Abstract

We investigate phase-sensitive amplification (PSA) and phase regeneration of a binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) signal using a single periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The PPLN is operated bi-directionally in order to simultaneously achieve phase correlated signals and phase-sensitive (PS) operation. We use injection-locking for carrier phase recovery and a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fiber stretcher to correct path length deviations in the in-line phase regenerator. We observe a trade-off between high PS gain provided by high pumping power and stability of the device.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavik, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplifiers for regeneration of phase encoded optical signal formats,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2011), pp. 1–4.
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, C. Stephan, G. Onishchukov, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, B. Schmauss, and G. Leuchs, “Phase-preserving amplitude regeneration for a WDM RZ-DPSK signal using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Express16(3), 1923–1928 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Matsumoto and H. Sakaguchi, “DPSK signal regeneration using a fiber-based amplitude regenerator,” Opt. Express16(15), 11169–11175 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Croussore and G. Li, “Phase and amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using phase-sensitive amplification,” J. of Sel. Top. in Quant. Elect.14, 648–658 (2008).
  6. Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields26(8), 1817–1839 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Phase-squeezing properties of non-degenerate PSAs using PPLN waveguides,” Opt. Express19(26), B131–B139 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. V. Drummond, J. D. Reis, R. N. Nogueira, P. P. Monteiro, A. L. Teixeira, S. Shinada, N. Wada, and H. Ito, “Error-free wavelength conversion at 160 Gbit/s in PPLN waveguide at room temperature,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1135 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. J. Lee, F. Parmigiani, S. Liu, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, K. Gallo, and D. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express17(22), 20393–20400 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Langrock, S. Kumar, J. E. McGeehan, A. E. Willner, and M. M. Fejer, “All-optical signal processing using χ(2) nonlinearities in guided-wave devices,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(7), 2579–2592 (2006).
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  12. B. J. Puttnam, Á. Szabó, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Multi-channel phase squeezing in a PPLN-PPLN PSA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2012), p. OW3C.
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Umeki, M. Asobe, H. Takara, T. Kobayashi, H. Kubota, H. Takenouchi, and Y. Miyamoto, “First demonstration of multi-span Transmission using phase and amplitude regeneration in PPLN-based PSA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW1I.7.
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Szabo, B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Investigation of an all-optical black-box PPLN-PPLN BPSK phase regenerator,” Photon. Tech. Lett.24(22), 2087–2089 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase and amplitude characteristics of a phase-sensitive amplifier operating in gain saturation,” Opt. Express20(19), 21400–21412 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Z. Zheng, L. An, Z. Li, X. Zhao, and X. Liu, “All-optical regeneration of DQPSK/QPSK signals based on phase-sensitive amplification,” Opt. Commun.281(10), 2755–2759 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Albuquerque, M. Drummond, R. N. Nogueira, B. J. Puttnam, S. Shinada, N. Wada, Á. Szabó, and D. Mazroa, “Investigation of black-box phase regeneration using single bi-directional PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW4C.2.
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Lithium Niobate – Defects, Photorefraction and Ferroelectric Switching (Springer Series in Material Science, 2008), pp. 82–95.
  19. T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, “Highly efficient wavelength converter using direct-bonded PPZnLN ridge waveguide,” J. of Quant. Electron.46(8), 1206–1213 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

A. Szabo, B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Investigation of an all-optical black-box PPLN-PPLN BPSK phase regenerator,” Photon. Tech. Lett.24(22), 2087–2089 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase and amplitude characteristics of a phase-sensitive amplifier operating in gain saturation,” Opt. Express20(19), 21400–21412 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Phase-squeezing properties of non-degenerate PSAs using PPLN waveguides,” Opt. Express19(26), B131–B139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, “Highly efficient wavelength converter using direct-bonded PPZnLN ridge waveguide,” J. of Quant. Electron.46(8), 1206–1213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. V. Drummond, J. D. Reis, R. N. Nogueira, P. P. Monteiro, A. L. Teixeira, S. Shinada, N. Wada, and H. Ito, “Error-free wavelength conversion at 160 Gbit/s in PPLN waveguide at room temperature,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Lee, F. Parmigiani, S. Liu, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, K. Gallo, and D. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express17(22), 20393–20400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

K. Croussore and G. Li, “Phase and amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using phase-sensitive amplification,” J. of Sel. Top. in Quant. Elect.14, 648–658 (2008).

