Abstract

Enabling solution-based printing techniques for sub-100 nm thin semiconductors for the application in large-area organic electronics is a challenging task. In order to optimize the process parameters, the layers have to be characterized on a large lateral scale while determining the nanometer thickness at the same time. We present a lateral and vertical resolving measurement method for large-area, semi-transparent thin films based on optical interference effects. We analyzed the RGB color images of up to 150 mm square-sized thin film samples obtained by a modified commercial flatbed scanner. Utilizing and comparing theoretical and measured color contrast values, we determined most probable thickness values of the imaged sample area pixel by pixel. Within specific boundary conditions, we found very good agreement between the presented imaging color reflectometry and reference methods. Due to its simple setup, our method is suitable to be implemented as part of a color vision inspection system in in-line printing and coating processes.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Kopola, M. Tuomikoski, R. Suhonen, and A. Maaninen, “Gravure printed organic light emitting diodes for lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films517, 5757–5762 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Bornemann, H. M. Sauer, and E. Dörsam, “Gravure printed ultrathin layers of small-molecule semiconductors on glass,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol.55, 040201 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. E. Katz, “Recent advances in semiconductor performance and printing processes for organic transistor-based electronics,” Chem. Mater.16, 4748–4756 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. C. Krebs, M. Jörgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing: First public demonstration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93, 422–441 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. M. Sauer, N. Bornemann, and E. Dösam, “Viscous fingering in functional flexo printing: an inevitable bug?” in Large-Area, Organic & Printed Electronics Convention (LOPE-C), Frankfurt, Germany (2011).
  6. B. Yu, Y. Chen, W. Wang, M. Hsu, S. Tsai, W. Lin, Y. Lin, J. Jou, C. Chu, and J. Shyue, “Depth profiling of organic films with x–ray photoelectron spectroscopy using c60+ and ar+ co–sputtering,” Anal. Chem.80, 3412–3415 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Schaffer, C. Mitterbauer, A. Pogantsch, S. Rentenberger, E. Zojer, A. Schertel, and F. Hofer, “TEM investigations of cross–sectional prepared organic light emitting devices,” Microscopy and Microanalysis9, 266–267 (2003).
  8. C. Cook, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry for in–line monitoring of silicon nitrides,” Thin Solid Films455, 794–797 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Hlubina, J. Lunacek, D. Ciprian, and R. Chlebus, “Spectral interferometry and reflectometry used to measure thin films,” Appl. Phys. B92, 203–207 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Asinovski, D. Beaglehole, and M. T. Clarkson, “Imaging ellipsometry: quantitative analysis,” Phys. Status Solidi A205, 764–771 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Q. Zhan and J. R. Leger, “Measurement of surface features beyond the diffraction limit with an imaging ellipsometer,” Opt. Lett.27, 821 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Q. Zhan and J. R. Leger, “High–resolution imaging ellipsometer,” Appl. Opt.41, 4443 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. T. Larson, L. A. Lott, and D. L. Cash, “Surface film thickness determination by reflectance measurements,” Appl. Opt.12, 1271 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Barth, D. Hirayama, G. Beni, and S. Hackwood, “A color vision inspection system for integrated circuit manufacturing,” IEEE T. Semiconduct. M.5, 290–301 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Parthasarathy, D. Wolf, E. Hu, S. Hackwood, and G. Beni, “A color vision system for film thickness determination,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and AutomationIEEE, 1987, pp. 515–519.
  16. J. Henrie, S. Kellis, S. M. Schultz, and A. Hawkins, “Electronic color charts for dielectric films on silicon,” Opt. Express12, 1464 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Roddaro, P. Pingue, V. Piazza, V. Pellegrini, and F. Beltram, “The optical visibility of graphene: Interference colors of ultrathin graphite on SiO2,” Nano Lett.7, 2707–2710 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Chen, D. Liu, Z. Wang, P. Li, X. Hao, K. Cheng, Y. Fu, L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Rapid determination of the thickness of graphene using the ratio of color difference,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 6690–6693 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high–contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene–based sheets,” Nano Lett.7, 3569–3575 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Yeh, C. Hung, T. C. Chang, H. Lin, and Y. Lin, “An immunoassay using antibody–gold nanoparticle conjugate, silver enhancement and flatbed scanner,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.6, 85–91 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. E. Matney, B. C. Parker, D. W. Neck, G. Henkelmann, and I. I. Rosen, “Evaluation of a commercial flatbed document scanner and radiographic film scanner for radiochromic EBT film dosimetry,” J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys.11, 3165 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  22. K. S. Kleeberger and B. C. Moser, “Flatbed scanners: An alternative tool for gathering horticultural data,” Hort–Technology12, 444–446 (2002).
  23. S. Stahl, H. H. Sauer, and E. Dorsam, “Investigation in the homogeneity of gravure printed polymer films for printed electronics,” in Proceedings: 39th International Research Conference of Iariga, Ljubljana, Slovenia (2012).
  24. H. T. Ishii and M. Dannoura, “Measurement of three–dimensional morphology and surface area of conifer shoots and roots using the desktop scanner and silhouette image analysis,” Eurasian J. For. Res.7, 27–32 (2004).
  25. J. M. Kuria, R. Schon, and R. Börret, “A flatbed scanner based wavefront sensing unit for optics quality control,” in Proceedings: 18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Durban, South Africa (2012).
  26. J. Y. Hardeberg, “Spectral characterization of electronic cameras,” Proc. SPIE3409, pp. 100–109 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. D. Burns, “Analysis of image noise in multispectral color acquisition,” Ph.D. thesis, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester N.Y., USA (1997).
  28. F. Abeles, “Optical properties of very thin films,” Thin Solid Films34, 291302 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. Macleod, Thin–film optical filters, 4th ed. (CRC Press, 2010).
  30. S. Larouche and L. Martinu, “Openfilters: open–source software for the design, optimization, and synthesis of optical filters,” Appl. Opt.47, C219 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. Y. H. Yang and J. Abelson, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of thin films on transparent substrates: A formalism for data interpretation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A13, 1145 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

