Abstract

Extending single attosecond pulse technology from currently sub-200 eV to the so called ‘water window’ spectral range may enable for the first time the unique investigation of ultrafast electronic processes within the core states of bio-molecules as proteins or other organic materials. Aperiodic multilayer mirrors serve as key components to shape these attosecond pulses with a high degree of freedom and enable tailored short pulse pump-probe experiments. Here, we report on chirped CrSc multilayer mirrors, fabricated by ion beam deposition with sub-angstrom precision, designed for attosecond pulse shaping in the ‘water window’ spectral range.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (6)

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. V. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and P. Feulner, “Attosecond Time-Resolved Photoemission from Core and Valence States of Magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(8), 087401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, Ph. Troussel, and B. Villette, “Design and fabrication of X-ray non-periodic multilayer mirrors: Apodization and shaping of their spectral response,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods680, 69–74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Heissler, R. Hörlein, J. M. Mikhailova, L. Waldecker, P. Tzallas, A. Buck, K. Schmid, C. M. S. Sears, F. Krausz, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Few-Cycle Driven Relativistically Oscillating Plasma Mirrors: A Source of Intense Isolated Attosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(23), 235003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Borot, A. Malvache, X. Chen, A. Jullien, J.-P. Geindre, P. Audebert, G. Mourou, F. Quéré, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Attosecond control of collective electron motion in plasmas,” Nat. Phys.8(5), 416–421 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Wheeler, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, A. Ricci, A. Malvache, R. Lopez-Martens, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses from plasma mirrors,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 829–833 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys.14(2), 023040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

2010 (5)

H. Jiang, J. Zhu, J. Xu, X. Wang, Z. Wang, and M. Watanabe, “Determination of layer-thickness variation in periodic multilayer by X-ray reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys.107(10), 103523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Ko, K. T. Kim, J. Park, J.-H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond chirp compensation over broadband high-order harmonics to generate near transform-limited 63 as pulses,” New J. Phys.12(6), 063008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Hörlein, Y. Nomura, P. Tzallas, S. G. Rykovanov, B. Dromey, J. Osterhoff, Zs. Major, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, D. Charalambidis, F. Krausz, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Temporal characterization of attosecond pulses emitted from solid-density plasmas,” New J. Phys.12(4), 043020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

A. Aquila, F. Salmassi, and E. Gullikson, “Metrologies for the phase characterization of attosecond extreme ultraviolet optics,” Opt. Lett.33(5), 455–457 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” New J. Phys.9(7), 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and G. W. DeBell, “Optical coating design approaches based on the needle optimization technique,” Appl. Opt.46(5), 704–710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gustafsson, T. Ruchon, M. Swoboda, T. Remetter, E. Pourtal, R. López-Martens, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “Broadband attosecond pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett.32(11), 1353–1355 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Uspenskii, D. Burenkov, T. Hatano, and M. Yamamoto, “Optimal Design of Multilayer Mirrors for Water-Window Microscope Optics,” Opt. Rev.14(1), 64–73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuru, “Reflection Passband Broadening by Aperiodic Designs of EUV/Soft X-ray Multilayers,” AIP Conf. Proc.879, 1524–1530 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-G. Wahlström, and A. L’huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(3), 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.-S. Morlens, P. Balcou, P. Zeitoun, C. Valentin, V. Laude, and S. Kazamias, “Compression of attosecond harmonic pulses by extreme-ultraviolet chirped mirrors,” Opt. Lett.30(12), 1554–1556 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. A. Yulin, F. Schaefers, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “High-performance Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft X-ray range,” Proc. SPIE5193, 172–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kreissig, and J. Birch, “14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window,” Opt. Lett.28(24), 2494–2496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

V. Yakovlev and G. Tempea, “Optimization of Chirped Mirrors,” Appl. Opt.41(30), 6514–6520 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Muller, “Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. B74(9), s17–s21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” Proc. SPIE4343, 363–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

F. Schäfers, “Multilayers for the EUV/soft X-ray range,” Physica B283(1-3), 119–124 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Salashchenko and E. A. Shamov, “Short-period X-ray multilayers based on Cr/Sc,” Opt. Commun.134(1-6), 7–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

L. Névot and P. Croce, “Caractérisation des surfaces par réflexion rasante de rayons X. Application à l’étude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris)15(3), 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” New J. Phys.9(7), 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A.

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Audebert, P.

