Abstract

We demonstrate the first general tabletop EUV coherent microscope that can image extended, non-isolated, non-periodic, objects. By implementing keyhole coherent diffractive imaging with curved mirrors and a tabletop high harmonic source, we achieve improved efficiency of the imaging system as well as more uniform illumination at the sample, when compared with what is possible using Fresnel zone plates. Moreover, we show that the unscattered light from a semi-transparent sample can be used as a holographic reference wave, allowing quantitative information about the thickness of the sample to be extracted from the retrieved image. Finally, we show that excellent tabletop image fidelity is achieved by comparing the retrieved images with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy images, and show superior capabilities in some cases.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (5)

M. J. Humphry, B. Kraus, A. C. Hurst, A. M. Maiden, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Ptychographic electron microscopy using high-angle dark-field scattering for sub-nanometre resolution imaging.” Nat. Commun.3, 730 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers.” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109, 4792–4797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Gardner, B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, L. S. Martin, D. E. Adams, F. Salmassi, E. Gullikson, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “High numerical aperture reflection mode coherent diffraction microscopy using off-axis apertured illumination.” Opt. Express20, 19050–19059 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Adams, L. S. Martin, M. D. Seaberg, D. F. Gardner, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “A generalization for optimized phase retrieval algorithms.” Opt. Express20, 24778–24790 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, E. K. Curwood, D. J. Vine, R. Scholten, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Dynamic sample imaging in coherent diffractive imaging.” Opt. Lett.36, 1954–1956 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, E. L. Townsend, D. A. Raymondson, W. F. Schlotter, Y. Liu, C. S. Menoni, L. Rong, C.-C. Chen, J. Miao, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic source.” Opt. Express19, 22470–22479 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tripathi, J. Mohanty, S. H. Dietze, O. G. Shpyrko, E. Shipton, E. E. Fullerton, S. S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Dichroic coherent diffractive imaging.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108, 13393–13398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Nardi, M. Travagliati, M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Ferrini, F. Parmigiani, and F. Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals.” Nano Lett.11, 4126–4133 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, R. Yang, K. A. Nelson, E. H. Anderson, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Quasi-ballistic thermal transport from nanoscale interfaces observed using ultrafast coherent soft X-ray beams.” Nat. Mater.9, 26–30 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics4, 833–839 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

R. A. Dilanian, B. Chen, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, S. Teichmann, P. Hannaford, L. V. Dao, and A. G. Peele, “Diffractive imaging using a polychromatic high-harmonic generation soft-x-ray source,” J. Appl. Phys.106, 023110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sandberg, D. A. Raymondson, C. La-O-Vorakiat, A. Paul, K. S. Raines, J. Miao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and W. F. Schlotter, “Tabletop soft-x-ray Fourier transform holography with 50 nm resolution.” Opt. Lett.34, 1618–1620 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, Q. Shen, and T. Earnest, “Extending X-ray crystallography to allow the imaging of non-crystalline materials, cells, and single protein complexes.” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.59, 387–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Fischer, “Studying nanoscale magnetism and its dynamics with soft X-ray microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Magn.44, 1900–1904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105, 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy.” Science321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-Ray Lensless Imaging of Extended Objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless Diffractive Imaging Using Tabletop Coherent High-Harmonic Soft-X-Ray Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2, 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal.” Nature442, 63–66 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, “Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys.2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Luke, “Relaxed averaged alternating reflections for diffraction imaging,” Inverse Prob.21, 37–50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Iterative image reconstruction algorithms using wave-front intensity and phase variation.” Opt. Lett.30, 1638–1640 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, and M. Howells, “Coherence and sampling requirements for diffractive imaging.” Ultramicroscopy101, 149–152 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

J. M. Zuo, I. Vartanyants, M. Gao, R. Zhang, and L. A. Nagahara, “Atomic resolution imaging of a carbon nanotube from diffraction intensities.” Science300, 1419–1421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68, 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, M. Pfeifer, I. Vartanyants, and I. Robinson, “Three-Dimensional Imaging of Microstructure in Au Nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 175501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Elser, “Phase retrieval by iterated projections.” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A20, 40–55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, “Absolute determination of the wavelength and spectrum of an extreme-ultraviolet beam by a Young’s double-slit measurement,” Opt. Lett.27, 707–709 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (3)

