Abstract

Attosecond angular streaking measurements have revealed deep insights into the timing of tunnel ionization processes of atoms in intense laser fields. So far experiments of this type have been performed only with a cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectrometer (COLTRIMS). Here, we present a way to apply attosecond angular streaking experiments to a velocity map imaging spectrometer (VMIS) with few-cycle pulses at a repetition rate of 10 kHz and a high ionization yield per pulse. Three-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions from strong-field ionization of helium with an elliptically polarized, sub-10-fs pulse were retrieved by tomographic reconstruction from the momentum space electron images and used for the analysis in the polarization plane.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Vredenborg, W. G. Roeterdink, and M. H. M. Janssen, “A photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging apparatus for femtosecond time-resolved molecular dynamics with electron time-of-flight resolution of sigma=18 ps and energy resolution Delta E/E=3.5%,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(6), 063108 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Maurer, D. Dimitrovski, L. Christensen, L. B. Madsen, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Molecular-frame 3D photoelectron momentum distributions by tomographic reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(12), 123001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Lehmann, N. B. Ram, and M. H. M. Janssen, “Velocity map photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging on a single detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(9), 093103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, D. Dimitrovski, M. Abu-samha, L. B. Madsen, and U. Keller, “Attoclock reveals natural coordinates of the laser-induced tunnelling current flow in atoms,” Nat. Phys.8(1), 76–80 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys.7(5), 428–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.13(9), 093008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

M. Smolarski, P. Eckle, U. Keller, and R. Dörner, “Semiclassical model for attosecond angular streaking,” Opt. Express18(17), 17640–17650 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hockett, M. Staniforth, and K. L. Reid, “Photoelectron angular distributions from rotationally state-selected NH3((BE)-E-1 “): dependence on ion rotational state and polarization geometry,” Mol. Phys.108(7-9), 1045–1054 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

O. Ghafur, W. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. F. Kling, M. Drescher, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “A velocity map imaging detector with an integrated gas injection system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(3), 033110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, J. Kohler, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of ultrashort free electron wave packets,” Appl. Phys. B95(4), 647–651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B42, 185402 (2009).

2008 (3)

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Angular Streaking,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vredenborg, W. G. Roeterdink, and M. H. M. Janssen, “A photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging apparatus for femtosecond time-resolved molecular dynamics with electron time-of-flight resolution of sigma=18 ps and energy resolution Delta E/E=3.5%,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(6), 063108 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

D. Rolles, Z. D. Pešić, M. Perri, R. C. Bilodeau, G. D. Ackerman, B. S. Rude, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. D. Bozek, and N. Berrah, “A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron-ion and ion-ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B261(1-2), 170–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

F. Légaré, K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, S. S. Wesolowski, P. R. Bunker, P. Dombi, F. Krausz, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser Coulomb-explosion imaging of small molecules,” Phys. Rev. A71(1), 013415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dorner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, and H. Reisler, “Reconstruction of Abel-transformable Images: The Gaussian basis-set expansion Abel transform method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(7), 2634–2642 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

A. T. J. B. Eppink and D. H. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses: Application in photoelectron and photofragment ion imaging of molecular oxygen,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3477–3484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Parker and A. T. J. B. Eppink, “Photoelectron and photofragment velocity map imaging of state-selected molecular oxygen dissociation/ionization dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys.107(7), 2357–2362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Abu-samha, M.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, D. Dimitrovski, M. Abu-samha, L. B. Madsen, and U. Keller, “Attoclock reveals natural coordinates of the laser-induced tunnelling current flow in atoms,” Nat. Phys.8(1), 76–80 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, G. D.

D. Rolles, Z. D. Pešić, M. Perri, R. C. Bilodeau, G. D. Ackerman, B. S. Rude, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. D. Bozek, and N. Berrah, “A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron-ion and ion-ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B261(1-2), 170–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Arissian, L.

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B42, 185402 (2009).

Bandrauk, A. D.

F. Légaré, K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, S. S. Wesolowski, P. R. Bunker, P. Dombi, F. Krausz, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser Coulomb-explosion imaging of small molecules,” Phys. Rev. A71(1), 013415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baumert, T.

M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, J. Kohler, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of ultrashort free electron wave packets,” Appl. Phys. B95(4), 647–651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, T.

M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, J. Kohler, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of ultrashort free electron wave packets,” Appl. Phys. B95(4), 647–651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berrah, N.

