Abstract

Sub-20 fs pulses of the third, fourth, and fifth harmonics of a Ti:sapphire laser are simultaneously generated using cascaded four-wave mixing in filamentation propagation of the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic pulses in Ne gas. Reflective optics under vacuum are employed after the four-wave mixing to minimize material dispersion of the optical pulses. The cross-correlation between 198 and 159 nm pulses of 18 fs is achieved without dispersion compensation. This new light source is applied to time-resolved photoelectron imaging of carbon disulfide (CS2).

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Ghotbi, P. Trabs, M. Beutler, and F. Noack, “Generation of tunable sub-45 femtosecond pulses by noncollinear four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett.38(4), 486–488 (2013).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B86(3), 477–483 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Generation of 12 fs deep-ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas,” Opt. Lett.32(17), 2481–2483 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Suzuki, T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of ultrafast S2→S1 internal conversion through conical intersection in pyrazine,” J. Chem. Phys.132(17), 174302 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Farmanara, V. Stert, and W. Radloff, “Ultrafast predissociation and coherent phenomena in CS2 excited by femtosecond laser pulses at 194-207 nm,” J. Chem. Phys.111(12), 5338–5343 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Hockett, C. Z. Bisgaard, O. J. Clarkin, and A. Stolow, “Time-resolved imaging of purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction,” Nat. Phys.7(8), 612–615 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Fuji, Y. Suzuki, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Excited-State Dynamics of CS2 Studied by Photoelectron Imaging with a Time Resolution of 22 fs,” Chem. Asian J.6(11), 3028–3034 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

2012

P. Zuo, T. Fuji, T. Horio, S. Adachi, and T. Suzuki, “Simultaneous generation of ultrashort pulses at 158 and 198 nm in a single filamentation cell by cascaded four-wave mixing in Ar,” Appl. Phys. B108(4), 815–819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of non-adiabatic electronic dynamics in gas and liquid phases,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.31(2), 265–318 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

M. Beutler, M. Ghotbi, and F. Noack, “Generation of intense sub-20-fs vacuum ultraviolet pulses compressed by material dispersion,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3726–3728 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hockett, C. Z. Bisgaard, O. J. Clarkin, and A. Stolow, “Time-resolved imaging of purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction,” Nat. Phys.7(8), 612–615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, Y. Suzuki, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Excited-State Dynamics of CS2 Studied by Photoelectron Imaging with a Time Resolution of 22 fs,” Chem. Asian J.6(11), 3028–3034 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

T. Fuji, T. Suzuki, E. Serebryannikov, and A. Zheltikov, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of a multicolor filament,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063822 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, and I. Powis, “Two-dimensional charged particle image inversion using a polar basis function expansion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4989–4996 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

U. Even, J. Jortner, D. Noy, N. Lavie, and C. Cossart-Magos, “Cooling of large molecules below 1 K and He clusters formation,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 8068–8071 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. Farmanara, V. Stert, and W. Radloff, “Ultrafast predissociation and coherent phenomena in CS2 excited by femtosecond laser pulses at 194-207 nm,” J. Chem. Phys.111(12), 5338–5343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

1983

R. J. Hemley, D. G. Leopold, J. L. Roebber, and V. Vaida, “The direct ultraviolet-absorption spectrum of the 1Σg+ → 1B2(1Σu+) transition of jet-cooled CS2,” J. Chem. Phys.79(11), 5219–5227 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

P. Zuo, T. Fuji, T. Horio, S. Adachi, and T. Suzuki, “Simultaneous generation of ultrashort pulses at 158 and 198 nm in a single filamentation cell by cascaded four-wave mixing in Ar,” Appl. Phys. B108(4), 815–819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, R.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beutler, M.

Bisgaard, C. Z.

P. Hockett, C. Z. Bisgaard, O. J. Clarkin, and A. Stolow, “Time-resolved imaging of purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction,” Nat. Phys.7(8), 612–615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Chin, S. L.

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B86(3), 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarkin, O. J.

P. Hockett, C. Z. Bisgaard, O. J. Clarkin, and A. Stolow, “Time-resolved imaging of purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction,” Nat. Phys.7(8), 612–615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cossart-Magos, C.

U. Even, J. Jortner, D. Noy, N. Lavie, and C. Cossart-Magos, “Cooling of large molecules below 1 K and He clusters formation,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 8068–8071 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

Durfee, C. G.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Even, U.

U. Even, J. Jortner, D. Noy, N. Lavie, and C. Cossart-Magos, “Cooling of large molecules below 1 K and He clusters formation,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 8068–8071 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Farmanara, P.

P. Farmanara, V. Stert, and W. Radloff, “Ultrafast predissociation and coherent phenomena in CS2 excited by femtosecond laser pulses at 194-207 nm,” J. Chem. Phys.111(12), 5338–5343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fuji, T.

