Abstract

Clocking of lens elements is frequently used as an effective method of compensating for two-dimensional tolerances such as material inhomogeneity and surface figure errors. Typically, the lens designer has to determine the optimum angles of rotation by manually modeling lens element clocking in the commercial optical design software because the nature of errors resolved by lens clocking does not lead to good convergences for clocking optimization. In this paper, a method of automatic clocking optimization is developed. The method is implemented using a combination of particle swarm optimization algorithm and commercial optical design software. The optimum angles of rotation and predicted imaging performance are automatically calculated using this method. Methods of implementation and optimization examples are also given.

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References

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  1. K. Becker, B. Dörband, R. Lörcher, and M. Schmidt, “Aspheric Optics at Different Quality Levels and Functional Need,” Proc. SPIE3739, ••• (1999).
  2. A. Engel, E. Mörsen, A. Jordanov, and K. Knapp, “Present and future industrial metrology needs for Qualification of High Quality Optical Micro Lithography Materials,” Proc. SPIE4449, 1–6 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. R. Rogers, “Homogeneity tolerances for Optical Elements,” (CODE V User Group Meeting, 2011). http://www.opticalres.com/
  4. T. I. Harris, “Overview of CODE V Development,” Proc. SPIE1354, 104 (1990).
  5. D. M. Williamson, “Compensator selection in the tolerancing of a microlithographic lens,” Proc. SPIE1049, 178–186 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Matsuyama, I. Tanaka, T. Ozawa, K. Nomura, and T. Koyama, “Improving lens performance through the most recent lens manufacturing process,” Proc. SPIE5040, 801–810 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Yoshihara, R. Koizumi, K. Takahashi, S. Suda, and A. Suzuki, “Realization of very-small aberration projection lenses,” Proc. SPIE4000, 559–566 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, “Particle Swarm Optimization,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (Perth, Australia, 1995), pp. 1942–1948.
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Omura, European Patent 1139138, embodiment 5.
  10. W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007), Chap. 10.5 and Chap. 10.12.

2003

T. Matsuyama, I. Tanaka, T. Ozawa, K. Nomura, and T. Koyama, “Improving lens performance through the most recent lens manufacturing process,” Proc. SPIE5040, 801–810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. Engel, E. Mörsen, A. Jordanov, and K. Knapp, “Present and future industrial metrology needs for Qualification of High Quality Optical Micro Lithography Materials,” Proc. SPIE4449, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Yoshihara, R. Koizumi, K. Takahashi, S. Suda, and A. Suzuki, “Realization of very-small aberration projection lenses,” Proc. SPIE4000, 559–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. Becker, B. Dörband, R. Lörcher, and M. Schmidt, “Aspheric Optics at Different Quality Levels and Functional Need,” Proc. SPIE3739, ••• (1999).

1990

T. I. Harris, “Overview of CODE V Development,” Proc. SPIE1354, 104 (1990).

1989

D. M. Williamson, “Compensator selection in the tolerancing of a microlithographic lens,” Proc. SPIE1049, 178–186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Becker, K.

K. Becker, B. Dörband, R. Lörcher, and M. Schmidt, “Aspheric Optics at Different Quality Levels and Functional Need,” Proc. SPIE3739, ••• (1999).

Dörband, B.

K. Becker, B. Dörband, R. Lörcher, and M. Schmidt, “Aspheric Optics at Different Quality Levels and Functional Need,” Proc. SPIE3739, ••• (1999).

Eberhart, R.

J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, “Particle Swarm Optimization,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (Perth, Australia, 1995), pp. 1942–1948.
[CrossRef]

Engel, A.

A. Engel, E. Mörsen, A. Jordanov, and K. Knapp, “Present and future industrial metrology needs for Qualification of High Quality Optical Micro Lithography Materials,” Proc. SPIE4449, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. I.

T. I. Harris, “Overview of CODE V Development,” Proc. SPIE1354, 104 (1990).

Jordanov, A.

A. Engel, E. Mörsen, A. Jordanov, and K. Knapp, “Present and future industrial metrology needs for Qualification of High Quality Optical Micro Lithography Materials,” Proc. SPIE4449, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, J.

J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, “Particle Swarm Optimization,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (Perth, Australia, 1995), pp. 1942–1948.
[CrossRef]

Knapp, K.

A. Engel, E. Mörsen, A. Jordanov, and K. Knapp, “Present and future industrial metrology needs for Qualification of High Quality Optical Micro Lithography Materials,” Proc. SPIE4449, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koizumi, R.

