Abstract

We present a polymer biochip with embedded optics which allows the detection of supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) without losses due to total internal reflection within the substrate. The chip design comprises structured spherical and aspherical optical elements on the bottom, while the top is chemically functionalized for direct binding of biomolecules. Furthermore, this design facilitates integration in lab-on-a-chip systems with appropriate microfluidics. In the confocal optical setup an ellipsoidal mirror is used for collection of SAF light above the critical angle of the water-polymer interface, which is detected by a photon-counting detector. The work presented here represents a proof of concept for performing sensitive and rapid point-of-care testing, using this low-cost, robust and disposable optical biochip platform. The performance of the platform was validated using direct binding DNA and human IgG assays which yielded low limits of detection 10pM for DNA and 10pg/ml for human IgG.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  1. T. I. Koshy and K. F. Buechler, “The Triage® System,” in The Immunoassay Handbook, D. Wild, eds. (Elsevier Science, 2013), pp. 541–544.
  2. R. Bingisser, C. Cairns, M. Christ, P. Hausfater, B. Lindahl, J. Mair, M. Panteghini, Ch. Price, and P. Venge, “Cardiac troponin: a critical review of the case for point-of-care testing in the ED,” Am. J. Emerg. Med. 30(8), 1639–1649 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, “Forbidden light detection from single molecules,” Anal. Chem. 72(9), 2117–2123 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. Kurzbuch, J. Bakker, J. Melin, Ch. Jonsson, T. Ruckstuhl, and B. MacCraith, “A biochip reader using super critical angle fluorescence,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 137(1), 1–6 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Ruckstuhl, M. Rankl, and S. Seeger, “Highly sensitive biosensing using a supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) instrument,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 18(9), 1193–1199 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. T. Ruckstuhl, C. M. Winterflood, and S. Seeger, “Supercritical angle fluorescence immunoassay platform,” Anal. Chem. 83(6), 2345–2350 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. R. Gorkin, C. E. Nwankire, J. Gaughran, X. Zhang, G. G. Donohoe, M. Rook, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “Centrifugo-pneumatic valving utilizing dissolvable films,” Lab Chip 12(16), 2894–2902 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. Ducrée, S. Haeberle, S. Lutz, S. Pausch, F. Stetten, and R. Zengerle, “The centrifugal microfluidic Bio-Disk platform,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S103–S115 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Ducrée, “Next-generation microfluidic lab-on-a-chip platforms for point-of-care diagnostics and systems biology,” Procedia Chem. 1(1), 517–520 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. Jönsson, M. Aronsson, G. Rundström, C. Pettersson, I. Mendel-Hartvig, J. Bakker, E. Martinsson, B. Liedberg, B. MacCraith, O. Ohman, and J. Melin, “Silane-dextran chemistry on lateral flow polymer chips for immunoassays,” Lab Chip 8(7), 1191–1197 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

R. Bingisser, C. Cairns, M. Christ, P. Hausfater, B. Lindahl, J. Mair, M. Panteghini, Ch. Price, and P. Venge, “Cardiac troponin: a critical review of the case for point-of-care testing in the ED,” Am. J. Emerg. Med. 30(8), 1639–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gorkin, C. E. Nwankire, J. Gaughran, X. Zhang, G. G. Donohoe, M. Rook, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “Centrifugo-pneumatic valving utilizing dissolvable films,” Lab Chip 12(16), 2894–2902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

T. Ruckstuhl, C. M. Winterflood, and S. Seeger, “Supercritical angle fluorescence immunoassay platform,” Anal. Chem. 83(6), 2345–2350 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J. S. Yuk, M. Trnavsky, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Surface plasmon-coupled emission (SPCE)-based immunoassay using a novel paraboloid array biochip,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(6), 1344–1349 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

D. Kurzbuch, J. Bakker, J. Melin, Ch. Jonsson, T. Ruckstuhl, and B. MacCraith, “A biochip reader using super critical angle fluorescence,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 137(1), 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Ducrée, “Next-generation microfluidic lab-on-a-chip platforms for point-of-care diagnostics and systems biology,” Procedia Chem. 1(1), 517–520 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

C. Jönsson, M. Aronsson, G. Rundström, C. Pettersson, I. Mendel-Hartvig, J. Bakker, E. Martinsson, B. Liedberg, B. MacCraith, O. Ohman, and J. Melin, “Silane-dextran chemistry on lateral flow polymer chips for immunoassays,” Lab Chip 8(7), 1191–1197 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. Ducrée, S. Haeberle, S. Lutz, S. Pausch, F. Stetten, and R. Zengerle, “The centrifugal microfluidic Bio-Disk platform,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S103–S115 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. Ruckstuhl, M. Rankl, and S. Seeger, “Highly sensitive biosensing using a supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) instrument,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 18(9), 1193–1199 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, “Forbidden light detection from single molecules,” Anal. Chem. 72(9), 2117–2123 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aronsson, M.