K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, C. Stephan, G. Onishchukov, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, B. Schmauss, and G. Leuchs, “Phase-preserving amplitude regeneration for a WDM RZ-DPSK signal using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Express16(3), 1923–1928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Matsumoto and H. Sakaguchi, “DPSK signal regeneration using a fiber-based amplitude regenerator,” Opt. Express16(15), 11169–11175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zheng, L. An, Z. Li, X. Zhao, and X. Liu, “All-optical regeneration of DQPSK/QPSK signals based on phase-sensitive amplification,” Opt. Commun.281(10), 2755–2759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

1982 (1)

C. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields26(8), 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Albuquerque, A.

A. Albuquerque, M. Drummond, R. N. Nogueira, B. J. Puttnam, S. Shinada, N. Wada, Á. Szabó, and D. Mazroa, “Investigation of black-box phase regeneration using single bi-directional PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW4C.2.
[CrossRef]

An, L.

Z. Zheng, L. An, Z. Li, X. Zhao, and X. Liu, “All-optical regeneration of DQPSK/QPSK signals based on phase-sensitive amplification,” Opt. Commun.281(10), 2755–2759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase and amplitude characteristics of a phase-sensitive amplifier operating in gain saturation,” Opt. Express20(19), 21400–21412 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, “Highly efficient wavelength converter using direct-bonded PPZnLN ridge waveguide,” J. of Quant. Electron.46(8), 1206–1213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, H. Takara, T. Kobayashi, H. Kubota, H. Takenouchi, and Y. Miyamoto, “First demonstration of multi-span Transmission using phase and amplitude regeneration in PPLN-based PSA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW1I.7.
[CrossRef]

Blessing, D. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bogris, A.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Caves, C.

C. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields26(8), 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Corcoran, B.

Croussore, K.

K. Croussore and G. Li, “Phase and amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using phase-sensitive amplification,” J. of Sel. Top. in Quant. Elect.14, 648–658 (2008).

Cvecek, K.

Dasgupta, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, M.

A. Albuquerque, M. Drummond, R. N. Nogueira, B. J. Puttnam, S. Shinada, N. Wada, Á. Szabó, and D. Mazroa, “Investigation of black-box phase regeneration using single bi-directional PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW4C.2.
[CrossRef]

Drummond, M. V.

M. V. Drummond, J. D. Reis, R. N. Nogueira, P. P. Monteiro, A. L. Teixeira, S. Shinada, N. Wada, and H. Ito, “Error-free wavelength conversion at 160 Gbit/s in PPLN waveguide at room temperature,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Gallo, K.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herstrøm, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

M. V. Drummond, J. D. Reis, R. N. Nogueira, P. P. Monteiro, A. L. Teixeira, S. Shinada, N. Wada, and H. Ito, “Error-free wavelength conversion at 160 Gbit/s in PPLN waveguide at room temperature,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jakobsen, D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kakande, J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Lee, F. Parmigiani, S. Liu, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, K. Gallo, and D. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express17(22), 20393–20400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavik, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplifiers for regeneration of phase encoded optical signal formats,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2011), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase and amplitude characteristics of a phase-sensitive amplifier operating in gain saturation,” Opt. Express20(19), 21400–21412 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, H. Takara, T. Kobayashi, H. Kubota, H. Takenouchi, and Y. Miyamoto, “First demonstration of multi-span Transmission using phase and amplitude regeneration in PPLN-based PSA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW1I.7.
[CrossRef]

Kubota, H.

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, H. Takara, T. Kobayashi, H. Kubota, H. Takenouchi, and Y. Miyamoto, “First demonstration of multi-span Transmission using phase and amplitude regeneration in PPLN-based PSA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW1I.7.
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

Langrock, C.

Lee, K. J.

Leuchs, G.

Li, G.

K. Croussore and G. Li, “Phase and amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using phase-sensitive amplification,” J. of Sel. Top. in Quant. Elect.14, 648–658 (2008).