H. J. Kreuzer, M. J. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and W. Xu, “Digital in-line holography with photons and electrons,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter13, 10729–10741 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Robinson, I. Vartanyants, G. Williams, M. Pfeifer, and J. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the Shapes of Gold Nanocrystals Using Coherent X-Ray Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 195505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Weierstall, Q. Chen, J. C. Spence, M. R. Howells, M. Isaacson, and R. R. Panepucci, “Image reconstruction from electron and X-ray diffraction patterns using iterative algorithms: experiment and simulation.” Ultramicroscopy90, 171–195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

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1988 (1)

1982 (2)

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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2, 839–843 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102, 15343–15346 (2005).
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A. Tripathi, J. Mohanty, S. H. Dietze, O. G. Shpyrko, E. Shipton, E. E. Fullerton, S. S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Dichroic coherent diffractive imaging.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108, 13393–13398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (5)

J. M. Zuo, I. Vartanyants, M. Gao, R. Zhang, and L. A. Nagahara, “Atomic resolution imaging of a carbon nanotube from diffraction intensities.” Science300, 1419–1421 (2003).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy.” Science321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers.” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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Ultramicroscopy (2)

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U. Weierstall, Q. Chen, J. C. Spence, M. R. Howells, M. Isaacson, and R. R. Panepucci, “Image reconstruction from electron and X-ray diffraction patterns using iterative algorithms: experiment and simulation.” Ultramicroscopy90, 171–195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996), 2nd ed.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 7th ed.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tabletop EUV keyhole CDI of a sample with an opaque background. (a) Setup in the CDI vacuum chamber. The EUV mirror with a 25 cm radius of curvature focuses the HHG beam, and puts a curved wavefront on the sample. A pinhole placed before the x- and y-foci introduces a sharp edge onto the beam. (b) Image of the sample using a high magnification optical microscope. Two regions of interest, I and II, are circled, with corresponding measured diffraction patterns (cropped and centered) shown in (c) and (e), and their corresponding reconstructions of the electric field amplitude (normalized to unity at maximum with arbitrary units) shown in (d) and (f). The color map as shown on the right of (f) is shared by (d) and (f).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Tabletop EUV keyhole CDI of a sample with a semi-transparent background. (a) Schematic of the setup. A second pinhole is inserted into the beam to remove scatter light form the first pinhole. The inset shows an SEM image of the sample, composed of a 30 nm Cr film deposited on top of a 45-nm-thick Si3N4 membrane. (b) and (c) A zoomed view of the beam on the CCD before and after inserting the second pinhole. (d) Diffraction pattern (cropped and centered) from the sample shown to the 1/4 power. The inset shows the diffraction pattern of the beam when the sample is removed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a),(b) Sagittal and tangential slices through the focusing EUV beam. The dashed lines show the positions of the two foci. (c) SEM image of the top side of the sample (geometrically scaled to account for a 52° tilt of the sample plane). (d) SEM image of the bottom side of the sample. Only the darkest parts on the sample are completely etched through. (e), (f) Reconstructed amplitude (normalized to unity at maximum with arbitrary units) | Δ t t 0 | and phase ϕt (x′, y′) of the sample. (d) (e) (f) have the same scale bar as (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a), (b) Depth maps of the sample using AFM and keyhole CDI respectively. (c) Comparison of lineouts along the dashed line in (b) with associated error bars. (d) and (e) 3D profiles of the sample based on the depth values in (a) and (b). The top 30 nm Cr layer and bottom 45 nm Si3N4 layer are shown in different colors.

Equations (4)

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E t , Smp ( x , y ) = E i , Smp ( x , y ) t ( x , y ) ,
E t , Det ( x , y ) = e i 2 π λ z i λ z e i π λ z ( x 2 + y 2 ) e i 2 π λ z ( x x + y y ) e i π λ z ( x 2 + y 2 ) E t , Smp ( x , y ) d x d y ,
U = [ e i π λ z ( x 2 + y 2 ) e i ϕ E i , Smp ( x , y ) u ( x , y ) ] ,
ϕ t ( d ) = { 2 π λ δ Cr d for h Cr d 0 , 2 π λ [ δ Cr ( h Cr ) + δ Si 3 N 4 ( d + h Cr ) ] for d h Cr ,

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