D. Rolles, Z. D. Pešić, M. Perri, R. C. Bilodeau, G. D. Ackerman, B. S. Rude, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. D. Bozek, and N. Berrah, “A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron-ion and ion-ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B261(1-2), 170–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Angular Streaking,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, R. C.

D. Rolles, Z. D. Pešić, M. Perri, R. C. Bilodeau, G. D. Ackerman, B. S. Rude, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. D. Bozek, and N. Berrah, “A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron-ion and ion-ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B261(1-2), 170–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bozek, J. D.

D. Rolles, Z. D. Pešić, M. Perri, R. C. Bilodeau, G. D. Ackerman, B. S. Rude, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. D. Bozek, and N. Berrah, “A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron-ion and ion-ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B261(1-2), 170–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bunker, P. R.

F. Légaré, K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, S. S. Wesolowski, P. R. Bunker, P. Dombi, F. Krausz, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser Coulomb-explosion imaging of small molecules,” Phys. Rev. A71(1), 013415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Büttiker, M.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christensen, L.

J. Maurer, D. Dimitrovski, L. Christensen, L. B. Madsen, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Molecular-frame 3D photoelectron momentum distributions by tomographic reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(12), 123001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirelli, C.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, D. Dimitrovski, M. Abu-samha, L. B. Madsen, and U. Keller, “Attoclock reveals natural coordinates of the laser-induced tunnelling current flow in atoms,” Nat. Phys.8(1), 76–80 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys.7(5), 428–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.13(9), 093008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B42, 185402 (2009).

F. Légaré, K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, S. S. Wesolowski, P. R. Bunker, P. Dombi, F. Krausz, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser Coulomb-explosion imaging of small molecules,” Phys. Rev. A71(1), 013415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimitrovski, D.

J. Maurer, D. Dimitrovski, L. Christensen, L. B. Madsen, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Molecular-frame 3D photoelectron momentum distributions by tomographic reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(12), 123001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, D. Dimitrovski, M. Abu-samha, L. B. Madsen, and U. Keller, “Attoclock reveals natural coordinates of the laser-induced tunnelling current flow in atoms,” Nat. Phys.8(1), 76–80 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dombi, P.

F. Légaré, K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, S. S. Wesolowski, P. R. Bunker, P. Dombi, F. Krausz, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser Coulomb-explosion imaging of small molecules,” Phys. Rev. A71(1), 013415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dooley, P. W.

F. Légaré, K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, S. S. Wesolowski, P. R. Bunker, P. Dombi, F. Krausz, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser Coulomb-explosion imaging of small molecules,” Phys. Rev. A71(1), 013415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, A.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dorner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dorner, R.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dorner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dörner, R.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.13(9), 093008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys.7(5), 428–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Smolarski, P. Eckle, U. Keller, and R. Dörner, “Semiclassical model for attosecond angular streaking,” Opt. Express18(17), 17640–17650 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Angular Streaking,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

O. Ghafur, W. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. F. Kling, M. Drescher, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “A velocity map imaging detector with an integrated gas injection system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(3), 033110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dribinski, V.

V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, and H. Reisler, “Reconstruction of Abel-transformable Images: The Gaussian basis-set expansion Abel transform method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(7), 2634–2642 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.13(9), 093008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eckle, P.

M. Smolarski, P. Eckle, U. Keller, and R. Dörner, “Semiclassical model for attosecond angular streaking,” Opt. Express18(17), 17640–17650 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Angular Streaking,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eppink, A. T. J. B.

A. T. J. B. Eppink and D. H. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses: Application in photoelectron and photofragment ion imaging of molecular oxygen,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3477–3484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Parker and A. T. J. B. Eppink, “Photoelectron and photofragment velocity map imaging of state-selected molecular oxygen dissociation/ionization dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys.107(7), 2357–2362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, F.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ghafur, O.

O. Ghafur, W. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. F. Kling, M. Drescher, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “A velocity map imaging detector with an integrated gas injection system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(3), 033110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hockett, P.

P. Hockett, M. Staniforth, and K. L. Reid, “Photoelectron angular distributions from rotationally state-selected NH3((BE)-E-1 “): dependence on ion rotational state and polarization geometry,” Mol. Phys.108(7-9), 1045–1054 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iaconis, C.

Janssen, M. H. M.

C. S. Lehmann, N. B. Ram, and M. H. M. Janssen, “Velocity map photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging on a single detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(9), 093103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vredenborg, W. G. Roeterdink, and M. H. M. Janssen, “A photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging apparatus for femtosecond time-resolved molecular dynamics with electron time-of-flight resolution of sigma=18 ps and energy resolution Delta E/E=3.5%,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(6), 063108 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnsson, P.