Li, Z.

Z. Zheng, L. An, Z. Li, X. Zhao, and X. Liu, “All-optical regeneration of DQPSK/QPSK signals based on phase-sensitive amplification,” Opt. Commun.281(10), 2755–2759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Liu, X.

Z. Zheng, L. An, Z. Li, X. Zhao, and X. Liu, “All-optical regeneration of DQPSK/QPSK signals based on phase-sensitive amplification,” Opt. Commun.281(10), 2755–2759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, R.

Lundström, C.

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase and amplitude characteristics of a phase-sensitive amplifier operating in gain saturation,” Opt. Express20(19), 21400–21412 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, M.

Mazroa, D.

A. Szabo, B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Investigation of an all-optical black-box PPLN-PPLN BPSK phase regenerator,” Photon. Tech. Lett.24(22), 2087–2089 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Phase-squeezing properties of non-degenerate PSAs using PPLN waveguides,” Opt. Express19(26), B131–B139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Puttnam, Á. Szabó, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Multi-channel phase squeezing in a PPLN-PPLN PSA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2012), p. OW3C.
[CrossRef]

A. Albuquerque, M. Drummond, R. N. Nogueira, B. J. Puttnam, S. Shinada, N. Wada, Á. Szabó, and D. Mazroa, “Investigation of black-box phase regeneration using single bi-directional PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW4C.2.
[CrossRef]

McGeehan, J. E.

McKinstrie, C. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, H. Takara, T. Kobayashi, H. Kubota, H. Takenouchi, and Y. Miyamoto, “First demonstration of multi-span Transmission using phase and amplitude regeneration in PPLN-based PSA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW1I.7.
[CrossRef]

Monteiro, P. P.

M. V. Drummond, J. D. Reis, R. N. Nogueira, P. P. Monteiro, A. L. Teixeira, S. Shinada, N. Wada, and H. Ito, “Error-free wavelength conversion at 160 Gbit/s in PPLN waveguide at room temperature,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nogueira, R. N.

M. V. Drummond, J. D. Reis, R. N. Nogueira, P. P. Monteiro, A. L. Teixeira, S. Shinada, N. Wada, and H. Ito, “Error-free wavelength conversion at 160 Gbit/s in PPLN waveguide at room temperature,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Albuquerque, M. Drummond, R. N. Nogueira, B. J. Puttnam, S. Shinada, N. Wada, Á. Szabó, and D. Mazroa, “Investigation of black-box phase regeneration using single bi-directional PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW4C.2.
[CrossRef]

O’Gorman, J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Onishchukov, G.

Parmigiani, F.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Lee, F. Parmigiani, S. Liu, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, K. Gallo, and D. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express17(22), 20393–20400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavik, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplifiers for regeneration of phase encoded optical signal formats,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2011), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Lee, F. Parmigiani, S. Liu, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, K. Gallo, and D. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express17(22), 20393–20400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavik, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplifiers for regeneration of phase encoded optical signal formats,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2011), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Phelan, R.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Puttnam, B. J.

A. Szabo, B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Investigation of an all-optical black-box PPLN-PPLN BPSK phase regenerator,” Photon. Tech. Lett.24(22), 2087–2089 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Phase-squeezing properties of non-degenerate PSAs using PPLN waveguides,” Opt. Express19(26), B131–B139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Puttnam, Á. Szabó, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Multi-channel phase squeezing in a PPLN-PPLN PSA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2012), p. OW3C.
[CrossRef]

A. Albuquerque, M. Drummond, R. N. Nogueira, B. J. Puttnam, S. Shinada, N. Wada, Á. Szabó, and D. Mazroa, “Investigation of black-box phase regeneration using single bi-directional PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW4C.2.
[CrossRef]

Reis, J. D.

M. V. Drummond, J. D. Reis, R. N. Nogueira, P. P. Monteiro, A. L. Teixeira, S. Shinada, N. Wada, and H. Ito, “Error-free wavelength conversion at 160 Gbit/s in PPLN waveguide at room temperature,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D.

Richardson, D. J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavik, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplifiers for regeneration of phase encoded optical signal formats,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2011), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, H.