N. Bornemann, H. M. Sauer, and E. Dörsam, “Gravure printed ultrathin layers of small-molecule semiconductors on glass,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol.55, 040201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, D. Liu, Z. Wang, P. Li, X. Hao, K. Cheng, Y. Fu, L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Rapid determination of the thickness of graphene using the ratio of color difference,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 6690–6693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. E. Matney, B. C. Parker, D. W. Neck, G. Henkelmann, and I. I. Rosen, “Evaluation of a commercial flatbed document scanner and radiographic film scanner for radiochromic EBT film dosimetry,” J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys.11, 3165 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (2)

P. Kopola, M. Tuomikoski, R. Suhonen, and A. Maaninen, “Gravure printed organic light emitting diodes for lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films517, 5757–5762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, M. Jörgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing: First public demonstration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93, 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

B. Yu, Y. Chen, W. Wang, M. Hsu, S. Tsai, W. Lin, Y. Lin, J. Jou, C. Chu, and J. Shyue, “Depth profiling of organic films with x–ray photoelectron spectroscopy using c60+ and ar+ co–sputtering,” Anal. Chem.80, 3412–3415 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hlubina, J. Lunacek, D. Ciprian, and R. Chlebus, “Spectral interferometry and reflectometry used to measure thin films,” Appl. Phys. B92, 203–207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Asinovski, D. Beaglehole, and M. T. Clarkson, “Imaging ellipsometry: quantitative analysis,” Phys. Status Solidi A205, 764–771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Yeh, C. Hung, T. C. Chang, H. Lin, and Y. Lin, “An immunoassay using antibody–gold nanoparticle conjugate, silver enhancement and flatbed scanner,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.6, 85–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Larouche and L. Martinu, “Openfilters: open–source software for the design, optimization, and synthesis of optical filters,” Appl. Opt.47, C219 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. Roddaro, P. Pingue, V. Piazza, V. Pellegrini, and F. Beltram, “The optical visibility of graphene: Interference colors of ultrathin graphite on SiO2,” Nano Lett.7, 2707–2710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high–contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene–based sheets,” Nano Lett.7, 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

C. Cook, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry for in–line monitoring of silicon nitrides,” Thin Solid Films455, 794–797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Henrie, S. Kellis, S. M. Schultz, and A. Hawkins, “Electronic color charts for dielectric films on silicon,” Opt. Express12, 1464 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Katz, “Recent advances in semiconductor performance and printing processes for organic transistor-based electronics,” Chem. Mater.16, 4748–4756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Ishii and M. Dannoura, “Measurement of three–dimensional morphology and surface area of conifer shoots and roots using the desktop scanner and silhouette image analysis,” Eurasian J. For. Res.7, 27–32 (2004).

2003 (1)

B. Schaffer, C. Mitterbauer, A. Pogantsch, S. Rentenberger, E. Zojer, A. Schertel, and F. Hofer, “TEM investigations of cross–sectional prepared organic light emitting devices,” Microscopy and Microanalysis9, 266–267 (2003).

2002 (3)

1998 (1)

J. Y. Hardeberg, “Spectral characterization of electronic cameras,” Proc. SPIE3409, pp. 100–109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. H. Yang and J. Abelson, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of thin films on transparent substrates: A formalism for data interpretation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A13, 1145 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Barth, D. Hirayama, G. Beni, and S. Hackwood, “A color vision inspection system for integrated circuit manufacturing,” IEEE T. Semiconduct. M.5, 290–301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

F. Abeles, “Optical properties of very thin films,” Thin Solid Films34, 291302 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Abeles, F.

F. Abeles, “Optical properties of very thin films,” Thin Solid Films34, 291302 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abelson, J.

Y. H. Yang and J. Abelson, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of thin films on transparent substrates: A formalism for data interpretation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A13, 1145 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alstrup, J.

F. C. Krebs, M. Jörgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing: First public demonstration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93, 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asinovski, L.

