Abstract

We demonstrate reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk using hybrid optical parametric amplifier with erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Crosstalk reduction of more than 13 dB has been achieved while providing 20-dB gain. Noise figures of different amplifier configurations are compared. Bit error rate measurements confirm the hybrid configuration introduces < 0.5 dB and < 1.5 dB power penalties in signal and idler wavelength, respectively, compared with a pure optical parametric amplifier.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, “Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 754–756 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spälter, G.-D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 505–520 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 560–568 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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  20. Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express18(3), 2884–2893 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013

2012

V. Ataie, E. Myslivets, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Pump-noise transfer mitigation in parametric sampling gates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(17), 1469–1471 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Richter, R. Elschner, A. Gandhe, K. Petermann, and C. Schubert, “Parametric amplification and wavelength conversion of single- and dual-polarization DQPSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 988–995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. El Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber optical parametric amplifier performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM communication system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 950–957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Marhic, “Noise figure of hybrid optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express20(27), 28752–28757 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Moro, B. P. P. Kuo, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, and S. Radic, “1.56-micros continuously tunable parametric delay line for a 40-Gb/s signal,” Opt. Express17(14), 11958–11964 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jamshidifar, A. Vedadi, and M. E. Marhic, “Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in a short fiber-optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(17), 1244–1246 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

B. P.-P. Kuo, P. C. Chui, and K. K.-Y. Wong, “A comprehensive study on crosstalk suppression techniques in fiber optical parametric amplifier by modulation format,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(3), 659–665 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spälter, G.-D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

T. Torounidis, H. Sunnerud, P. O. Hedekvist, and P. A. Andrekson, “Amplification of WDM signals in fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(8), 1061–1063 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. A. Haus, “The noise figure of optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10(11), 1602–1604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, “Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 754–756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alic, N.

V. Ataie, E. Myslivets, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Pump-noise transfer mitigation in parametric sampling gates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(17), 1469–1471 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Moro, B. P. P. Kuo, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, and S. Radic, “1.56-micros continuously tunable parametric delay line for a 40-Gb/s signal,” Opt. Express17(14), 11958–11964 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrekson, P. A.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express18(3), 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Torounidis, H. Sunnerud, P. O. Hedekvist, and P. A. Andrekson, “Amplification of WDM signals in fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(8), 1061–1063 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ataie, V.

V. Ataie, E. Myslivets, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Pump-noise transfer mitigation in parametric sampling gates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(17), 1469–1471 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blessing, D. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bogris, A.

Chandrasekhar, S.

X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 560–568 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 560–568 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, “Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 754–756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chui, P. C.

B. P.-P. Kuo, P. C. Chui, and K. K.-Y. Wong, “A comprehensive study on crosstalk suppression techniques in fiber optical parametric amplifier by modulation format,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(3), 659–665 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spälter, G.-D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doran, N. J.

N. El Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber optical parametric amplifier performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM communication system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 950–957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

El Dahdah, N.

N. El Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber optical parametric amplifier performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM communication system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 950–957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Elschner, R.

M. Jazayerifar, S. Warm, R. Elschner, D. Kroushkov, I. Sackey, C. Meuer, C. Schubert, and K. Petermann, “Performance evaluation of DWDM communication systems with fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(9), 1454–1461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Richter, R. Elschner, A. Gandhe, K. Petermann, and C. Schubert, “Parametric amplification and wavelength conversion of single- and dual-polarization DQPSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 988–995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Forghieri, F.

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, “Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 754–756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gandhe, A.

T. Richter, R. Elschner, A. Gandhe, K. Petermann, and C. Schubert, “Parametric amplification and wavelength conversion of single- and dual-polarization DQPSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 988–995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Govan, D. S.

N. El Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber optical parametric amplifier performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM communication system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 950–957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, “The noise figure of optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10(11), 1602–1604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hedekvist, P. O.

T. Torounidis, H. Sunnerud, P. O. Hedekvist, and P. A. Andrekson, “Amplification of WDM signals in fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(8), 1061–1063 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jamshidifar, M.

N. El Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber optical parametric amplifier performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM communication system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 950–957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Jamshidifar, A. Vedadi, and M. E. Marhic, “Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in a short fiber-optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(17), 1244–1246 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, S. L.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spälter, G.-D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jazayerifar, M.

Jopson, R. M.

Kalogerakis, G.

Karlsson, M.

Kazovsky, L. G.

Khoe, G.-D.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spälter, G.-D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kroushkov, D.

Krummrich, P. M.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spälter, G.-D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, B. P. P.

Kuo, B. P.-P.

