Abstract

In this study, we produce InGaN/GaN microcolumn LED (MC-LED) arrays having nonpolar metal sidewall contacts using a top-down method, where the metal contacts only with the sidewall of the columnar LEDs with an open top for transparency. The trapezoidal profile of the as-etched columns was altered to a rectangular profile through KOH treatment, exposing the nonpolar sidewalls. While the MC-LED with no treatment emitted no light because of the etch-damaged region, the MC-LEDs with KOH treatment exhibited much improved the electrical properties with the much higher shunt resistance due to the removal of the etch-damaged region. The optical output power was strongest for the MC-LED with a 5-min treatment indicating an almost complete removal of the damaged region.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.85(6), 3222–3233 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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  3. W. J. Tseng, M. Gonzalez, L. Dillemans, K. Cheng, S. J. Jiang, M. Vereecken, G. Borghs, and R. R. Lieten, “Strain relaxation in GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 253102 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.100(5), 054314 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 013107 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Chen, J. Ho, C. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K. Shih, F. Chen, J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(25), 3703–3705 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. H. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. S. Jang, S. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Effects of surface treatment on the electrical properties of ohmic contacts to (In)GaN for high performance optical device,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 576–582 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. A. Bardwell, I. G. Foulds, J. B. Webb, H. Tang, J. Fraser, S. Moisa, and S. J. Rolfe, “A simple wet etch for GaN,” J. Electron. Mater.28(10), L24–L26 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of m-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Y. Bae, D. J. Kong, J. Y. Lee, D. J. Seo, and D. S. Lee, “Size-controlled InGaN/GaN nanorod array fabrication and optical characterization,” Opt. Express21(14), 16854–16862 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

W. J. Tseng, M. Gonzalez, L. Dillemans, K. Cheng, S. J. Jiang, M. Vereecken, G. Borghs, and R. R. Lieten, “Strain relaxation in GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 253102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

B. J. Kim, H. Hung, H. Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of m-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting arrays fabricated by silica nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(5), 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

N. Miura, T. Nanjo, M. Suita, T. Oishi, Y. Abe, T. Ozeki, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal annealing effects on Ni/Au based Schottky contacts on n-GaN and AlGaN/GaN with insertion of high work function metal,” Solid-State Electron.48(5), 689–695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

M.-H. Tsai, O. F. Sankey, K. E. Schmidt, and I. S. T. Tsong, “Electronic structures of polar and nonpolar GaN surfaces,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B88(1), 40–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Hahn, R. J. Choi, J. H. Hong, H. J. Park, C. S. Choi, and H. J. Lee, “High-density plasma-induced etch damage of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.92(3), 1189–1194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Jang, S. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Effects of surface treatment on the electrical properties of ohmic contacts to (In)GaN for high performance optical device,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 576–582 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. G. Kent, K. P. Lee, A. P. Zhang, B. Luo, M. E. Overberg, C. R. Abernathy, F. Ren, K. D. MacKenzie, S. J. Pearton, and Y. Nakagawa, “Electrical effects of N2 plasma exposure on dry-etch damage in p- and n-GaN Schottky diodes,” Solid-State Electron.45(10), 1837–1842 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

L. Chen, J. Ho, C. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K. Shih, F. Chen, J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(25), 3703–3705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, and J. M. Van Hove, “GaN n- and p-type Schottky diodes: Effect of dry etch damage,” IEEE J. Trans. Electron Devices.47(7), 1320–1324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.85(6), 3222–3233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. H. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bardwell, I. G. Foulds, J. B. Webb, H. Tang, J. Fraser, S. Moisa, and S. J. Rolfe, “A simple wet etch for GaN,” J. Electron. Mater.28(10), L24–L26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abe, Y.

N. Miura, T. Nanjo, M. Suita, T. Oishi, Y. Abe, T. Ozeki, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal annealing effects on Ni/Au based Schottky contacts on n-GaN and AlGaN/GaN with insertion of high work function metal,” Solid-State Electron.48(5), 689–695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Abernathy, C. R.

D. G. Kent, K. P. Lee, A. P. Zhang, B. Luo, M. E. Overberg, C. R. Abernathy, F. Ren, K. D. MacKenzie, S. J. Pearton, and Y. Nakagawa, “Electrical effects of N2 plasma exposure on dry-etch damage in p- and n-GaN Schottky diodes,” Solid-State Electron.45(10), 1837–1842 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ambacher, O.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.85(6), 3222–3233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bae, S. Y.

Bang, J.