Schmauss, B.

Schubert, C.

Shinada, S.

A. Szabo, B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Investigation of an all-optical black-box PPLN-PPLN BPSK phase regenerator,” Photon. Tech. Lett.24(22), 2087–2089 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Phase-squeezing properties of non-degenerate PSAs using PPLN waveguides,” Opt. Express19(26), B131–B139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Drummond, J. D. Reis, R. N. Nogueira, P. P. Monteiro, A. L. Teixeira, S. Shinada, N. Wada, and H. Ito, “Error-free wavelength conversion at 160 Gbit/s in PPLN waveguide at room temperature,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Puttnam, Á. Szabó, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Multi-channel phase squeezing in a PPLN-PPLN PSA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2012), p. OW3C.
[CrossRef]

A. Albuquerque, M. Drummond, R. N. Nogueira, B. J. Puttnam, S. Shinada, N. Wada, Á. Szabó, and D. Mazroa, “Investigation of black-box phase regeneration using single bi-directional PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW4C.2.
[CrossRef]

Sjödin, M.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slavik, R.

J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavik, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplifiers for regeneration of phase encoded optical signal formats,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2011), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Slavík, R.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sponsel, K.

Stephan, C.

Sygletos, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Syvridis, D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Szabo, A.

A. Szabo, B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Investigation of an all-optical black-box PPLN-PPLN BPSK phase regenerator,” Photon. Tech. Lett.24(22), 2087–2089 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Szabó, Á.

A. Albuquerque, M. Drummond, R. N. Nogueira, B. J. Puttnam, S. Shinada, N. Wada, Á. Szabó, and D. Mazroa, “Investigation of black-box phase regeneration using single bi-directional PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW4C.2.
[CrossRef]

B. J. Puttnam, Á. Szabó, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Multi-channel phase squeezing in a PPLN-PPLN PSA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2012), p. OW3C.
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, “Highly efficient wavelength converter using direct-bonded PPZnLN ridge waveguide,” J. of Quant. Electron.46(8), 1206–1213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takara, H.

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, H. Takara, T. Kobayashi, H. Kubota, H. Takenouchi, and Y. Miyamoto, “First demonstration of multi-span Transmission using phase and amplitude regeneration in PPLN-based PSA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW1I.7.
[CrossRef]

Takenouchi, H.

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, H. Takara, T. Kobayashi, H. Kubota, H. Takenouchi, and Y. Miyamoto, “First demonstration of multi-span Transmission using phase and amplitude regeneration in PPLN-based PSA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW1I.7.
[CrossRef]

Teixeira, A. L.

M. V. Drummond, J. D. Reis, R. N. Nogueira, P. P. Monteiro, A. L. Teixeira, S. Shinada, N. Wada, and H. Ito, “Error-free wavelength conversion at 160 Gbit/s in PPLN waveguide at room temperature,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tipsuwannakul, E.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Toda, H.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tong, Z.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Umeki, T.

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, “Highly efficient wavelength converter using direct-bonded PPZnLN ridge waveguide,” J. of Quant. Electron.46(8), 1206–1213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, H. Takara, T. Kobayashi, H. Kubota, H. Takenouchi, and Y. Miyamoto, “First demonstration of multi-span Transmission using phase and amplitude regeneration in PPLN-based PSA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW1I.7.
[CrossRef]

Wada, N.

A. Szabo, B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Investigation of an all-optical black-box PPLN-PPLN BPSK phase regenerator,” Photon. Tech. Lett.24(22), 2087–2089 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Phase-squeezing properties of non-degenerate PSAs using PPLN waveguides,” Opt. Express19(26), B131–B139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Drummond, J. D. Reis, R. N. Nogueira, P. P. Monteiro, A. L. Teixeira, S. Shinada, N. Wada, and H. Ito, “Error-free wavelength conversion at 160 Gbit/s in PPLN waveguide at room temperature,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Puttnam, Á. Szabó, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Multi-channel phase squeezing in a PPLN-PPLN PSA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2012), p. OW3C.
[CrossRef]

A. Albuquerque, M. Drummond, R. N. Nogueira, B. J. Puttnam, S. Shinada, N. Wada, Á. Szabó, and D. Mazroa, “Investigation of black-box phase regeneration using single bi-directional PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW4C.2.
[CrossRef]

Weerasuriya, R.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Zhao, X.