A. Borot, A. Malvache, X. Chen, A. Jullien, J.-P. Geindre, P. Audebert, G. Mourou, F. Quéré, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Attosecond control of collective electron motion in plasmas,” Nat. Phys.8(5), 416–421 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

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P. Heissler, R. Hörlein, J. M. Mikhailova, L. Waldecker, P. Tzallas, A. Buck, K. Schmid, C. M. S. Sears, F. Krausz, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Few-Cycle Driven Relativistically Oscillating Plasma Mirrors: A Source of Intense Isolated Attosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(23), 235003 (2012).
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A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” New J. Phys.9(7), 242 (2007).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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Hertz, H. M.

Hofstetter, M.

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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Hörlein, R.

P. Heissler, R. Hörlein, J. M. Mikhailova, L. Waldecker, P. Tzallas, A. Buck, K. Schmid, C. M. S. Sears, F. Krausz, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Few-Cycle Driven Relativistically Oscillating Plasma Mirrors: A Source of Intense Isolated Attosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(23), 235003 (2012).
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R. Hörlein, Y. Nomura, P. Tzallas, S. G. Rykovanov, B. Dromey, J. Osterhoff, Zs. Major, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, D. Charalambidis, F. Krausz, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Temporal characterization of attosecond pulses emitted from solid-density plasmas,” New J. Phys.12(4), 043020 (2010).
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A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” New J. Phys.9(7), 242 (2007).
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G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
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G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
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R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-G. Wahlström, and A. L’huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(3), 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jullien, A.

A. Borot, A. Malvache, X. Chen, A. Jullien, J.-P. Geindre, P. Audebert, G. Mourou, F. Quéré, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Attosecond control of collective electron motion in plasmas,” Nat. Phys.8(5), 416–421 (2012).
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A. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, X. T. Nguyen, M. Krikunova, S. Fritzsche, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Drescher, and A. Baltuška, “Time-and-energy-resolved measurement of Auger cascades following Kr 3d excitation by attosecond pulses,” New J. Phys.13(11), 113003 (2011).
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S. A. Yulin, F. Schaefers, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “High-performance Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft X-ray range,” Proc. SPIE5193, 172–176 (2004).
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Kan, C.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karsch, S.

R. Hörlein, Y. Nomura, P. Tzallas, S. G. Rykovanov, B. Dromey, J. Osterhoff, Zs. Major, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, D. Charalambidis, F. Krausz, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Temporal characterization of attosecond pulses emitted from solid-density plasmas,” New J. Phys.12(4), 043020 (2010).
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E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” Proc. SPIE4343, 363–373 (2001).
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Kazamias, S.

Kelkensberg, F.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. V. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and P. Feulner, “Attosecond Time-Resolved Photoemission from Core and Valence States of Magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(8), 087401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” New J. Phys.9(7), 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. T.

D. H. Ko, K. T. Kim, J. Park, J.-H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond chirp compensation over broadband high-order harmonics to generate near transform-limited 63 as pulses,” New J. Phys.12(6), 063008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kling, M. F.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, D. H.

D. H. Ko, K. T. Kim, J. Park, J.-H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond chirp compensation over broadband high-order harmonics to generate near transform-limited 63 as pulses,” New J. Phys.12(6), 063008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Komninos, Y.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koppitsch, R.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Korbman, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovacev, M.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. V. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and P. Feulner, “Attosecond Time-Resolved Photoemission from Core and Valence States of Magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(8), 087401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Heissler, R. Hörlein, J. M. Mikhailova, L. Waldecker, P. Tzallas, A. Buck, K. Schmid, C. M. S. Sears, F. Krausz, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Few-Cycle Driven Relativistically Oscillating Plasma Mirrors: A Source of Intense Isolated Attosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(23), 235003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hörlein, Y. Nomura, P. Tzallas, S. G. Rykovanov, B. Dromey, J. Osterhoff, Zs. Major, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, D. Charalambidis, F. Krausz, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Temporal characterization of attosecond pulses emitted from solid-density plasmas,” New J. Phys.12(4), 043020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” New J. Phys.9(7), 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kreissig, U.

Krikunova, M.

A. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, X. T. Nguyen, M. Krikunova, S. Fritzsche, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Drescher, and A. Baltuška, “Time-and-energy-resolved measurement of Auger cascades following Kr 3d excitation by attosecond pulses,” New J. Phys.13(11), 113003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L’huillier, A.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gustafsson, T. Ruchon, M. Swoboda, T. Remetter, E. Pourtal, R. López-Martens, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “Broadband attosecond pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett.32(11), 1353–1355 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-G. Wahlström, and A. L’huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(3), 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laude, V.