B. J. Kim, H. Hung, H. Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bardwell, J. A.

J. A. Bardwell, I. G. Foulds, J. B. Webb, H. Tang, J. Fraser, S. Moisa, and S. J. Rolfe, “A simple wet etch for GaN,” J. Electron. Mater.28(10), L24–L26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Borghs, G.

W. J. Tseng, M. Gonzalez, L. Dillemans, K. Cheng, S. J. Jiang, M. Vereecken, G. Borghs, and R. R. Lieten, “Strain relaxation in GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 253102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. A.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, and J. M. Van Hove, “GaN n- and p-type Schottky diodes: Effect of dry etch damage,” IEEE J. Trans. Electron Devices.47(7), 1320–1324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. H. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, L.

L. Chen, J. Ho, C. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K. Shih, F. Chen, J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(25), 3703–3705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

L. Chen, J. Ho, C. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K. Shih, F. Chen, J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(25), 3703–3705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, J. Ho, C. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K. Shih, F. Chen, J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(25), 3703–3705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. Y.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting arrays fabricated by silica nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(5), 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. Z.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K.

W. J. Tseng, M. Gonzalez, L. Dillemans, K. Cheng, S. J. Jiang, M. Vereecken, G. Borghs, and R. R. Lieten, “Strain relaxation in GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 253102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. C.

L. Chen, J. Ho, C. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K. Shih, F. Chen, J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(25), 3703–3705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. S.

Y. B. Hahn, R. J. Choi, J. H. Hong, H. J. Park, C. S. Choi, and H. J. Lee, “High-density plasma-induced etch damage of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.92(3), 1189–1194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, R. J.

Y. B. Hahn, R. J. Choi, J. H. Hong, H. J. Park, C. S. Choi, and H. J. Lee, “High-density plasma-induced etch damage of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.92(3), 1189–1194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, K.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.85(6), 3222–3233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dang, G. T.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, and J. M. Van Hove, “GaN n- and p-type Schottky diodes: Effect of dry etch damage,” IEEE J. Trans. Electron Devices.47(7), 1320–1324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. H. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of m-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dillemans, L.

W. J. Tseng, M. Gonzalez, L. Dillemans, K. Cheng, S. J. Jiang, M. Vereecken, G. Borghs, and R. R. Lieten, “Strain relaxation in GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 253102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrov, R.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.85(6), 3222–3233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eastman, L. F.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.85(6), 3222–3233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, P. R.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Egawa, T.

N. Miura, T. Nanjo, M. Suita, T. Oishi, Y. Abe, T. Ozeki, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal annealing effects on Ni/Au based Schottky contacts on n-GaN and AlGaN/GaN with insertion of high work function metal,” Solid-State Electron.48(5), 689–695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fichtenbaum, N. A.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Foulds, I. G.

J. A. Bardwell, I. G. Foulds, J. B. Webb, H. Tang, J. Fraser, S. Moisa, and S. J. Rolfe, “A simple wet etch for GaN,” J. Electron. Mater.28(10), L24–L26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, J.

J. A. Bardwell, I. G. Foulds, J. B. Webb, H. Tang, J. Fraser, S. Moisa, and S. J. Rolfe, “A simple wet etch for GaN,” J. Electron. Mater.28(10), L24–L26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fuke, S.

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, Y.

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Z.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, M.

W. J. Tseng, M. Gonzalez, L. Dillemans, K. Cheng, S. J. Jiang, M. Vereecken, G. Borghs, and R. R. Lieten, “Strain relaxation in GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 253102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, Y. B.

Y. B. Hahn, R. J. Choi, J. H. Hong, H. J. Park, C. S. Choi, and H. J. Lee, “High-density plasma-induced etch damage of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.92(3), 1189–1194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hickman, R.

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. H. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hilsenbeck, J.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.85(6), 3222–3233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J.

L. Chen, J. Ho, C. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K. Shih, F. Chen, J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(25), 3703–3705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J. H.

Y. B. Hahn, R. J. Choi, J. H. Hong, H. J. Park, C. S. Choi, and H. J. Lee, “High-density plasma-induced etch damage of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.92(3), 1189–1194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, M. Y.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting arrays fabricated by silica nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(5), 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of m-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. J.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting arrays fabricated by silica nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(5), 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hung, H.

B. J. Kim, H. Hung, H. Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

N. Miura, T. Nanjo, M. Suita, T. Oishi, Y. Abe, T. Ozeki, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal annealing effects on Ni/Au based Schottky contacts on n-GaN and AlGaN/GaN with insertion of high work function metal,” Solid-State Electron.48(5), 689–695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. S.

J. S. Jang, S. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Effects of surface treatment on the electrical properties of ohmic contacts to (In)GaN for high performance optical device,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 576–582 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S. J.