O. Ghafur, W. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. F. Kling, M. Drescher, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “A velocity map imaging detector with an integrated gas injection system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(3), 033110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys.7(5), 428–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.13(9), 093008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, D. Dimitrovski, M. Abu-samha, L. B. Madsen, and U. Keller, “Attoclock reveals natural coordinates of the laser-induced tunnelling current flow in atoms,” Nat. Phys.8(1), 76–80 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Smolarski, P. Eckle, U. Keller, and R. Dörner, “Semiclassical model for attosecond angular streaking,” Opt. Express18(17), 17640–17650 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Angular Streaking,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kilcoyne, A. L. D.

D. Rolles, Z. D. Pešić, M. Perri, R. C. Bilodeau, G. D. Ackerman, B. S. Rude, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. D. Bozek, and N. Berrah, “A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron-ion and ion-ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B261(1-2), 170–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kling, M. F.

O. Ghafur, W. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. F. Kling, M. Drescher, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “A velocity map imaging detector with an integrated gas injection system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(3), 033110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohler, J.

M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, J. Kohler, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of ultrashort free electron wave packets,” Appl. Phys. B95(4), 647–651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

F. Légaré, K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, S. S. Wesolowski, P. R. Bunker, P. Dombi, F. Krausz, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser Coulomb-explosion imaging of small molecules,” Phys. Rev. A71(1), 013415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krug, M.

M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, J. Kohler, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of ultrashort free electron wave packets,” Appl. Phys. B95(4), 647–651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. F.

F. Légaré, K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, S. S. Wesolowski, P. R. Bunker, P. Dombi, F. Krausz, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser Coulomb-explosion imaging of small molecules,” Phys. Rev. A71(1), 013415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Légaré, F.

F. Légaré, K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, S. S. Wesolowski, P. R. Bunker, P. Dombi, F. Krausz, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser Coulomb-explosion imaging of small molecules,” Phys. Rev. A71(1), 013415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, C. S.

C. S. Lehmann, N. B. Ram, and M. H. M. Janssen, “Velocity map photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging on a single detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(9), 093103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litvinyuk, I. V.

F. Légaré, K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, S. S. Wesolowski, P. R. Bunker, P. Dombi, F. Krausz, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser Coulomb-explosion imaging of small molecules,” Phys. Rev. A71(1), 013415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, L. B.

J. Maurer, D. Dimitrovski, L. Christensen, L. B. Madsen, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Molecular-frame 3D photoelectron momentum distributions by tomographic reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(12), 123001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, D. Dimitrovski, M. Abu-samha, L. B. Madsen, and U. Keller, “Attoclock reveals natural coordinates of the laser-induced tunnelling current flow in atoms,” Nat. Phys.8(1), 76–80 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mainfray, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mandelshtam, V. A.

V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, and H. Reisler, “Reconstruction of Abel-transformable Images: The Gaussian basis-set expansion Abel transform method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(7), 2634–2642 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, J.

J. Maurer, D. Dimitrovski, L. Christensen, L. B. Madsen, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Molecular-frame 3D photoelectron momentum distributions by tomographic reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(12), 123001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moshammer, R.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dorner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Angular Streaking,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ossadtchi, A.

V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, and H. Reisler, “Reconstruction of Abel-transformable Images: The Gaussian basis-set expansion Abel transform method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(7), 2634–2642 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Parker, D. H.

A. T. J. B. Eppink and D. H. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses: Application in photoelectron and photofragment ion imaging of molecular oxygen,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3477–3484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Parker and A. T. J. B. Eppink, “Photoelectron and photofragment velocity map imaging of state-selected molecular oxygen dissociation/ionization dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys.107(7), 2357–2362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perri, M.

D. Rolles, Z. D. Pešić, M. Perri, R. C. Bilodeau, G. D. Ackerman, B. S. Rude, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. D. Bozek, and N. Berrah, “A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron-ion and ion-ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B261(1-2), 170–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pešic, Z. D.

D. Rolles, Z. D. Pešić, M. Perri, R. C. Bilodeau, G. D. Ackerman, B. S. Rude, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. D. Bozek, and N. Berrah, “A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron-ion and ion-ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B261(1-2), 170–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petite, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, A. N.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, D. Dimitrovski, M. Abu-samha, L. B. Madsen, and U. Keller, “Attoclock reveals natural coordinates of the laser-induced tunnelling current flow in atoms,” Nat. Phys.8(1), 76–80 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys.7(5), 428–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.13(9), 093008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rahman, N. K.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ram, N. B.