C. Jönsson, M. Aronsson, G. Rundström, C. Pettersson, I. Mendel-Hartvig, J. Bakker, E. Martinsson, B. Liedberg, B. MacCraith, O. Ohman, and J. Melin, “Silane-dextran chemistry on lateral flow polymer chips for immunoassays,” Lab Chip 8(7), 1191–1197 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakker, J.

D. Kurzbuch, J. Bakker, J. Melin, Ch. Jonsson, T. Ruckstuhl, and B. MacCraith, “A biochip reader using super critical angle fluorescence,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 137(1), 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Jönsson, M. Aronsson, G. Rundström, C. Pettersson, I. Mendel-Hartvig, J. Bakker, E. Martinsson, B. Liedberg, B. MacCraith, O. Ohman, and J. Melin, “Silane-dextran chemistry on lateral flow polymer chips for immunoassays,” Lab Chip 8(7), 1191–1197 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrett, L.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bingisser, R.

R. Bingisser, C. Cairns, M. Christ, P. Hausfater, B. Lindahl, J. Mair, M. Panteghini, Ch. Price, and P. Venge, “Cardiac troponin: a critical review of the case for point-of-care testing in the ED,” Am. J. Emerg. Med. 30(8), 1639–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burger, R.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cairns, C.

R. Bingisser, C. Cairns, M. Christ, P. Hausfater, B. Lindahl, J. Mair, M. Panteghini, Ch. Price, and P. Venge, “Cardiac troponin: a critical review of the case for point-of-care testing in the ED,” Am. J. Emerg. Med. 30(8), 1639–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christ, M.

R. Bingisser, C. Cairns, M. Christ, P. Hausfater, B. Lindahl, J. Mair, M. Panteghini, Ch. Price, and P. Venge, “Cardiac troponin: a critical review of the case for point-of-care testing in the ED,” Am. J. Emerg. Med. 30(8), 1639–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daniels, S.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donohoe, G. G.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gorkin, C. E. Nwankire, J. Gaughran, X. Zhang, G. G. Donohoe, M. Rook, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “Centrifugo-pneumatic valving utilizing dissolvable films,” Lab Chip 12(16), 2894–2902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ducrée, J.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gorkin, C. E. Nwankire, J. Gaughran, X. Zhang, G. G. Donohoe, M. Rook, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “Centrifugo-pneumatic valving utilizing dissolvable films,” Lab Chip 12(16), 2894–2902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ducrée, “Next-generation microfluidic lab-on-a-chip platforms for point-of-care diagnostics and systems biology,” Procedia Chem. 1(1), 517–520 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Ducrée, S. Haeberle, S. Lutz, S. Pausch, F. Stetten, and R. Zengerle, “The centrifugal microfluidic Bio-Disk platform,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S103–S115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Enderlein, J.

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, “Forbidden light detection from single molecules,” Anal. Chem. 72(9), 2117–2123 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaughran, J.

R. Gorkin, C. E. Nwankire, J. Gaughran, X. Zhang, G. G. Donohoe, M. Rook, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “Centrifugo-pneumatic valving utilizing dissolvable films,” Lab Chip 12(16), 2894–2902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorkin, R.

R. Gorkin, C. E. Nwankire, J. Gaughran, X. Zhang, G. G. Donohoe, M. Rook, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “Centrifugo-pneumatic valving utilizing dissolvable films,” Lab Chip 12(16), 2894–2902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haeberle, S.

J. Ducrée, S. Haeberle, S. Lutz, S. Pausch, F. Stetten, and R. Zengerle, “The centrifugal microfluidic Bio-Disk platform,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S103–S115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hausfater, P.

R. Bingisser, C. Cairns, M. Christ, P. Hausfater, B. Lindahl, J. Mair, M. Panteghini, Ch. Price, and P. Venge, “Cardiac troponin: a critical review of the case for point-of-care testing in the ED,” Am. J. Emerg. Med. 30(8), 1639–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hearty, S.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jonsson, Ch.