T. Yoshihara, R. Koizumi, K. Takahashi, S. Suda, and A. Suzuki, “Realization of very-small aberration projection lenses,” Proc. SPIE4000, 559–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

T. Matsuyama, I. Tanaka, T. Ozawa, K. Nomura, and T. Koyama, “Improving lens performance through the most recent lens manufacturing process,” Proc. SPIE5040, 801–810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lörcher, R.

K. Becker, B. Dörband, R. Lörcher, and M. Schmidt, “Aspheric Optics at Different Quality Levels and Functional Need,” Proc. SPIE3739, ••• (1999).

Matsuyama, T.

T. Matsuyama, I. Tanaka, T. Ozawa, K. Nomura, and T. Koyama, “Improving lens performance through the most recent lens manufacturing process,” Proc. SPIE5040, 801–810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mörsen, E.

A. Engel, E. Mörsen, A. Jordanov, and K. Knapp, “Present and future industrial metrology needs for Qualification of High Quality Optical Micro Lithography Materials,” Proc. SPIE4449, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, K.

T. Matsuyama, I. Tanaka, T. Ozawa, K. Nomura, and T. Koyama, “Improving lens performance through the most recent lens manufacturing process,” Proc. SPIE5040, 801–810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, T.

T. Matsuyama, I. Tanaka, T. Ozawa, K. Nomura, and T. Koyama, “Improving lens performance through the most recent lens manufacturing process,” Proc. SPIE5040, 801–810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.

K. Becker, B. Dörband, R. Lörcher, and M. Schmidt, “Aspheric Optics at Different Quality Levels and Functional Need,” Proc. SPIE3739, ••• (1999).

Suda, S.

T. Yoshihara, R. Koizumi, K. Takahashi, S. Suda, and A. Suzuki, “Realization of very-small aberration projection lenses,” Proc. SPIE4000, 559–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

T. Yoshihara, R. Koizumi, K. Takahashi, S. Suda, and A. Suzuki, “Realization of very-small aberration projection lenses,” Proc. SPIE4000, 559–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

T. Yoshihara, R. Koizumi, K. Takahashi, S. Suda, and A. Suzuki, “Realization of very-small aberration projection lenses,” Proc. SPIE4000, 559–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, I.

T. Matsuyama, I. Tanaka, T. Ozawa, K. Nomura, and T. Koyama, “Improving lens performance through the most recent lens manufacturing process,” Proc. SPIE5040, 801–810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, D. M.

D. M. Williamson, “Compensator selection in the tolerancing of a microlithographic lens,” Proc. SPIE1049, 178–186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yoshihara, T.

T. Yoshihara, R. Koizumi, K. Takahashi, S. Suda, and A. Suzuki, “Realization of very-small aberration projection lenses,” Proc. SPIE4000, 559–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

T. I. Harris, “Overview of CODE V Development,” Proc. SPIE1354, 104 (1990).

D. M. Williamson, “Compensator selection in the tolerancing of a microlithographic lens,” Proc. SPIE1049, 178–186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuyama, I. Tanaka, T. Ozawa, K. Nomura, and T. Koyama, “Improving lens performance through the most recent lens manufacturing process,” Proc. SPIE5040, 801–810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshihara, R. Koizumi, K. Takahashi, S. Suda, and A. Suzuki, “Realization of very-small aberration projection lenses,” Proc. SPIE4000, 559–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Becker, B. Dörband, R. Lörcher, and M. Schmidt, “Aspheric Optics at Different Quality Levels and Functional Need,” Proc. SPIE3739, ••• (1999).

A. Engel, E. Mörsen, A. Jordanov, and K. Knapp, “Present and future industrial metrology needs for Qualification of High Quality Optical Micro Lithography Materials,” Proc. SPIE4449, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. R. Rogers, “Homogeneity tolerances for Optical Elements,” (CODE V User Group Meeting, 2011). http://www.opticalres.com/

J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, “Particle Swarm Optimization,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (Perth, Australia, 1995), pp. 1942–1948.
[CrossRef]

Y. Omura, European Patent 1139138, embodiment 5.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007), Chap. 10.5 and Chap. 10.12.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flow chart of manual clocking optimization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flow chart of automatic clocking optimization.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Layout of lithographic lens with interferometric material inhomogeneity errors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MCO vs. ACO convergence for lithographic lens with NA = 0.75.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of the Lithographic Lens

Tables Icon

Table 2 Index Inhomogeneity and Dimension Sizes for Each Lens Element

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison between the optimum results of the two clocking optimization methods

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M=f[ s 1 ( θ 1 ), s 2 ( θ 2 ),.. s N ( θ N )].
M= a· W 2 +b· D 2 .

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