Abstract

We demonstrate third- (THG) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy of individual silver nanocones using tightly focused cylindrical vector beams (CVBs). Although THG is expected to be a weaker process than SHG, the yield for THG with radial polarization was higher than for SHG. We also found an excellent correlation between the imaging properties of THG and SHG, suggesting that both are governed by the same overall features of the individual nanocone. We also found that the transverse spatial resolution of THG with CVBs, particularly RP, exceeds that of SHG. Our work establishes the potential of THG microscopy with CVBs for structure-sensitive imaging of three-dimensional (3D) metal nano-objects.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics 3rd ed. (Academic, 2008).
  2. J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Optical second harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1717–1721 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, “Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(4), 799–802 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. O. Schwartz and D. Oron, “Background-free third harmonic imaging of gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4093–4097 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3945–3948 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. J. Huttunen, G. Bautista, M. Decker, S. Linden, M. Wegener, and M. Kauranen, “Nonlinear chiral imaging of subwavelength-sized twisted-cross gold nanodimers [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express1(1), 46–56 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon.1(1), 1–57 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Wolf, Progress in Optics (Elsevier, 2011), Chap. 2.
  10. R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. S. Youngworth and T. G. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,” Opt. Express7(2), 77–87 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett.6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111114 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Li, T. H. Lan, C. H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat Commun3, 998 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. Lu, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using tightly focused radially polarized light,” Opt. Lett.34(12), 1870–1872 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. P. Biss and T. G. Brown, “Polarization-vortex-driven second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.28(11), 923–925 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second harmonic generation polarization microscopy with tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams,” Opt. Commun.275(2), 453–457 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Yoshiki, R. Kanamaru, M. Hashimoto, N. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Second-harmonic-generation microscope using eight-segment polarization-mode converter to observe three-dimensional molecular orientation,” Opt. Lett.32(12), 1680–1682 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Carrasco, R. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J. T. Fourkas, “Second- and third-harmonic generation with vector Gaussian beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23(10), 2134–2141 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Yang and Q. Zhan, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with tightly focused radial polarization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(12), 125103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. Olivier and E. Beaurepaire, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with focus-engineered beams: a numerical study,” Opt. Express16(19), 14703–14715 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. M. Kontio, H. Husu, J. Simonen, M. J. Huttunen, J. Tommila, M. Pessa, and M. Kauranen, “Nanoimprint fabrication of gold nanocones with approximately 10 nm tips for enhanced optical interactions,” Opt. Lett.34(13), 1979–1981 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, “Theory of nanometric optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(4), 645–648 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2012

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, T. H. Lan, C. H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat Commun3, 998 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Optical second harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1717–1721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

S. Yang and Q. Zhan, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with tightly focused radial polarization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(12), 125103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Olivier and E. Beaurepaire, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with focus-engineered beams: a numerical study,” Opt. Express16(19), 14703–14715 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second harmonic generation polarization microscopy with tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams,” Opt. Commun.275(2), 453–457 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshiki, R. Kanamaru, M. Hashimoto, N. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Second-harmonic-generation microscope using eight-segment polarization-mode converter to observe three-dimensional molecular orientation,” Opt. Lett.32(12), 1680–1682 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. Carrasco, R. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J. T. Fourkas, “Second- and third-harmonic generation with vector Gaussian beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23(10), 2134–2141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett.6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, “Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(4), 799–802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Biss and T. G. Brown, “Polarization-vortex-driven second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.28(11), 923–925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1997

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, “Theory of nanometric optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(4), 645–648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ameloot, M.

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araki, T.

Bachelier, G.

J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Optical second harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1717–1721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bautista, G.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Huttunen, G. Bautista, M. Decker, S. Linden, M. Wegener, and M. Kauranen, “Nonlinear chiral imaging of subwavelength-sized twisted-cross gold nanodimers [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express1(1), 46–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beaurepaire, E.

Benichou, E.

J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Optical second harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1717–1721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beversluis, M. R.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bian, R. X.

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, “Theory of nanometric optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(4), 645–648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biss, D. P.

Bratschitsch, R.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, K.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brevet, P.-F.

J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Optical second harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1717–1721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, T. G.

Butet, J.

J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Optical second harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1717–1721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carrasco, S.

Cesar, J.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Clercq, B.

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decker, M.

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duboisset, J.

J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Optical second harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1717–1721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Failla, A. V.

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett.6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischer, M.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fourkas, J. T.

Gillijns, W.

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

X. Li, T. H. Lan, C. H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat Commun3, 998 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Häffner, M.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hanke, T.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartschuh, A.

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett.6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, M.

Hashimoto, N.