D. Kurzbuch, J. Bakker, J. Melin, Ch. Jonsson, T. Ruckstuhl, and B. MacCraith, “A biochip reader using super critical angle fluorescence,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 137(1), 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jönsson, C.

C. Jönsson, M. Aronsson, G. Rundström, C. Pettersson, I. Mendel-Hartvig, J. Bakker, E. Martinsson, B. Liedberg, B. MacCraith, O. Ohman, and J. Melin, “Silane-dextran chemistry on lateral flow polymer chips for immunoassays,” Lab Chip 8(7), 1191–1197 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, S.

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, “Forbidden light detection from single molecules,” Anal. Chem. 72(9), 2117–2123 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitsara, M.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurzbuch, D.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kurzbuch, J. Bakker, J. Melin, Ch. Jonsson, T. Ruckstuhl, and B. MacCraith, “A biochip reader using super critical angle fluorescence,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 137(1), 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liedberg, B.

C. Jönsson, M. Aronsson, G. Rundström, C. Pettersson, I. Mendel-Hartvig, J. Bakker, E. Martinsson, B. Liedberg, B. MacCraith, O. Ohman, and J. Melin, “Silane-dextran chemistry on lateral flow polymer chips for immunoassays,” Lab Chip 8(7), 1191–1197 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindahl, B.

R. Bingisser, C. Cairns, M. Christ, P. Hausfater, B. Lindahl, J. Mair, M. Panteghini, Ch. Price, and P. Venge, “Cardiac troponin: a critical review of the case for point-of-care testing in the ED,” Am. J. Emerg. Med. 30(8), 1639–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lutz, S.

J. Ducrée, S. Haeberle, S. Lutz, S. Pausch, F. Stetten, and R. Zengerle, “The centrifugal microfluidic Bio-Disk platform,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S103–S115 (2007).
[Crossref]

MacCraith, B.

D. Kurzbuch, J. Bakker, J. Melin, Ch. Jonsson, T. Ruckstuhl, and B. MacCraith, “A biochip reader using super critical angle fluorescence,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 137(1), 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Jönsson, M. Aronsson, G. Rundström, C. Pettersson, I. Mendel-Hartvig, J. Bakker, E. Martinsson, B. Liedberg, B. MacCraith, O. Ohman, and J. Melin, “Silane-dextran chemistry on lateral flow polymer chips for immunoassays,” Lab Chip 8(7), 1191–1197 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacCraith, B. D.

J. S. Yuk, M. Trnavsky, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Surface plasmon-coupled emission (SPCE)-based immunoassay using a novel paraboloid array biochip,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(6), 1344–1349 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mair, J.

R. Bingisser, C. Cairns, M. Christ, P. Hausfater, B. Lindahl, J. Mair, M. Panteghini, Ch. Price, and P. Venge, “Cardiac troponin: a critical review of the case for point-of-care testing in the ED,” Am. J. Emerg. Med. 30(8), 1639–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, Ch.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martinsson, E.

C. Jönsson, M. Aronsson, G. Rundström, C. Pettersson, I. Mendel-Hartvig, J. Bakker, E. Martinsson, B. Liedberg, B. MacCraith, O. Ohman, and J. Melin, “Silane-dextran chemistry on lateral flow polymer chips for immunoassays,” Lab Chip 8(7), 1191–1197 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McDonagh, C.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Yuk, M. Trnavsky, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Surface plasmon-coupled emission (SPCE)-based immunoassay using a novel paraboloid array biochip,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(6), 1344–1349 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melin, J.

D. Kurzbuch, J. Bakker, J. Melin, Ch. Jonsson, T. Ruckstuhl, and B. MacCraith, “A biochip reader using super critical angle fluorescence,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 137(1), 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Jönsson, M. Aronsson, G. Rundström, C. Pettersson, I. Mendel-Hartvig, J. Bakker, E. Martinsson, B. Liedberg, B. MacCraith, O. Ohman, and J. Melin, “Silane-dextran chemistry on lateral flow polymer chips for immunoassays,” Lab Chip 8(7), 1191–1197 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mendel-Hartvig, I.