W. J. Tseng, M. Gonzalez, L. Dillemans, K. Cheng, S. J. Jiang, M. Vereecken, G. Borghs, and R. R. Lieten, “Strain relaxation in GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 253102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jimbo, T.

N. Miura, T. Nanjo, M. Suita, T. Oishi, Y. Abe, T. Ozeki, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal annealing effects on Ni/Au based Schottky contacts on n-GaN and AlGaN/GaN with insertion of high work function metal,” Solid-State Electron.48(5), 689–695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jong, C.

L. Chen, J. Ho, C. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K. Shih, F. Chen, J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(25), 3703–3705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kai, J.

L. Chen, J. Ho, C. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K. Shih, F. Chen, J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(25), 3703–3705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ke, M. Y.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting arrays fabricated by silica nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(5), 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kent, D. G.

D. G. Kent, K. P. Lee, A. P. Zhang, B. Luo, M. E. Overberg, C. R. Abernathy, F. Ren, K. D. MacKenzie, S. J. Pearton, and Y. Nakagawa, “Electrical effects of N2 plasma exposure on dry-etch damage in p- and n-GaN Schottky diodes,” Solid-State Electron.45(10), 1837–1842 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. J.

B. J. Kim, H. Hung, H. Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

B. J. Kim, H. Hung, H. Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

B. J. Kim, H. Hung, H. Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kong, D. J.

Lee, D. S.

Lee, H. J.

Y. B. Hahn, R. J. Choi, J. H. Hong, H. J. Park, C. S. Choi, and H. J. Lee, “High-density plasma-induced etch damage of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.92(3), 1189–1194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

Lee, K. P.

D. G. Kent, K. P. Lee, A. P. Zhang, B. Luo, M. E. Overberg, C. R. Abernathy, F. Ren, K. D. MacKenzie, S. J. Pearton, and Y. Nakagawa, “Electrical effects of N2 plasma exposure on dry-etch damage in p- and n-GaN Schottky diodes,” Solid-State Electron.45(10), 1837–1842 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lieten, R. R.

W. J. Tseng, M. Gonzalez, L. Dillemans, K. Cheng, S. J. Jiang, M. Vereecken, G. Borghs, and R. R. Lieten, “Strain relaxation in GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 253102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N. Y.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, B.

D. G. Kent, K. P. Lee, A. P. Zhang, B. Luo, M. E. Overberg, C. R. Abernathy, F. Ren, K. D. MacKenzie, S. J. Pearton, and Y. Nakagawa, “Electrical effects of N2 plasma exposure on dry-etch damage in p- and n-GaN Schottky diodes,” Solid-State Electron.45(10), 1837–1842 (2001).
[CrossRef]

MacKenzie, K. D.

D. G. Kent, K. P. Lee, A. P. Zhang, B. Luo, M. E. Overberg, C. R. Abernathy, F. Ren, K. D. MacKenzie, S. J. Pearton, and Y. Nakagawa, “Electrical effects of N2 plasma exposure on dry-etch damage in p- and n-GaN Schottky diodes,” Solid-State Electron.45(10), 1837–1842 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. W.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of m-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miura, N.

N. Miura, T. Nanjo, M. Suita, T. Oishi, Y. Abe, T. Ozeki, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal annealing effects on Ni/Au based Schottky contacts on n-GaN and AlGaN/GaN with insertion of high work function metal,” Solid-State Electron.48(5), 689–695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moisa, S.

J. A. Bardwell, I. G. Foulds, J. B. Webb, H. Tang, J. Fraser, S. Moisa, and S. J. Rolfe, “A simple wet etch for GaN,” J. Electron. Mater.28(10), L24–L26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, M.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.85(6), 3222–3233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, Y.

D. G. Kent, K. P. Lee, A. P. Zhang, B. Luo, M. E. Overberg, C. R. Abernathy, F. Ren, K. D. MacKenzie, S. J. Pearton, and Y. Nakagawa, “Electrical effects of N2 plasma exposure on dry-etch damage in p- and n-GaN Schottky diodes,” Solid-State Electron.45(10), 1837–1842 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nanjo, T.

N. Miura, T. Nanjo, M. Suita, T. Oishi, Y. Abe, T. Ozeki, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal annealing effects on Ni/Au based Schottky contacts on n-GaN and AlGaN/GaN with insertion of high work function metal,” Solid-State Electron.48(5), 689–695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neufeld, C. J.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oishi, T.

N. Miura, T. Nanjo, M. Suita, T. Oishi, Y. Abe, T. Ozeki, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal annealing effects on Ni/Au based Schottky contacts on n-GaN and AlGaN/GaN with insertion of high work function metal,” Solid-State Electron.48(5), 689–695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Overberg, M. E.