L. Asinovski, D. Beaglehole, and M. T. Clarkson, “Imaging ellipsometry: quantitative analysis,” Phys. Status Solidi A205, 764–771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barth, M.

M. Barth, D. Hirayama, G. Beni, and S. Hackwood, “A color vision inspection system for integrated circuit manufacturing,” IEEE T. Semiconduct. M.5, 290–301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Beaglehole, D.

L. Asinovski, D. Beaglehole, and M. T. Clarkson, “Imaging ellipsometry: quantitative analysis,” Phys. Status Solidi A205, 764–771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beltram, F.

S. Roddaro, P. Pingue, V. Piazza, V. Pellegrini, and F. Beltram, “The optical visibility of graphene: Interference colors of ultrathin graphite on SiO2,” Nano Lett.7, 2707–2710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beni, G.

M. Barth, D. Hirayama, G. Beni, and S. Hackwood, “A color vision inspection system for integrated circuit manufacturing,” IEEE T. Semiconduct. M.5, 290–301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Parthasarathy, D. Wolf, E. Hu, S. Hackwood, and G. Beni, “A color vision system for film thickness determination,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and AutomationIEEE, 1987, pp. 515–519.

Bornemann, N.

N. Bornemann, H. M. Sauer, and E. Dörsam, “Gravure printed ultrathin layers of small-molecule semiconductors on glass,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol.55, 040201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Sauer, N. Bornemann, and E. Dösam, “Viscous fingering in functional flexo printing: an inevitable bug?” in Large-Area, Organic & Printed Electronics Convention (LOPE-C), Frankfurt, Germany (2011).

Börret, R.

J. M. Kuria, R. Schon, and R. Börret, “A flatbed scanner based wavefront sensing unit for optics quality control,” in Proceedings: 18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Durban, South Africa (2012).

Burns, P. D.

P. D. Burns, “Analysis of image noise in multispectral color acquisition,” Ph.D. thesis, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester N.Y., USA (1997).

Cash, D. L.

Chang, T. C.

C. Yeh, C. Hung, T. C. Chang, H. Lin, and Y. Lin, “An immunoassay using antibody–gold nanoparticle conjugate, silver enhancement and flatbed scanner,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.6, 85–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, D. Liu, Z. Wang, P. Li, X. Hao, K. Cheng, Y. Fu, L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Rapid determination of the thickness of graphene using the ratio of color difference,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 6690–6693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Yu, Y. Chen, W. Wang, M. Hsu, S. Tsai, W. Lin, Y. Lin, J. Jou, C. Chu, and J. Shyue, “Depth profiling of organic films with x–ray photoelectron spectroscopy using c60+ and ar+ co–sputtering,” Anal. Chem.80, 3412–3415 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, K.

Y. Chen, D. Liu, Z. Wang, P. Li, X. Hao, K. Cheng, Y. Fu, L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Rapid determination of the thickness of graphene using the ratio of color difference,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 6690–6693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chlebus, R.

P. Hlubina, J. Lunacek, D. Ciprian, and R. Chlebus, “Spectral interferometry and reflectometry used to measure thin films,” Appl. Phys. B92, 203–207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C.

B. Yu, Y. Chen, W. Wang, M. Hsu, S. Tsai, W. Lin, Y. Lin, J. Jou, C. Chu, and J. Shyue, “Depth profiling of organic films with x–ray photoelectron spectroscopy using c60+ and ar+ co–sputtering,” Anal. Chem.80, 3412–3415 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciprian, D.

P. Hlubina, J. Lunacek, D. Ciprian, and R. Chlebus, “Spectral interferometry and reflectometry used to measure thin films,” Appl. Phys. B92, 203–207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, M. T.

L. Asinovski, D. Beaglehole, and M. T. Clarkson, “Imaging ellipsometry: quantitative analysis,” Phys. Status Solidi A205, 764–771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cook, C.

C. Cook, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry for in–line monitoring of silicon nitrides,” Thin Solid Films455, 794–797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dannoura, M.

H. T. Ishii and M. Dannoura, “Measurement of three–dimensional morphology and surface area of conifer shoots and roots using the desktop scanner and silhouette image analysis,” Eurasian J. For. Res.7, 27–32 (2004).

Dikin, D. A.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high–contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene–based sheets,” Nano Lett.7, 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dorsam, E.

S. Stahl, H. H. Sauer, and E. Dorsam, “Investigation in the homogeneity of gravure printed polymer films for printed electronics,” in Proceedings: 39th International Research Conference of Iariga, Ljubljana, Slovenia (2012).

Dörsam, E.

N. Bornemann, H. M. Sauer, and E. Dörsam, “Gravure printed ultrathin layers of small-molecule semiconductors on glass,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol.55, 040201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dösam, E.

H. M. Sauer, N. Bornemann, and E. Dösam, “Viscous fingering in functional flexo printing: an inevitable bug?” in Large-Area, Organic & Printed Electronics Convention (LOPE-C), Frankfurt, Germany (2011).

Fu, Y.