C. S. Lehmann, N. B. Ram, and M. H. M. Janssen, “Velocity map photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging on a single detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(9), 093103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, K. L.

P. Hockett, M. Staniforth, and K. L. Reid, “Photoelectron angular distributions from rotationally state-selected NH3((BE)-E-1 “): dependence on ion rotational state and polarization geometry,” Mol. Phys.108(7-9), 1045–1054 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reisler, H.

V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, and H. Reisler, “Reconstruction of Abel-transformable Images: The Gaussian basis-set expansion Abel transform method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(7), 2634–2642 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roeterdink, W. G.

A. Vredenborg, W. G. Roeterdink, and M. H. M. Janssen, “A photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging apparatus for femtosecond time-resolved molecular dynamics with electron time-of-flight resolution of sigma=18 ps and energy resolution Delta E/E=3.5%,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(6), 063108 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolles, D.

D. Rolles, Z. D. Pešić, M. Perri, R. C. Bilodeau, G. D. Ackerman, B. S. Rude, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. D. Bozek, and N. Berrah, “A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron-ion and ion-ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B261(1-2), 170–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rude, B. S.

D. Rolles, Z. D. Pešić, M. Perri, R. C. Bilodeau, G. D. Ackerman, B. S. Rude, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. D. Bozek, and N. Berrah, “A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron-ion and ion-ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B261(1-2), 170–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sarpe-Tudoran, C.

M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, J. Kohler, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of ultrashort free electron wave packets,” Appl. Phys. B95(4), 647–651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schlup, P.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Angular Streaking,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, L. P. H.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dorner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Bocking, H.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dorner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schöffler, M.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Angular Streaking,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siu, W.

O. Ghafur, W. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. F. Kling, M. Drescher, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “A velocity map imaging detector with an integrated gas injection system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(3), 033110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smeenk, C.

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B42, 185402 (2009).

Smolarski, M.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys.7(5), 428–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.13(9), 093008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, D. Dimitrovski, M. Abu-samha, L. B. Madsen, and U. Keller, “Attoclock reveals natural coordinates of the laser-induced tunnelling current flow in atoms,” Nat. Phys.8(1), 76–80 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Smolarski, P. Eckle, U. Keller, and R. Dörner, “Semiclassical model for attosecond angular streaking,” Opt. Express18(17), 17640–17650 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Angular Streaking,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Staniforth, M.

P. Hockett, M. Staniforth, and K. L. Reid, “Photoelectron angular distributions from rotationally state-selected NH3((BE)-E-1 “): dependence on ion rotational state and polarization geometry,” Mol. Phys.108(7-9), 1045–1054 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stapelfeldt, H.

J. Maurer, D. Dimitrovski, L. Christensen, L. B. Madsen, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Molecular-frame 3D photoelectron momentum distributions by tomographic reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(12), 123001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B42, 185402 (2009).

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Angular Streaking,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dorner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, D. M.

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B42, 185402 (2009).

F. Légaré, K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, S. S. Wesolowski, P. R. Bunker, P. Dombi, F. Krausz, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser Coulomb-explosion imaging of small molecules,” Phys. Rev. A71(1), 013415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

O. Ghafur, W. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. F. Kling, M. Drescher, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “A velocity map imaging detector with an integrated gas injection system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(3), 033110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vredenborg, A.

A. Vredenborg, W. G. Roeterdink, and M. H. M. Janssen, “A photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging apparatus for femtosecond time-resolved molecular dynamics with electron time-of-flight resolution of sigma=18 ps and energy resolution Delta E/E=3.5%,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(6), 063108 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I. A.

Wang, X.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.13(9), 093008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wesolowski, S. S.

F. Légaré, K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, S. S. Wesolowski, P. R. Bunker, P. Dombi, F. Krausz, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser Coulomb-explosion imaging of small molecules,” Phys. Rev. A71(1), 013415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wollenhaupt, M.

M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, J. Kohler, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of ultrashort free electron wave packets,” Appl. Phys. B95(4), 647–651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, J. Kohler, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of ultrashort free electron wave packets,” Appl. Phys. B95(4), 647–651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. H. Parker and A. T. J. B. Eppink, “Photoelectron and photofragment velocity map imaging of state-selected molecular oxygen dissociation/ionization dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys.107(7), 2357–2362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B42, 185402 (2009).