Heeren, A.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hohenester, U.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

Husu, H.

Huttunen, M. J.

Jonin, C.

J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Optical second harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1717–1721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanamaru, R.

Kauranen, M.

Kern, D. P.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Knittel, V.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kontio, J. M.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Kontio, H. Husu, J. Simonen, M. J. Huttunen, J. Tommila, M. Pessa, and M. Kauranen, “Nanoimprint fabrication of gold nanocones with approximately 10 nm tips for enhanced optical interactions,” Opt. Lett.34(13), 1979–1981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lan, T. H.

X. Li, T. H. Lan, C. H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat Commun3, 998 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

X. Li, T. H. Lan, C. H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat Commun3, 998 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

Lippitz, M.

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, “Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(4), 799–802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, F.

Mäkitalo, J.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meixner, A. J.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett.6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moshchalkov, V. V.

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, “Theory of nanometric optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(4), 645–648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, N.

Oron, D.

O. Schwartz and D. Oron, “Background-free third harmonic imaging of gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4093–4097 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orrit, M.

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, “Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(4), 799–802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pessa, M.

Qian, H.

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett.6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett.6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russier-Antoine, I.

J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Optical second harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1717–1721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saleh, R. E. A.

Schwartz, O.

O. Schwartz and D. Oron, “Background-free third harmonic imaging of gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4093–4097 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second harmonic generation polarization microscopy with tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams,” Opt. Commun.275(2), 453–457 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silhanek, A. V.

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonen, J.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Kontio, H. Husu, J. Simonen, M. J. Huttunen, J. Tommila, M. Pessa, and M. Kauranen, “Nanoimprint fabrication of gold nanocones with approximately 10 nm tips for enhanced optical interactions,” Opt. Lett.34(13), 1979–1981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smisdom, N.

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stade, F.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stadler, J.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stanciu, C.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

Tien, C. H.

X. Li, T. H. Lan, C. H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat Commun3, 998 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tommila, J.

Trügler, A.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valev, V. K.

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Dijk, M. A.

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, “Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(4), 799–802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verbiest, T.

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

Xie, X. S.

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, “Theory of nanometric optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(4), 645–648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

S. Yang and Q. Zhan, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with tightly focused radial polarization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(12), 125103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yew, E. Y. S.

E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second harmonic generation polarization microscopy with tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams,” Opt. Commun.275(2), 453–457 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoshiki, K.

Youngworth, K. S.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Youngworth and T. G. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,” Opt. Express7(2), 77–87 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q.

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon.1(1), 1–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Yang and Q. Zhan, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with tightly focused radial polarization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(12), 125103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, W.

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

S. Yang and Q. Zhan, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with tightly focused radial polarization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(12), 125103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nano Lett.

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett.6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Optical second harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1717–1721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, “Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(4), 799–802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Schwartz and D. Oron, “Background-free third harmonic imaging of gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4093–4097 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun

X. Li, T. H. Lan, C. H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat Commun3, 998 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second harmonic generation polarization microscopy with tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams,” Opt. Commun.275(2), 453–457 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, “Theory of nanometric optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(4), 645–648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

E. Wolf, Progress in Optics (Elsevier, 2011), Chap. 2.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics 3rd ed. (Academic, 2008).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of a periodic array of silver nanocones on fused silica substrate. Close-up SEM images of (b) normal and (c) defective nanocones. The scale bars in (a) and (b,c) correspond to 500 and 100 nm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme of the NLO microscope with CVBs. LP: linear polarizer, RPC: radial polarization converter, L: lens, P: pinhole, FM: flip mirror, C: camera, D: dichroic mirror, O: objective, S: piezo-scanning stage, IF: interference filter, FF, fundamental wavelength filter: PMT: photomultiplier tube, WLS: white light source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illumination power dependence of the THG and SHG signal from a single nanocone excited by focused RP. The measured THG and SHG signals were fitted with cubic (solid line) and quadratic (broken line) power curves (p), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

THG and SHG images of normal (top row) and defective (bottom row) silver nanocones using focused AP and RP. The THG and SHG images are depicted in separately normalized color scales. Average power of 2 mW was used. Scale bar = 500 nm. The location of the nanocone is marked by a green circle. The numbers at the bottom right corner of each image represent the relative signal strengths found in each image. The solid and dashed lines (cyan) correspond to the reference lines of interest used in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized intensity profiles formed by averaging five adjacent line profiles that were derived from the THG and SHG images of a nanocone under focused RP. The reference lines of interest are depicted in Fig. 4. The additional lines were taken at spacings of 1 and 2 pixels with respect to the reference line.

Metrics