Y. Chen, D. Liu, Z. Wang, P. Li, X. Hao, K. Cheng, Y. Fu, L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Rapid determination of the thickness of graphene using the ratio of color difference,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 6690–6693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fyenbo, J.

F. C. Krebs, M. Jörgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing: First public demonstration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93, 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hackwood, S.

M. Barth, D. Hirayama, G. Beni, and S. Hackwood, “A color vision inspection system for integrated circuit manufacturing,” IEEE T. Semiconduct. M.5, 290–301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Parthasarathy, D. Wolf, E. Hu, S. Hackwood, and G. Beni, “A color vision system for film thickness determination,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and AutomationIEEE, 1987, pp. 515–519.

Hagemann, O.

F. C. Krebs, M. Jörgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing: First public demonstration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93, 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hao, X.

Y. Chen, D. Liu, Z. Wang, P. Li, X. Hao, K. Cheng, Y. Fu, L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Rapid determination of the thickness of graphene using the ratio of color difference,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 6690–6693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hardeberg, J. Y.

J. Y. Hardeberg, “Spectral characterization of electronic cameras,” Proc. SPIE3409, pp. 100–109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hausner, M.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high–contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene–based sheets,” Nano Lett.7, 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, A.

Henkelmann, G.

J. E. Matney, B. C. Parker, D. W. Neck, G. Henkelmann, and I. I. Rosen, “Evaluation of a commercial flatbed document scanner and radiographic film scanner for radiochromic EBT film dosimetry,” J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys.11, 3165 (2010).
[PubMed]

Henrie, J.

Hirayama, D.

M. Barth, D. Hirayama, G. Beni, and S. Hackwood, “A color vision inspection system for integrated circuit manufacturing,” IEEE T. Semiconduct. M.5, 290–301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hlubina, P.

P. Hlubina, J. Lunacek, D. Ciprian, and R. Chlebus, “Spectral interferometry and reflectometry used to measure thin films,” Appl. Phys. B92, 203–207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, F.

B. Schaffer, C. Mitterbauer, A. Pogantsch, S. Rentenberger, E. Zojer, A. Schertel, and F. Hofer, “TEM investigations of cross–sectional prepared organic light emitting devices,” Microscopy and Microanalysis9, 266–267 (2003).

Hsu, M.

B. Yu, Y. Chen, W. Wang, M. Hsu, S. Tsai, W. Lin, Y. Lin, J. Jou, C. Chu, and J. Shyue, “Depth profiling of organic films with x–ray photoelectron spectroscopy using c60+ and ar+ co–sputtering,” Anal. Chem.80, 3412–3415 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, E.

S. Parthasarathy, D. Wolf, E. Hu, S. Hackwood, and G. Beni, “A color vision system for film thickness determination,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and AutomationIEEE, 1987, pp. 515–519.

Huang, L.

Y. Chen, D. Liu, Z. Wang, P. Li, X. Hao, K. Cheng, Y. Fu, L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Rapid determination of the thickness of graphene using the ratio of color difference,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 6690–6693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hung, C.

C. Yeh, C. Hung, T. C. Chang, H. Lin, and Y. Lin, “An immunoassay using antibody–gold nanoparticle conjugate, silver enhancement and flatbed scanner,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.6, 85–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, H. T.

H. T. Ishii and M. Dannoura, “Measurement of three–dimensional morphology and surface area of conifer shoots and roots using the desktop scanner and silhouette image analysis,” Eurasian J. For. Res.7, 27–32 (2004).

Jörgensen, M.

F. C. Krebs, M. Jörgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing: First public demonstration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93, 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jou, J.

B. Yu, Y. Chen, W. Wang, M. Hsu, S. Tsai, W. Lin, Y. Lin, J. Jou, C. Chu, and J. Shyue, “Depth profiling of organic films with x–ray photoelectron spectroscopy using c60+ and ar+ co–sputtering,” Anal. Chem.80, 3412–3415 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, I.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high–contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene–based sheets,” Nano Lett.7, 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katz, H. E.

H. E. Katz, “Recent advances in semiconductor performance and printing processes for organic transistor-based electronics,” Chem. Mater.16, 4748–4756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kellis, S.

Kleeberger, K. S.

K. S. Kleeberger and B. C. Moser, “Flatbed scanners: An alternative tool for gathering horticultural data,” Hort–Technology12, 444–446 (2002).

Kopola, P.

P. Kopola, M. Tuomikoski, R. Suhonen, and A. Maaninen, “Gravure printed organic light emitting diodes for lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films517, 5757–5762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, F. C.

F. C. Krebs, M. Jörgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing: First public demonstration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93, 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, J.

F. C. Krebs, M. Jörgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing: First public demonstration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93, 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuria, J. M.

J. M. Kuria, R. Schon, and R. Börret, “A flatbed scanner based wavefront sensing unit for optics quality control,” in Proceedings: 18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Durban, South Africa (2012).

Larouche, S.

Larsen, K.

F. C. Krebs, M. Jörgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing: First public demonstration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93, 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Larson, D. T.

Leger, J. R.

Li, P.