Mol. Phys. (1)

P. Hockett, M. Staniforth, and K. L. Reid, “Photoelectron angular distributions from rotationally state-selected NH3((BE)-E-1 “): dependence on ion rotational state and polarization geometry,” Mol. Phys.108(7-9), 1045–1054 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (3)

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Angular Streaking,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, D. Dimitrovski, M. Abu-samha, L. B. Madsen, and U. Keller, “Attoclock reveals natural coordinates of the laser-induced tunnelling current flow in atoms,” Nat. Phys.8(1), 76–80 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys.7(5), 428–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.13(9), 093008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

D. Rolles, Z. D. Pešić, M. Perri, R. C. Bilodeau, G. D. Ackerman, B. S. Rude, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. D. Bozek, and N. Berrah, “A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron-ion and ion-ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B261(1-2), 170–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

F. Légaré, K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, S. S. Wesolowski, P. R. Bunker, P. Dombi, F. Krausz, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser Coulomb-explosion imaging of small molecules,” Phys. Rev. A71(1), 013415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Maurer, D. Dimitrovski, L. Christensen, L. B. Madsen, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Molecular-frame 3D photoelectron momentum distributions by tomographic reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(12), 123001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dorner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (5)

A. T. J. B. Eppink and D. H. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses: Application in photoelectron and photofragment ion imaging of molecular oxygen,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3477–3484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, and H. Reisler, “Reconstruction of Abel-transformable Images: The Gaussian basis-set expansion Abel transform method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(7), 2634–2642 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Ghafur, W. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. F. Kling, M. Drescher, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “A velocity map imaging detector with an integrated gas injection system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(3), 033110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Lehmann, N. B. Ram, and M. H. M. Janssen, “Velocity map photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging on a single detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(9), 093103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vredenborg, W. G. Roeterdink, and M. H. M. Janssen, “A photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging apparatus for femtosecond time-resolved molecular dynamics with electron time-of-flight resolution of sigma=18 ps and energy resolution Delta E/E=3.5%,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(6), 063108 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. S. Landsman, M. Weger, J. Maurer, R. Boge, A. Ludwig, S. Heuser, C. Cirelli, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Tunneling time in ultrafast science is real and probabilistic,” arXiv:1301.2766 (2013).

A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomography (IEEE Press, 1988).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a cut through the VMIS. The incoming laser beam is marked in red.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electron momentum images recorded with linear light. (a) An original momentum image as it was recorded plotted linearly scaled. (b) A cut through the three-dimensional electron momentum distribution of the image in (a) after reconstruction with BASEX and plotted on a logarithmic scale. The ATI-structure confirms the high quality of the momentum imaging.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Ion image on logarithmic scale recorded with linear polarization at an intensity of ~0.2 PW/cm2. The circles indicate the expected momenta of ion fragments H+, O+, N+ from Coulomb explosion of H2, O2 and N2. (b) Radial distribution of the ions from the image in Fig. (a) on a logarithmic scale.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Data from the polarimetry measurements. (a) Achromatic HWP. The data were fitted by a sum of two weighted cos2-functions. The data show a clear deviation from the expected behavior. Ideally, the peaks have the same height and are separated by 180 degrees from each other. (b) Superachromatic HWP. The peaks have the expected height and periodicity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulations of the pulse propagation through the achromatic (upper row, a-c) and superachromatic (lower row, d-f) waveplates. The plots show the transmission through a polarizer as a function of the orientations of the polarizer and the HWP (a and d, the ellipticity as a function of the rotation angle of the HWP (b and e), and the dependence of the angle of the major axis of the polarization ellipse on the rotation of the HWP (c and f). The results demonstrate how crucial the proper choice of waveplate is.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Representations of a photoelectron momentum distribution recorded at an intensity of 0.2 PW/cm2 and an ellipticity of 0.87. (a) Isosurface with original projections of the reconstructed photoelectron momentum distribution. The distribution was smoothened with a Gaussian spatial filter for a better visibility of the overall shape. The vector k marks the direction of the incoming light. (b) A projection along the beam propagation direction of the electron momentum distribution. The outer ring is an artifact from the reconstruction.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the streaking angles from the VMIS and the COLTRIMS setup as a function of the peak intensity of the ionizing laser pulse. The streaking angles show an excellent agreement within the error bars. The red points have been measured with clockwise elliptical polarization, the blue points with counterclockwise polarized pulses. The inset shows a typical angular distribution of the photoelectrons projected onto the polarization plane together with a double Gaussian fit. The black arrow indicates the data point that corresponds to the angular distribution.

Equations (1)

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f( p x , p y )= + dω 0 π dθP(ω,θ) | ω | e i2πωt

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