Z. Zheng, L. An, Z. Li, X. Zhao, and X. Liu, “All-optical regeneration of DQPSK/QPSK signals based on phase-sensitive amplification,” Opt. Commun.281(10), 2755–2759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

Z. Zheng, L. An, Z. Li, X. Zhao, and X. Liu, “All-optical regeneration of DQPSK/QPSK signals based on phase-sensitive amplification,” Opt. Commun.281(10), 2755–2759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. V. Drummond, J. D. Reis, R. N. Nogueira, P. P. Monteiro, A. L. Teixeira, S. Shinada, N. Wada, and H. Ito, “Error-free wavelength conversion at 160 Gbit/s in PPLN waveguide at room temperature,” Electron. Lett.45(22), 1135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. of Quant. Electron. (1)

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, “Highly efficient wavelength converter using direct-bonded PPZnLN ridge waveguide,” J. of Quant. Electron.46(8), 1206–1213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. of Sel. Top. in Quant. Elect. (1)

K. Croussore and G. Li, “Phase and amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using phase-sensitive amplification,” J. of Sel. Top. in Quant. Elect.14, 648–658 (2008).

Nat. Photonics (2)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Zheng, L. An, Z. Li, X. Zhao, and X. Liu, “All-optical regeneration of DQPSK/QPSK signals based on phase-sensitive amplification,” Opt. Commun.281(10), 2755–2759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

A. Szabo, B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Investigation of an all-optical black-box PPLN-PPLN BPSK phase regenerator,” Photon. Tech. Lett.24(22), 2087–2089 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields (1)

C. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields26(8), 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavik, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplifiers for regeneration of phase encoded optical signal formats,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2011), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

B. J. Puttnam, Á. Szabó, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Multi-channel phase squeezing in a PPLN-PPLN PSA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2012), p. OW3C.
[CrossRef]

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, H. Takara, T. Kobayashi, H. Kubota, H. Takenouchi, and Y. Miyamoto, “First demonstration of multi-span Transmission using phase and amplitude regeneration in PPLN-based PSA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW1I.7.
[CrossRef]

A. Albuquerque, M. Drummond, R. N. Nogueira, B. J. Puttnam, S. Shinada, N. Wada, Á. Szabó, and D. Mazroa, “Investigation of black-box phase regeneration using single bi-directional PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), p. OW4C.2.
[CrossRef]

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Lithium Niobate – Defects, Photorefraction and Ferroelectric Switching (Springer Series in Material Science, 2008), pp. 82–95.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental set-up used to characterize PS amplification. BPF - band-pass filter; EDFA - erbium-doped fiber amplifier; OP – optical processor; OSA – optical spectrum analyzer; PC - polarization controller; VOA - variable optical attenuator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results for the devices with lengths of: (a), (d) and (g) 3 cm; (b), (e) and (h) 4.5 cm; (c), (f) and (i) 6 cm. (a)-(c) Experimental and simulated PS gain as a function of the phase added to the pump wave in the OP for PPS of 27.6 dBm and PSR of 10 dB. (d)-(f) Experimental and simulated PSDR curves as a function of the PSR for PPS = 27.6 dBm. (g)-(i) Maximum experimental PS gain (asterisks) and attenuation (triangles), simulated (solid curve) and experimental (circles) PSDR and QPM temperature (dots) as a function of PPS, for PSR = 10 dB.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental set-up for the bi-directional PPLN-based black-box regenerator with injection-locking for carrier recovery. MUX/DEMUX – WDM multiplexer/demultiplexer; ODL – optical delay line; OP – optical processor; Rx – coherent receiver.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ratio between the standard deviations of the received symbols in PI and PS operation modes for amplitude and phase as function of: (a) PSR with PPS = 28.9 dBm; (b) PPS with PSR = 10 dB. Received constellations (c) and phase histograms (d) of the received symbols in PI and PS modes.

Metrics