P. Zuo, T. Fuji, T. Horio, S. Adachi, and T. Suzuki, “Simultaneous generation of ultrashort pulses at 158 and 198 nm in a single filamentation cell by cascaded four-wave mixing in Ar,” Appl. Phys. B108(4), 815–819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, Y. Suzuki, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Excited-State Dynamics of CS2 Studied by Photoelectron Imaging with a Time Resolution of 22 fs,” Chem. Asian J.6(11), 3028–3034 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Suzuki, T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of ultrafast S2→S1 internal conversion through conical intersection in pyrazine,” J. Chem. Phys.132(17), 174302 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zuo, T. Fuji, and T. Suzuki, “Spectral phase transfer to ultrashort UV pulses through four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express18(15), 16183–16192 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, T. Suzuki, E. Serebryannikov, and A. Zheltikov, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of a multicolor filament,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063822 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Generation of 12 fs deep-ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas,” Opt. Lett.32(17), 2481–2483 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, G. A.

G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, and I. Powis, “Two-dimensional charged particle image inversion using a polar basis function expansion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4989–4996 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ghotbi, M.

Hemley, R. J.

R. J. Hemley, D. G. Leopold, J. L. Roebber, and V. Vaida, “The direct ultraviolet-absorption spectrum of the 1Σg+ → 1B2(1Σu+) transition of jet-cooled CS2,” J. Chem. Phys.79(11), 5219–5227 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, I. V.

Hockett, P.

P. Hockett, C. Z. Bisgaard, O. J. Clarkin, and A. Stolow, “Time-resolved imaging of purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction,” Nat. Phys.7(8), 612–615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Horio, T.

P. Zuo, T. Fuji, T. Horio, S. Adachi, and T. Suzuki, “Simultaneous generation of ultrashort pulses at 158 and 198 nm in a single filamentation cell by cascaded four-wave mixing in Ar,” Appl. Phys. B108(4), 815–819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, Y. Suzuki, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Excited-State Dynamics of CS2 Studied by Photoelectron Imaging with a Time Resolution of 22 fs,” Chem. Asian J.6(11), 3028–3034 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Suzuki, T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of ultrafast S2→S1 internal conversion through conical intersection in pyrazine,” J. Chem. Phys.132(17), 174302 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Generation of 12 fs deep-ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas,” Opt. Lett.32(17), 2481–2483 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jortner, J.

U. Even, J. Jortner, D. Noy, N. Lavie, and C. Cossart-Magos, “Cooling of large molecules below 1 K and He clusters formation,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 8068–8071 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korn, G.

Lavie, N.

U. Even, J. Jortner, D. Noy, N. Lavie, and C. Cossart-Magos, “Cooling of large molecules below 1 K and He clusters formation,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 8068–8071 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leopold, D. G.

R. J. Hemley, D. G. Leopold, J. L. Roebber, and V. Vaida, “The direct ultraviolet-absorption spectrum of the 1Σg+ → 1B2(1Σu+) transition of jet-cooled CS2,” J. Chem. Phys.79(11), 5219–5227 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B86(3), 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Misoguti, L.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

Murnane, M. M.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nahon, L.

G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, and I. Powis, “Two-dimensional charged particle image inversion using a polar basis function expansion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4989–4996 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noack, F.

Noy, D.

U. Even, J. Jortner, D. Noy, N. Lavie, and C. Cossart-Magos, “Cooling of large molecules below 1 K and He clusters formation,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 8068–8071 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Powis, I.

G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, and I. Powis, “Two-dimensional charged particle image inversion using a polar basis function expansion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4989–4996 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Radloff, W.

P. Farmanara, V. Stert, and W. Radloff, “Ultrafast predissociation and coherent phenomena in CS2 excited by femtosecond laser pulses at 194-207 nm,” J. Chem. Phys.111(12), 5338–5343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roebber, J. L.

R. J. Hemley, D. G. Leopold, J. L. Roebber, and V. Vaida, “The direct ultraviolet-absorption spectrum of the 1Σg+ → 1B2(1Σu+) transition of jet-cooled CS2,” J. Chem. Phys.79(11), 5219–5227 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Serebryannikov, E.

T. Fuji, T. Suzuki, E. Serebryannikov, and A. Zheltikov, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of a multicolor filament,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063822 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Stert, V.

P. Farmanara, V. Stert, and W. Radloff, “Ultrafast predissociation and coherent phenomena in CS2 excited by femtosecond laser pulses at 194-207 nm,” J. Chem. Phys.111(12), 5338–5343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stolow, A.