D. G. Kent, K. P. Lee, A. P. Zhang, B. Luo, M. E. Overberg, C. R. Abernathy, F. Ren, K. D. MacKenzie, S. J. Pearton, and Y. Nakagawa, “Electrical effects of N2 plasma exposure on dry-etch damage in p- and n-GaN Schottky diodes,” Solid-State Electron.45(10), 1837–1842 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ozeki, T.

N. Miura, T. Nanjo, M. Suita, T. Oishi, Y. Abe, T. Ozeki, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal annealing effects on Ni/Au based Schottky contacts on n-GaN and AlGaN/GaN with insertion of high work function metal,” Solid-State Electron.48(5), 689–695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. J.

Y. B. Hahn, R. J. Choi, J. H. Hong, H. J. Park, C. S. Choi, and H. J. Lee, “High-density plasma-induced etch damage of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.92(3), 1189–1194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

J. S. Jang, S. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Effects of surface treatment on the electrical properties of ohmic contacts to (In)GaN for high performance optical device,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 576–582 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

D. G. Kent, K. P. Lee, A. P. Zhang, B. Luo, M. E. Overberg, C. R. Abernathy, F. Ren, K. D. MacKenzie, S. J. Pearton, and Y. Nakagawa, “Electrical effects of N2 plasma exposure on dry-etch damage in p- and n-GaN Schottky diodes,” Solid-State Electron.45(10), 1837–1842 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, and J. M. Van Hove, “GaN n- and p-type Schottky diodes: Effect of dry etch damage,” IEEE J. Trans. Electron Devices.47(7), 1320–1324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. H. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Que, D.

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rajan, S.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of m-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Redwing, J. M.

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

D. G. Kent, K. P. Lee, A. P. Zhang, B. Luo, M. E. Overberg, C. R. Abernathy, F. Ren, K. D. MacKenzie, S. J. Pearton, and Y. Nakagawa, “Electrical effects of N2 plasma exposure on dry-etch damage in p- and n-GaN Schottky diodes,” Solid-State Electron.45(10), 1837–1842 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, and J. M. Van Hove, “GaN n- and p-type Schottky diodes: Effect of dry etch damage,” IEEE J. Trans. Electron Devices.47(7), 1320–1324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. H. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rieger, W.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.85(6), 3222–3233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rolfe, S. J.

J. A. Bardwell, I. G. Foulds, J. B. Webb, H. Tang, J. Fraser, S. Moisa, and S. J. Rolfe, “A simple wet etch for GaN,” J. Electron. Mater.28(10), L24–L26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sankey, O. F.

M.-H. Tsai, O. F. Sankey, K. E. Schmidt, and I. S. T. Tsong, “Electronic structures of polar and nonpolar GaN surfaces,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B88(1), 40–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schaake, C.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.85(6), 3222–3233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, K. E.

M.-H. Tsai, O. F. Sankey, K. E. Schmidt, and I. S. T. Tsong, “Electronic structures of polar and nonpolar GaN surfaces,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B88(1), 40–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. C.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of m-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seo, D. J.

Seong, T. Y.

J. S. Jang, S. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Effects of surface treatment on the electrical properties of ohmic contacts to (In)GaN for high performance optical device,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 576–582 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shealy, J. R.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.85(6), 3222–3233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shih, K.

L. Chen, J. Ho, C. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K. Shih, F. Chen, J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(25), 3703–3705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shul, R. H.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. H. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shul, R. J.

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.85(6), 3222–3233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of m-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stocker, D. A.

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stutzmann, M.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.85(6), 3222–3233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suita, M.

N. Miura, T. Nanjo, M. Suita, T. Oishi, Y. Abe, T. Ozeki, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal annealing effects on Ni/Au based Schottky contacts on n-GaN and AlGaN/GaN with insertion of high work function metal,” Solid-State Electron.48(5), 689–695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sumiya, M.

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tamboli, A. C.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of m-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

J. A. Bardwell, I. G. Foulds, J. B. Webb, H. Tang, J. Fraser, S. Moisa, and S. J. Rolfe, “A simple wet etch for GaN,” J. Electron. Mater.28(10), L24–L26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Y. B.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M.-H.

M.-H. Tsai, O. F. Sankey, K. E. Schmidt, and I. S. T. Tsong, “Electronic structures of polar and nonpolar GaN surfaces,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B88(1), 40–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, W. J.

