Hu, Y.

Imai, M.

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Kapur, P.

K.-H. Koo, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Compact performance models and comparisons for gigascale on-chip global interconnect technologies,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.56(9), 1787–1798 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Komorowska, K.

Koo, K.-H.

K.-H. Koo, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Compact performance models and comparisons for gigascale on-chip global interconnect technologies,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.56(9), 1787–1798 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Korn, D.

Leuthold, J.

Li, X.

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.-Q.

Luo, X.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G.

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, Y.

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pantouvaki, M.

Rasigade, G.

Reed, G. T.

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K. C.

K.-H. Koo, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Compact performance models and comparisons for gigascale on-chip global interconnect technologies,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.56(9), 1787–1798 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Takahashi, H.

Thomson, D. J.

Tu, X.

Usuki, T.

Van Campenhout, J.

Verheyen, P.

Vivien, L.

Xiao, X.

Xu, H.

Yu, H.

Yu, J.

Yu, M.

Yu, Y.

Ziebell, M.

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

K.-H. Koo, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Compact performance models and comparisons for gigascale on-chip global interconnect technologies,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.56(9), 1787–1798 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (10)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fédéli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express21(10), 11869–11876 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Luo, Q. Fang, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express21(10), 12776–12782 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the interleaved diodes phase shifter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical transmissions of (a) 0.95 mm MZ modulator, (b) ring modulator with 100µm radius

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ring modulator: transmission as a function of the wavelength for different reverse DC bias

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized optical response as a function of the frequency of a 0.95 mm-long MZI modulator under a bias voltage of −3V.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Eye diagrams at 40 Gbit/s of (a) a ring resonator modulator of radius 100 µm with ER = 3.3 dB, and (b) a 0.95mm-long MZ modulator with ER = 7.9 dB

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 DC characteristics

Tables Icon

Table 2 High speed performances

Metrics