P. Hockett, C. Z. Bisgaard, O. J. Clarkin, and A. Stolow, “Time-resolved imaging of purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction,” Nat. Phys.7(8), 612–615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of non-adiabatic electronic dynamics in gas and liquid phases,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.31(2), 265–318 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zuo, T. Fuji, T. Horio, S. Adachi, and T. Suzuki, “Simultaneous generation of ultrashort pulses at 158 and 198 nm in a single filamentation cell by cascaded four-wave mixing in Ar,” Appl. Phys. B108(4), 815–819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, Y. Suzuki, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Excited-State Dynamics of CS2 Studied by Photoelectron Imaging with a Time Resolution of 22 fs,” Chem. Asian J.6(11), 3028–3034 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Suzuki, T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of ultrafast S2→S1 internal conversion through conical intersection in pyrazine,” J. Chem. Phys.132(17), 174302 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zuo, T. Fuji, and T. Suzuki, “Spectral phase transfer to ultrashort UV pulses through four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express18(15), 16183–16192 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, T. Suzuki, E. Serebryannikov, and A. Zheltikov, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of a multicolor filament,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063822 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Generation of 12 fs deep-ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas,” Opt. Lett.32(17), 2481–2483 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, Y.

T. Fuji, Y. Suzuki, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Excited-State Dynamics of CS2 Studied by Photoelectron Imaging with a Time Resolution of 22 fs,” Chem. Asian J.6(11), 3028–3034 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Suzuki, T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of ultrafast S2→S1 internal conversion through conical intersection in pyrazine,” J. Chem. Phys.132(17), 174302 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Théberge, F.

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B86(3), 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trabs, P.

Vaida, V.

R. J. Hemley, D. G. Leopold, J. L. Roebber, and V. Vaida, “The direct ultraviolet-absorption spectrum of the 1Σg+ → 1B2(1Σu+) transition of jet-cooled CS2,” J. Chem. Phys.79(11), 5219–5227 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A.

T. Fuji, T. Suzuki, E. Serebryannikov, and A. Zheltikov, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of a multicolor filament,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063822 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, P.

P. Zuo, T. Fuji, T. Horio, S. Adachi, and T. Suzuki, “Simultaneous generation of ultrashort pulses at 158 and 198 nm in a single filamentation cell by cascaded four-wave mixing in Ar,” Appl. Phys. B108(4), 815–819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zuo, T. Fuji, and T. Suzuki, “Spectral phase transfer to ultrashort UV pulses through four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express18(15), 16183–16192 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

P. Zuo, T. Fuji, T. Horio, S. Adachi, and T. Suzuki, “Simultaneous generation of ultrashort pulses at 158 and 198 nm in a single filamentation cell by cascaded four-wave mixing in Ar,” Appl. Phys. B108(4), 815–819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B86(3), 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Asian J.

T. Fuji, Y. Suzuki, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Excited-State Dynamics of CS2 Studied by Photoelectron Imaging with a Time Resolution of 22 fs,” Chem. Asian J.6(11), 3028–3034 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.

T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of non-adiabatic electronic dynamics in gas and liquid phases,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.31(2), 265–318 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

Y. Suzuki, T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of ultrafast S2→S1 internal conversion through conical intersection in pyrazine,” J. Chem. Phys.132(17), 174302 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Even, J. Jortner, D. Noy, N. Lavie, and C. Cossart-Magos, “Cooling of large molecules below 1 K and He clusters formation,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 8068–8071 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hemley, D. G. Leopold, J. L. Roebber, and V. Vaida, “The direct ultraviolet-absorption spectrum of the 1Σg+ → 1B2(1Σu+) transition of jet-cooled CS2,” J. Chem. Phys.79(11), 5219–5227 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Farmanara, V. Stert, and W. Radloff, “Ultrafast predissociation and coherent phenomena in CS2 excited by femtosecond laser pulses at 194-207 nm,” J. Chem. Phys.111(12), 5338–5343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

P. Hockett, C. Z. Bisgaard, O. J. Clarkin, and A. Stolow, “Time-resolved imaging of purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction,” Nat. Phys.7(8), 612–615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

T. Fuji, T. Suzuki, E. Serebryannikov, and A. Zheltikov, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of a multicolor filament,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063822 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, and I. Powis, “Two-dimensional charged particle image inversion using a polar basis function expansion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4989–4996 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. (b) Schematic drawing of the differential pumping system. All dimensions are given in millimeters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical spectra (a) 3ω, (b) 4ω, and (c) 5ω.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Pressure dependence of the measured pulse energies for 3ω (diamonds), 4ω (squares) and 5ω (circles). The energies of the ω and 2ω input beams were 430 and 370 μJ, respectively. The filled/open symbols indicate the energies measured with/without an output pinhole. (b) A typical cross-correlation trace between 4ω and 5ω measured by non-resonant (1 + 1’) two-photon ionization of Xe (circles). The solid line shows a Gaussian with FWHM of 18 fs. The vertical scale corresponds to averaged ion counts per 10 seconds.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic potential energy diagram of CS2. Two-dimensional (2D) map of photoelectron kinetic energy (PKE) distributions as a function of the pump-probe delay time using (b) 3ω probe pulse and (c) 5ω probe pulse. Figure 4(b) is reproduced from [20].

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