Y. Chen, D. Liu, Z. Wang, P. Li, X. Hao, K. Cheng, Y. Fu, L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Rapid determination of the thickness of graphene using the ratio of color difference,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 6690–6693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Chen, D. Liu, Z. Wang, P. Li, X. Hao, K. Cheng, Y. Fu, L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Rapid determination of the thickness of graphene using the ratio of color difference,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 6690–6693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

C. Yeh, C. Hung, T. C. Chang, H. Lin, and Y. Lin, “An immunoassay using antibody–gold nanoparticle conjugate, silver enhancement and flatbed scanner,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.6, 85–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.

B. Yu, Y. Chen, W. Wang, M. Hsu, S. Tsai, W. Lin, Y. Lin, J. Jou, C. Chu, and J. Shyue, “Depth profiling of organic films with x–ray photoelectron spectroscopy using c60+ and ar+ co–sputtering,” Anal. Chem.80, 3412–3415 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.

B. Yu, Y. Chen, W. Wang, M. Hsu, S. Tsai, W. Lin, Y. Lin, J. Jou, C. Chu, and J. Shyue, “Depth profiling of organic films with x–ray photoelectron spectroscopy using c60+ and ar+ co–sputtering,” Anal. Chem.80, 3412–3415 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yeh, C. Hung, T. C. Chang, H. Lin, and Y. Lin, “An immunoassay using antibody–gold nanoparticle conjugate, silver enhancement and flatbed scanner,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.6, 85–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

Y. Chen, D. Liu, Z. Wang, P. Li, X. Hao, K. Cheng, Y. Fu, L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Rapid determination of the thickness of graphene using the ratio of color difference,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 6690–6693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Y. Chen, D. Liu, Z. Wang, P. Li, X. Hao, K. Cheng, Y. Fu, L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Rapid determination of the thickness of graphene using the ratio of color difference,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 6690–6693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lott, L. A.

Lunacek, J.

P. Hlubina, J. Lunacek, D. Ciprian, and R. Chlebus, “Spectral interferometry and reflectometry used to measure thin films,” Appl. Phys. B92, 203–207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maaninen, A.

P. Kopola, M. Tuomikoski, R. Suhonen, and A. Maaninen, “Gravure printed organic light emitting diodes for lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films517, 5757–5762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H.

H. Macleod, Thin–film optical filters, 4th ed. (CRC Press, 2010).

Martinu, L.

Matney, J. E.

J. E. Matney, B. C. Parker, D. W. Neck, G. Henkelmann, and I. I. Rosen, “Evaluation of a commercial flatbed document scanner and radiographic film scanner for radiochromic EBT film dosimetry,” J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys.11, 3165 (2010).
[PubMed]

Mitterbauer, C.

B. Schaffer, C. Mitterbauer, A. Pogantsch, S. Rentenberger, E. Zojer, A. Schertel, and F. Hofer, “TEM investigations of cross–sectional prepared organic light emitting devices,” Microscopy and Microanalysis9, 266–267 (2003).

Moser, B. C.

K. S. Kleeberger and B. C. Moser, “Flatbed scanners: An alternative tool for gathering horticultural data,” Hort–Technology12, 444–446 (2002).

Neck, D. W.

J. E. Matney, B. C. Parker, D. W. Neck, G. Henkelmann, and I. I. Rosen, “Evaluation of a commercial flatbed document scanner and radiographic film scanner for radiochromic EBT film dosimetry,” J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys.11, 3165 (2010).
[PubMed]

Nielsen, T. D.

F. C. Krebs, M. Jörgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing: First public demonstration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93, 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Norrman, K.

F. C. Krebs, M. Jörgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing: First public demonstration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93, 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Parker, B. C.

J. E. Matney, B. C. Parker, D. W. Neck, G. Henkelmann, and I. I. Rosen, “Evaluation of a commercial flatbed document scanner and radiographic film scanner for radiochromic EBT film dosimetry,” J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys.11, 3165 (2010).
[PubMed]

Parthasarathy, S.

S. Parthasarathy, D. Wolf, E. Hu, S. Hackwood, and G. Beni, “A color vision system for film thickness determination,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and AutomationIEEE, 1987, pp. 515–519.

Pellegrini, V.

S. Roddaro, P. Pingue, V. Piazza, V. Pellegrini, and F. Beltram, “The optical visibility of graphene: Interference colors of ultrathin graphite on SiO2,” Nano Lett.7, 2707–2710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelton, M.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high–contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene–based sheets,” Nano Lett.7, 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piazza, V.

S. Roddaro, P. Pingue, V. Piazza, V. Pellegrini, and F. Beltram, “The optical visibility of graphene: Interference colors of ultrathin graphite on SiO2,” Nano Lett.7, 2707–2710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piner, R.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high–contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene–based sheets,” Nano Lett.7, 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pingue, P.

S. Roddaro, P. Pingue, V. Piazza, V. Pellegrini, and F. Beltram, “The optical visibility of graphene: Interference colors of ultrathin graphite on SiO2,” Nano Lett.7, 2707–2710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogantsch, A.