B. P.-P. Kuo, P. C. Chui, and K. K.-Y. Wong, “A comprehensive study on crosstalk suppression techniques in fiber optical parametric amplifier by modulation format,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(3), 659–665 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 560–568 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lundström, C.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, “Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 754–756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marhic, M. E.

M. E. Marhic, “Quantum-limited noise figure of networks of linear optical elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B30(6), 1462–1472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Marhic, “Noise figure of hybrid optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express20(27), 28752–28757 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. El Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber optical parametric amplifier performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM communication system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 950–957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Jamshidifar, A. Vedadi, and M. E. Marhic, “Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in a short fiber-optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(17), 1244–1246 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Marhic, G. Kalogerakis, K. K.-Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Pump-to-signal transfer of low-frequency intensity modulation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(3), 1049–1055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McKinstrie, C. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Moro, B. P. P. Kuo, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, and S. Radic, “1.56-micros continuously tunable parametric delay line for a 40-Gb/s signal,” Opt. Express17(14), 11958–11964 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meuer, C.

Moro, S.

Myslivets, E.

V. Ataie, E. Myslivets, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Pump-noise transfer mitigation in parametric sampling gates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(17), 1469–1471 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Moro, B. P. P. Kuo, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, and S. Radic, “1.56-micros continuously tunable parametric delay line for a 40-Gb/s signal,” Opt. Express17(14), 11958–11964 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petermann, K.

M. Jazayerifar, S. Warm, R. Elschner, D. Kroushkov, I. Sackey, C. Meuer, C. Schubert, and K. Petermann, “Performance evaluation of DWDM communication systems with fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(9), 1454–1461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Richter, R. Elschner, A. Gandhe, K. Petermann, and C. Schubert, “Parametric amplification and wavelength conversion of single- and dual-polarization DQPSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 988–995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Puttnam, B. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

V. Ataie, E. Myslivets, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Pump-noise transfer mitigation in parametric sampling gates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(17), 1469–1471 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Moro, B. P. P. Kuo, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, and S. Radic, “1.56-micros continuously tunable parametric delay line for a 40-Gb/s signal,” Opt. Express17(14), 11958–11964 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, T.

T. Richter, R. Elschner, A. Gandhe, K. Petermann, and C. Schubert, “Parametric amplification and wavelength conversion of single- and dual-polarization DQPSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 988–995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sackey, I.

Schubert, C.

M. Jazayerifar, S. Warm, R. Elschner, D. Kroushkov, I. Sackey, C. Meuer, C. Schubert, and K. Petermann, “Performance evaluation of DWDM communication systems with fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(9), 1454–1461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Richter, R. Elschner, A. Gandhe, K. Petermann, and C. Schubert, “Parametric amplification and wavelength conversion of single- and dual-polarization DQPSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 988–995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spälter, S.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spälter, G.-D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sunnerud, H.

T. Torounidis, H. Sunnerud, P. O. Hedekvist, and P. A. Andrekson, “Amplification of WDM signals in fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(8), 1061–1063 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tipsuwannakul, E.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R. W.

X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 560–568 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, “Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 754–756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Toda, H.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tong, Z.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express18(3), 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torounidis, T.

T. Torounidis, H. Sunnerud, P. O. Hedekvist, and P. A. Andrekson, “Amplification of WDM signals in fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(8), 1061–1063 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van den Borne, D.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spälter, G.-D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vedadi, A.

M. Jamshidifar, A. Vedadi, and M. E. Marhic, “Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in a short fiber-optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(17), 1244–1246 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Warm, S.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of a hybrid OPA/EDFA. TLS: tunable laser source; PM: phase modulator; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; TBPF: tunable bandpass filter; ISO: isolator; HNLF: highly nonlinear fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical spectra of input signals and output signals after the OPA at different gain levels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output spectrum of signals after hybrid OPA/EDFA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated optical spectra of output signals after parametric amplification at different gain levels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical spectra of output signals amplified by different amplifiers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical spectra of output idlers amplified by different amplifiers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental setups for BER measurements. (a) Transmitter; (b) OPA; (c) EDFA; (d) Hybrid OPA/EDFA; (e) Receiver. VOA: variable optical attenuator; PD: photodetector; EA: error analyzer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a)–(e). Eye diagrams of the output signals and idlers from different amplifiers.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

BER measurements with different amplifier configurations.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured OSNRs and NFs of signals at 1547.35 nm from different amplifier configurations.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured OSNRs and NFs of idlers at 1547.35 nm from different amplifier configurations.

Equations (2)

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N F signal = OSN R Signal,in OSN R Signal,out
N F idler = OSN R Signal,in OSN R Idler,out

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