C. Jönsson, M. Aronsson, G. Rundström, C. Pettersson, I. Mendel-Hartvig, J. Bakker, E. Martinsson, B. Liedberg, B. MacCraith, O. Ohman, and J. Melin, “Silane-dextran chemistry on lateral flow polymer chips for immunoassays,” Lab Chip 8(7), 1191–1197 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monaghan, R.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murrell, J.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nwankire, C. E.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gorkin, C. E. Nwankire, J. Gaughran, X. Zhang, G. G. Donohoe, M. Rook, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “Centrifugo-pneumatic valving utilizing dissolvable films,” Lab Chip 12(16), 2894–2902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Kennedy, R.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gorkin, C. E. Nwankire, J. Gaughran, X. Zhang, G. G. Donohoe, M. Rook, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “Centrifugo-pneumatic valving utilizing dissolvable films,” Lab Chip 12(16), 2894–2902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohman, O.

C. Jönsson, M. Aronsson, G. Rundström, C. Pettersson, I. Mendel-Hartvig, J. Bakker, E. Martinsson, B. Liedberg, B. MacCraith, O. Ohman, and J. Melin, “Silane-dextran chemistry on lateral flow polymer chips for immunoassays,” Lab Chip 8(7), 1191–1197 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Panteghini, M.

R. Bingisser, C. Cairns, M. Christ, P. Hausfater, B. Lindahl, J. Mair, M. Panteghini, Ch. Price, and P. Venge, “Cardiac troponin: a critical review of the case for point-of-care testing in the ED,” Am. J. Emerg. Med. 30(8), 1639–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pausch, S.

J. Ducrée, S. Haeberle, S. Lutz, S. Pausch, F. Stetten, and R. Zengerle, “The centrifugal microfluidic Bio-Disk platform,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S103–S115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pettersson, C.

C. Jönsson, M. Aronsson, G. Rundström, C. Pettersson, I. Mendel-Hartvig, J. Bakker, E. Martinsson, B. Liedberg, B. MacCraith, O. Ohman, and J. Melin, “Silane-dextran chemistry on lateral flow polymer chips for immunoassays,” Lab Chip 8(7), 1191–1197 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Price, Ch.

R. Bingisser, C. Cairns, M. Christ, P. Hausfater, B. Lindahl, J. Mair, M. Panteghini, Ch. Price, and P. Venge, “Cardiac troponin: a critical review of the case for point-of-care testing in the ED,” Am. J. Emerg. Med. 30(8), 1639–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rankl, M.

T. Ruckstuhl, M. Rankl, and S. Seeger, “Highly sensitive biosensing using a supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) instrument,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 18(9), 1193–1199 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rook, M.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gorkin, C. E. Nwankire, J. Gaughran, X. Zhang, G. G. Donohoe, M. Rook, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “Centrifugo-pneumatic valving utilizing dissolvable films,” Lab Chip 12(16), 2894–2902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruckstuhl, T.

T. Ruckstuhl, C. M. Winterflood, and S. Seeger, “Supercritical angle fluorescence immunoassay platform,” Anal. Chem. 83(6), 2345–2350 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kurzbuch, J. Bakker, J. Melin, Ch. Jonsson, T. Ruckstuhl, and B. MacCraith, “A biochip reader using super critical angle fluorescence,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 137(1), 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Ruckstuhl, M. Rankl, and S. Seeger, “Highly sensitive biosensing using a supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) instrument,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 18(9), 1193–1199 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, “Forbidden light detection from single molecules,” Anal. Chem. 72(9), 2117–2123 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rundström, G.

C. Jönsson, M. Aronsson, G. Rundström, C. Pettersson, I. Mendel-Hartvig, J. Bakker, E. Martinsson, B. Liedberg, B. MacCraith, O. Ohman, and J. Melin, “Silane-dextran chemistry on lateral flow polymer chips for immunoassays,” Lab Chip 8(7), 1191–1197 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seeger, S.

T. Ruckstuhl, C. M. Winterflood, and S. Seeger, “Supercritical angle fluorescence immunoassay platform,” Anal. Chem. 83(6), 2345–2350 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ruckstuhl, M. Rankl, and S. Seeger, “Highly sensitive biosensing using a supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) instrument,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 18(9), 1193–1199 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, “Forbidden light detection from single molecules,” Anal. Chem. 72(9), 2117–2123 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegrist, J.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Somers, M.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stetten, F.

J. Ducrée, S. Haeberle, S. Lutz, S. Pausch, F. Stetten, and R. Zengerle, “The centrifugal microfluidic Bio-Disk platform,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S103–S115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Trnavsky, M.

J. S. Yuk, M. Trnavsky, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Surface plasmon-coupled emission (SPCE)-based immunoassay using a novel paraboloid array biochip,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(6), 1344–1349 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venge, P.