B. Schaffer, C. Mitterbauer, A. Pogantsch, S. Rentenberger, E. Zojer, A. Schertel, and F. Hofer, “TEM investigations of cross–sectional prepared organic light emitting devices,” Microscopy and Microanalysis9, 266–267 (2003).

Rentenberger, S.

B. Schaffer, C. Mitterbauer, A. Pogantsch, S. Rentenberger, E. Zojer, A. Schertel, and F. Hofer, “TEM investigations of cross–sectional prepared organic light emitting devices,” Microscopy and Microanalysis9, 266–267 (2003).

Roddaro, S.

S. Roddaro, P. Pingue, V. Piazza, V. Pellegrini, and F. Beltram, “The optical visibility of graphene: Interference colors of ultrathin graphite on SiO2,” Nano Lett.7, 2707–2710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, I. I.

J. E. Matney, B. C. Parker, D. W. Neck, G. Henkelmann, and I. I. Rosen, “Evaluation of a commercial flatbed document scanner and radiographic film scanner for radiochromic EBT film dosimetry,” J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys.11, 3165 (2010).
[PubMed]

Ruoff, R. S.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high–contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene–based sheets,” Nano Lett.7, 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, H. H.

S. Stahl, H. H. Sauer, and E. Dorsam, “Investigation in the homogeneity of gravure printed polymer films for printed electronics,” in Proceedings: 39th International Research Conference of Iariga, Ljubljana, Slovenia (2012).

Sauer, H. M.

N. Bornemann, H. M. Sauer, and E. Dörsam, “Gravure printed ultrathin layers of small-molecule semiconductors on glass,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol.55, 040201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Sauer, N. Bornemann, and E. Dösam, “Viscous fingering in functional flexo printing: an inevitable bug?” in Large-Area, Organic & Printed Electronics Convention (LOPE-C), Frankfurt, Germany (2011).

Schaffer, B.

B. Schaffer, C. Mitterbauer, A. Pogantsch, S. Rentenberger, E. Zojer, A. Schertel, and F. Hofer, “TEM investigations of cross–sectional prepared organic light emitting devices,” Microscopy and Microanalysis9, 266–267 (2003).

Schertel, A.

B. Schaffer, C. Mitterbauer, A. Pogantsch, S. Rentenberger, E. Zojer, A. Schertel, and F. Hofer, “TEM investigations of cross–sectional prepared organic light emitting devices,” Microscopy and Microanalysis9, 266–267 (2003).

Schon, R.

J. M. Kuria, R. Schon, and R. Börret, “A flatbed scanner based wavefront sensing unit for optics quality control,” in Proceedings: 18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Durban, South Africa (2012).

Schultz, S. M.

Shyue, J.

B. Yu, Y. Chen, W. Wang, M. Hsu, S. Tsai, W. Lin, Y. Lin, J. Jou, C. Chu, and J. Shyue, “Depth profiling of organic films with x–ray photoelectron spectroscopy using c60+ and ar+ co–sputtering,” Anal. Chem.80, 3412–3415 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stahl, S.

S. Stahl, H. H. Sauer, and E. Dorsam, “Investigation in the homogeneity of gravure printed polymer films for printed electronics,” in Proceedings: 39th International Research Conference of Iariga, Ljubljana, Slovenia (2012).

Stankovich, S.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high–contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene–based sheets,” Nano Lett.7, 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suhonen, R.

P. Kopola, M. Tuomikoski, R. Suhonen, and A. Maaninen, “Gravure printed organic light emitting diodes for lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films517, 5757–5762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, S.

B. Yu, Y. Chen, W. Wang, M. Hsu, S. Tsai, W. Lin, Y. Lin, J. Jou, C. Chu, and J. Shyue, “Depth profiling of organic films with x–ray photoelectron spectroscopy using c60+ and ar+ co–sputtering,” Anal. Chem.80, 3412–3415 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuomikoski, M.

P. Kopola, M. Tuomikoski, R. Suhonen, and A. Maaninen, “Gravure printed organic light emitting diodes for lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films517, 5757–5762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

B. Yu, Y. Chen, W. Wang, M. Hsu, S. Tsai, W. Lin, Y. Lin, J. Jou, C. Chu, and J. Shyue, “Depth profiling of organic films with x–ray photoelectron spectroscopy using c60+ and ar+ co–sputtering,” Anal. Chem.80, 3412–3415 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Y. Chen, D. Liu, Z. Wang, P. Li, X. Hao, K. Cheng, Y. Fu, L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Rapid determination of the thickness of graphene using the ratio of color difference,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 6690–6693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watcharotone, S.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high–contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene–based sheets,” Nano Lett.7, 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, D.

S. Parthasarathy, D. Wolf, E. Hu, S. Hackwood, and G. Beni, “A color vision system for film thickness determination,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and AutomationIEEE, 1987, pp. 515–519.

Yang, Y. H.

Y. H. Yang and J. Abelson, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of thin films on transparent substrates: A formalism for data interpretation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A13, 1145 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C.