W. J. Tseng, M. Gonzalez, L. Dillemans, K. Cheng, S. J. Jiang, M. Vereecken, G. Borghs, and R. R. Lieten, “Strain relaxation in GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 253102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsong, I. S. T.

M.-H. Tsai, O. F. Sankey, K. E. Schmidt, and I. S. T. Tsong, “Electronic structures of polar and nonpolar GaN surfaces,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B88(1), 40–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Hove, J. M.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, and J. M. Van Hove, “GaN n- and p-type Schottky diodes: Effect of dry etch damage,” IEEE J. Trans. Electron Devices.47(7), 1320–1324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. H. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vereecken, M.

W. J. Tseng, M. Gonzalez, L. Dillemans, K. Cheng, S. J. Jiang, M. Vereecken, G. Borghs, and R. R. Lieten, “Strain relaxation in GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 253102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Y.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting arrays fabricated by silica nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(5), 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. M.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Webb, J. B.

J. A. Bardwell, I. G. Foulds, J. B. Webb, H. Tang, J. Fraser, S. Moisa, and S. J. Rolfe, “A simple wet etch for GaN,” J. Electron. Mater.28(10), L24–L26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, N. G.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.85(6), 3222–3233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wittmer, L.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.85(6), 3222–3233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, E. Y.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A. P.

D. G. Kent, K. P. Lee, A. P. Zhang, B. Luo, M. E. Overberg, C. R. Abernathy, F. Ren, K. D. MacKenzie, S. J. Pearton, and Y. Nakagawa, “Electrical effects of N2 plasma exposure on dry-etch damage in p- and n-GaN Schottky diodes,” Solid-State Electron.45(10), 1837–1842 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, and J. M. Van Hove, “GaN n- and p-type Schottky diodes: Effect of dry etch damage,” IEEE J. Trans. Electron Devices.47(7), 1320–1324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. H. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. H. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. F.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

W. J. Tseng, M. Gonzalez, L. Dillemans, K. Cheng, S. J. Jiang, M. Vereecken, G. Borghs, and R. R. Lieten, “Strain relaxation in GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 253102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, J. Ho, C. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K. Shih, F. Chen, J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(25), 3703–3705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. H. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting arrays fabricated by silica nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(5), 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Trans. Electron Devices. (1)

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, and J. M. Van Hove, “GaN n- and p-type Schottky diodes: Effect of dry etch damage,” IEEE J. Trans. Electron Devices.47(7), 1320–1324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Hahn, R. J. Choi, J. H. Hong, H. J. Park, C. S. Choi, and H. J. Lee, “High-density plasma-induced etch damage of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.92(3), 1189–1194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.85(6), 3222–3233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of m-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

J. A. Bardwell, I. G. Foulds, J. B. Webb, H. Tang, J. Fraser, S. Moisa, and S. J. Rolfe, “A simple wet etch for GaN,” J. Electron. Mater.28(10), L24–L26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

M.-H. Tsai, O. F. Sankey, K. E. Schmidt, and I. S. T. Tsong, “Electronic structures of polar and nonpolar GaN surfaces,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B88(1), 40–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

J. S. Jang, S. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Effects of surface treatment on the electrical properties of ohmic contacts to (In)GaN for high performance optical device,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 576–582 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (2)

D. G. Kent, K. P. Lee, A. P. Zhang, B. Luo, M. E. Overberg, C. R. Abernathy, F. Ren, K. D. MacKenzie, S. J. Pearton, and Y. Nakagawa, “Electrical effects of N2 plasma exposure on dry-etch damage in p- and n-GaN Schottky diodes,” Solid-State Electron.45(10), 1837–1842 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Miura, T. Nanjo, M. Suita, T. Oishi, Y. Abe, T. Ozeki, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal annealing effects on Ni/Au based Schottky contacts on n-GaN and AlGaN/GaN with insertion of high work function metal,” Solid-State Electron.48(5), 689–695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

B. J. Kim, H. Hung, H. Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. C. Kim, S. Ti, and D. E. Mars, “Nanostructure optoelectronic device having sidewall electrical contact,” U.S. Patent 20110297913A1, 8 Dec. 2011.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of nonpolar contacted InGaN/GaN fabrication.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results of KOH treatment. (a) Schematics during KOH treatment (0, 1, 3, 5, 10 min.). (b) Time-dependent etching rates and fill factor during KOH treatment. (c) SEM image before treatment. (d) SEM image after 5-min treatment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of nonpolar contact InGaN/GaN LED. (a) A bird eye’s view of the device. (b) Cross-section view of the device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) I-V characteristics of the devices. (b) Optical output characteristics of the devices.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I VI R s R p = I s e e(VI R s )/( n ideal kT) .

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