R. Bingisser, C. Cairns, M. Christ, P. Hausfater, B. Lindahl, J. Mair, M. Panteghini, Ch. Price, and P. Venge, “Cardiac troponin: a critical review of the case for point-of-care testing in the ED,” Am. J. Emerg. Med. 30(8), 1639–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winterflood, C. M.

T. Ruckstuhl, C. M. Winterflood, and S. Seeger, “Supercritical angle fluorescence immunoassay platform,” Anal. Chem. 83(6), 2345–2350 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuk, J. S.

J. S. Yuk, M. Trnavsky, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Surface plasmon-coupled emission (SPCE)-based immunoassay using a novel paraboloid array biochip,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(6), 1344–1349 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zengerle, R.

J. Ducrée, S. Haeberle, S. Lutz, S. Pausch, F. Stetten, and R. Zengerle, “The centrifugal microfluidic Bio-Disk platform,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S103–S115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gorkin, C. E. Nwankire, J. Gaughran, X. Zhang, G. G. Donohoe, M. Rook, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “Centrifugo-pneumatic valving utilizing dissolvable films,” Lab Chip 12(16), 2894–2902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Emerg. Med. (1)

R. Bingisser, C. Cairns, M. Christ, P. Hausfater, B. Lindahl, J. Mair, M. Panteghini, Ch. Price, and P. Venge, “Cardiac troponin: a critical review of the case for point-of-care testing in the ED,” Am. J. Emerg. Med. 30(8), 1639–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (2)

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, “Forbidden light detection from single molecules,” Anal. Chem. 72(9), 2117–2123 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ruckstuhl, C. M. Winterflood, and S. Seeger, “Supercritical angle fluorescence immunoassay platform,” Anal. Chem. 83(6), 2345–2350 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

C. E. Nwankire, G. G. Donohoe, X. Zhang, J. Siegrist, M. Somers, D. Kurzbuch, R. Monaghan, M. Kitsara, R. Burger, S. Hearty, J. Murrell, Ch. Martin, M. Rook, L. Barrett, S. Daniels, C. McDonagh, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “At-Line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics,” Anal. Chim. Acta 781, 54–62 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

T. Ruckstuhl, M. Rankl, and S. Seeger, “Highly sensitive biosensing using a supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) instrument,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 18(9), 1193–1199 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Yuk, M. Trnavsky, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Surface plasmon-coupled emission (SPCE)-based immunoassay using a novel paraboloid array biochip,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(6), 1344–1349 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

J. Ducrée, S. Haeberle, S. Lutz, S. Pausch, F. Stetten, and R. Zengerle, “The centrifugal microfluidic Bio-Disk platform,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S103–S115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lab Chip (2)

C. Jönsson, M. Aronsson, G. Rundström, C. Pettersson, I. Mendel-Hartvig, J. Bakker, E. Martinsson, B. Liedberg, B. MacCraith, O. Ohman, and J. Melin, “Silane-dextran chemistry on lateral flow polymer chips for immunoassays,” Lab Chip 8(7), 1191–1197 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gorkin, C. E. Nwankire, J. Gaughran, X. Zhang, G. G. Donohoe, M. Rook, R. O’Kennedy, and J. Ducrée, “Centrifugo-pneumatic valving utilizing dissolvable films,” Lab Chip 12(16), 2894–2902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Procedia Chem. (1)

J. Ducrée, “Next-generation microfluidic lab-on-a-chip platforms for point-of-care diagnostics and systems biology,” Procedia Chem. 1(1), 517–520 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

D. Kurzbuch, J. Bakker, J. Melin, Ch. Jonsson, T. Ruckstuhl, and B. MacCraith, “A biochip reader using super critical angle fluorescence,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 137(1), 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

T. I. Koshy and K. F. Buechler, “The Triage® System,” in The Immunoassay Handbook, D. Wild, eds. (Elsevier Science, 2013), pp. 541–544.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic of the SAF collection and detection optics showing the elliptical mirror collector. Inset shows the emission from the labelled biomolecules on the chip surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a). The moulded chip with ring structure. (b) The optical element structure with spherical ring lens and focussing lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a). The assembled chip with microfluidics. The sample solution flows due to centrifugal forces over the detection area in the center of the chip after the spinning has started (green arrow). After the chip is turned 90° the detection area is washed by another spinning step (red arrow). (b) Centrifugal chip holder with four chips mounted on a spin stand.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a). Human IgG assay in low analyte concentration range where the error bars represent three replicates. (b) DNA assay where error bars represent three replicates.

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