C. Yeh, C. Hung, T. C. Chang, H. Lin, and Y. Lin, “An immunoassay using antibody–gold nanoparticle conjugate, silver enhancement and flatbed scanner,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.6, 85–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B.

B. Yu, Y. Chen, W. Wang, M. Hsu, S. Tsai, W. Lin, Y. Lin, J. Jou, C. Chu, and J. Shyue, “Depth profiling of organic films with x–ray photoelectron spectroscopy using c60+ and ar+ co–sputtering,” Anal. Chem.80, 3412–3415 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, W.

Y. Chen, D. Liu, Z. Wang, P. Li, X. Hao, K. Cheng, Y. Fu, L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Rapid determination of the thickness of graphene using the ratio of color difference,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 6690–6693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zojer, E.

B. Schaffer, C. Mitterbauer, A. Pogantsch, S. Rentenberger, E. Zojer, A. Schertel, and F. Hofer, “TEM investigations of cross–sectional prepared organic light emitting devices,” Microscopy and Microanalysis9, 266–267 (2003).

Anal. Chem. (1)

B. Yu, Y. Chen, W. Wang, M. Hsu, S. Tsai, W. Lin, Y. Lin, J. Jou, C. Chu, and J. Shyue, “Depth profiling of organic films with x–ray photoelectron spectroscopy using c60+ and ar+ co–sputtering,” Anal. Chem.80, 3412–3415 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Hlubina, J. Lunacek, D. Ciprian, and R. Chlebus, “Spectral interferometry and reflectometry used to measure thin films,” Appl. Phys. B92, 203–207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

H. E. Katz, “Recent advances in semiconductor performance and printing processes for organic transistor-based electronics,” Chem. Mater.16, 4748–4756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eurasian J. For. Res. (1)

H. T. Ishii and M. Dannoura, “Measurement of three–dimensional morphology and surface area of conifer shoots and roots using the desktop scanner and silhouette image analysis,” Eurasian J. For. Res.7, 27–32 (2004).

Hort–Technology (1)

K. S. Kleeberger and B. C. Moser, “Flatbed scanners: An alternative tool for gathering horticultural data,” Hort–Technology12, 444–446 (2002).

IEEE T. Semiconduct. M. (1)

M. Barth, D. Hirayama, G. Beni, and S. Hackwood, “A color vision inspection system for integrated circuit manufacturing,” IEEE T. Semiconduct. M.5, 290–301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. (1)

J. E. Matney, B. C. Parker, D. W. Neck, G. Henkelmann, and I. I. Rosen, “Evaluation of a commercial flatbed document scanner and radiographic film scanner for radiochromic EBT film dosimetry,” J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys.11, 3165 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (1)

N. Bornemann, H. M. Sauer, and E. Dörsam, “Gravure printed ultrathin layers of small-molecule semiconductors on glass,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol.55, 040201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

Y. Chen, D. Liu, Z. Wang, P. Li, X. Hao, K. Cheng, Y. Fu, L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Rapid determination of the thickness of graphene using the ratio of color difference,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 6690–6693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

Y. H. Yang and J. Abelson, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of thin films on transparent substrates: A formalism for data interpretation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A13, 1145 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Microfluid. Nanofluid. (1)

C. Yeh, C. Hung, T. C. Chang, H. Lin, and Y. Lin, “An immunoassay using antibody–gold nanoparticle conjugate, silver enhancement and flatbed scanner,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.6, 85–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Microscopy and Microanalysis (1)

B. Schaffer, C. Mitterbauer, A. Pogantsch, S. Rentenberger, E. Zojer, A. Schertel, and F. Hofer, “TEM investigations of cross–sectional prepared organic light emitting devices,” Microscopy and Microanalysis9, 266–267 (2003).

Nano Lett. (2)

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high–contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene–based sheets,” Nano Lett.7, 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Roddaro, P. Pingue, V. Piazza, V. Pellegrini, and F. Beltram, “The optical visibility of graphene: Interference colors of ultrathin graphite on SiO2,” Nano Lett.7, 2707–2710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

L. Asinovski, D. Beaglehole, and M. T. Clarkson, “Imaging ellipsometry: quantitative analysis,” Phys. Status Solidi A205, 764–771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Y. Hardeberg, “Spectral characterization of electronic cameras,” Proc. SPIE3409, pp. 100–109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. (1)

F. C. Krebs, M. Jörgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing: First public demonstration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.93, 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (3)

P. Kopola, M. Tuomikoski, R. Suhonen, and A. Maaninen, “Gravure printed organic light emitting diodes for lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films517, 5757–5762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Cook, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry for in–line monitoring of silicon nitrides,” Thin Solid Films455, 794–797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Abeles, “Optical properties of very thin films,” Thin Solid Films34, 291302 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. Macleod, Thin–film optical filters, 4th ed. (CRC Press, 2010).

P. D. Burns, “Analysis of image noise in multispectral color acquisition,” Ph.D. thesis, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester N.Y., USA (1997).

J. M. Kuria, R. Schon, and R. Börret, “A flatbed scanner based wavefront sensing unit for optics quality control,” in Proceedings: 18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Durban, South Africa (2012).

S. Stahl, H. H. Sauer, and E. Dorsam, “Investigation in the homogeneity of gravure printed polymer films for printed electronics,” in Proceedings: 39th International Research Conference of Iariga, Ljubljana, Slovenia (2012).

H. M. Sauer, N. Bornemann, and E. Dösam, “Viscous fingering in functional flexo printing: an inevitable bug?” in Large-Area, Organic & Printed Electronics Convention (LOPE-C), Frankfurt, Germany (2011).

S. Parthasarathy, D. Wolf, E. Hu, S. Hackwood, and G. Beni, “A color vision system for film thickness determination,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and AutomationIEEE, 1987, pp. 515–519.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic setup of the optical elements and the optical path of the measurement principle (for clarity of the sketch the optical paths are non-normal unlike the theoretical model).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Setup of the optical elements and the optical path of the modified commercial flatbed scanner Epson Perfection 3170. BS denotes the beam-splitter which was implemented and Mi the built-in mirrors. Illumination and inspection were adjusted normal to the sample surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Photograph of the modified flatbed scanner with the substrate holder for rigid glass samples. (b) Sketch of the open scan head (red) with installed beam-splitter of variable length, here of 6 cm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured and normalized spectral radiance I(λ) of the scanner illumination between 380 nm and 780 nm and measured combined spectral transfer functions k(λ) for the red, green and blue channel of the scanner.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image of the SiO2 coated 100 mm Si-wafer captured by the modified commercial flatbed scanner. The thicknesses of the SiO2 coating ranged from 0 to 500 nm for the six labeled fields.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

theoretical contrast values ck for the three color channels of the SiO2/Si-wafer with layer thickness d1,r of the SiO2 ranging from 0 to 600 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Thickness map d 1 , est i j of the SiO2 on the Si-wafer determined by the proposed imaging color reflectometry method based the image depicted in Fig. 5.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Image of an area of 76.9 mm × 132.9 mm of the ITO/glass substrate printed with the organic semiconductor Spiro-MeO-TAD captured by the modified flatbed scanner.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Theoretical contrast values ck for the three color channels of the Spiro-MeO-TAD/ITO/glass sample. Thickness of the ITO was d1 = 160 nm and the range of Spiro-MeO-TAD was d2,r ∈ [0, 60] nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Thickness map of the organic semiconductor Spiro-MeO-TAD printed on the ITO-glass substrate determined by the proposed color reflectometry method based on the image depicted in Fig. 8.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean layer thicknesses of the six different SiO2 fields on the Si-wafer measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and by the proposed imaging color reflectometry (ICR) based on Fig. 7.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Averaged layer thicknesses of the six labeled fields of Fig. 10 of the printed sample Spiro-MeO-TAD/ITO/glass measured by phase shifting interferometry (PSI) at limited positions at the swiped lines and by the proposed imaging color reflectometry (ICR) of the complete imaged sample area shown in Fig. 7.

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I L i j ( λ ) = I c i j I ( λ ) .
P L i j ( λ ) = P c i j P ( λ ) .
A k i j = λ min λ max S ( λ ) F k ( λ ) P L i j ( λ ) R total i j ( λ , d l i j , N l ) I L i j ( λ ) d λ ,
A k i j = C i j λ min λ max S ( λ ) F k ( λ ) P ( λ ) R total i j ( λ , d l i j , N l ) I ( λ ) d λ = a k i j = C i j a k i j
M l = [ cos φ l i N l sin φ n i N l sin φ l cos φ l ]
φ l = 2 π λ N l d l .
M = [ m 11 m 12 m 21 m 22 ] = l = q 1 M l .
r f = N air m 11 N s m 22 + N air N s m 12 m 21 N air m 11 + N s m 22 + N air N s m 12 + m 21
t f = 2 N air N air m 11 + N s m 22 + N air N s m 12 + m 21
R f = | r f | 2
T f = Re N s Re N air | t f | 2 .
R bs = T f T f R s-air e 4 | Im ( φ s ) | 1 R f R s-air e 4 | Im ( φ s ) | .
R total = R f + R bs = R f + T f T f R s-air e 4 | Im ( φ s ) | 1 R f R s-air e 4 | Im ( φ s ) | .
c ˜ k i j = A ˜ k i j A ˜ k , ref i j A ˜ k i j + A ˜ k , ref i j
c k , r i j = A k , r i j A k , ref i j A k , r i j + A k , ref i j = C i j a k , r i j C ref i j a k , ref i j C i j a k , r i j + C ref i j a k , ref i j = | C i j = ! C ref i j a k , r i j a k , ref i j a k , r i j + a k , ref i j ,
d q , est i j = argmin d q , r , r [ 1 , p ] { c r i j c ˜ i j 1 2 } ,
F ´ k ( λ ) = S ( λ ) F k ( λ ) P ( λ )

Metrics