Lee, J.-H.

D. H. Ko, K. T. Kim, J. Park, J.-H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond chirp compensation over broadband high-order harmonics to generate near transform-limited 63 as pulses,” New J. Phys.12(6), 063008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lépine, F.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez-Martens, R.

A. Borot, A. Malvache, X. Chen, A. Jullien, J.-P. Geindre, P. Audebert, G. Mourou, F. Quéré, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Attosecond control of collective electron motion in plasmas,” Nat. Phys.8(5), 416–421 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Wheeler, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, A. Ricci, A. Malvache, R. Lopez-Martens, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses from plasma mirrors,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 829–833 (2012).
[CrossRef]

López-Martens, R.

E. Gustafsson, T. Ruchon, M. Swoboda, T. Remetter, E. Pourtal, R. López-Martens, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “Broadband attosecond pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett.32(11), 1353–1355 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-G. Wahlström, and A. L’huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(3), 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahne, N.

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys.14(2), 023040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mairesse, Y.

R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-G. Wahlström, and A. L’huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(3), 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Major, Zs.

R. Hörlein, Y. Nomura, P. Tzallas, S. G. Rykovanov, B. Dromey, J. Osterhoff, Zs. Major, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, D. Charalambidis, F. Krausz, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Temporal characterization of attosecond pulses emitted from solid-density plasmas,” New J. Phys.12(4), 043020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Malvache, A.

J. A. Wheeler, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, A. Ricci, A. Malvache, R. Lopez-Martens, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses from plasma mirrors,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 829–833 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Borot, A. Malvache, X. Chen, A. Jullien, J.-P. Geindre, P. Audebert, G. Mourou, F. Quéré, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Attosecond control of collective electron motion in plasmas,” Nat. Phys.8(5), 416–421 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Martín, F.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
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R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-G. Wahlström, and A. L’huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(3), 033001 (2005).
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C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys.14(2), 023040 (2012).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
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P. Heissler, R. Hörlein, J. M. Mikhailova, L. Waldecker, P. Tzallas, A. Buck, K. Schmid, C. M. S. Sears, F. Krausz, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Few-Cycle Driven Relativistically Oscillating Plasma Mirrors: A Source of Intense Isolated Attosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(23), 235003 (2012).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
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J. A. Wheeler, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, A. Ricci, A. Malvache, R. Lopez-Martens, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses from plasma mirrors,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 829–833 (2012).
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G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
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Mourou, G.

A. Borot, A. Malvache, X. Chen, A. Jullien, J.-P. Geindre, P. Audebert, G. Mourou, F. Quéré, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Attosecond control of collective electron motion in plasmas,” Nat. Phys.8(5), 416–421 (2012).
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Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
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D. H. Ko, K. T. Kim, J. Park, J.-H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond chirp compensation over broadband high-order harmonics to generate near transform-limited 63 as pulses,” New J. Phys.12(6), 063008 (2010).
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C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys.14(2), 023040 (2012).
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S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. V. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and P. Feulner, “Attosecond Time-Resolved Photoemission from Core and Valence States of Magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(8), 087401 (2012).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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A. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, X. T. Nguyen, M. Krikunova, S. Fritzsche, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Drescher, and A. Baltuška, “Time-and-energy-resolved measurement of Auger cascades following Kr 3d excitation by attosecond pulses,” New J. Phys.13(11), 113003 (2011).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photonics5(11), 655–663 (2011).
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G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
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R. Hörlein, Y. Nomura, P. Tzallas, S. G. Rykovanov, B. Dromey, J. Osterhoff, Zs. Major, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, D. Charalambidis, F. Krausz, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Temporal characterization of attosecond pulses emitted from solid-density plasmas,” New J. Phys.12(4), 043020 (2010).
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R. Hörlein, Y. Nomura, P. Tzallas, S. G. Rykovanov, B. Dromey, J. Osterhoff, Zs. Major, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, D. Charalambidis, F. Krausz, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Temporal characterization of attosecond pulses emitted from solid-density plasmas,” New J. Phys.12(4), 043020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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D. H. Ko, K. T. Kim, J. Park, J.-H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond chirp compensation over broadband high-order harmonics to generate near transform-limited 63 as pulses,” New J. Phys.12(6), 063008 (2010).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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Pérez-Torres, J. F.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
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R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-G. Wahlström, and A. L’huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(3), 033001 (2005).
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A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” New J. Phys.9(7), 242 (2007).
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Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photonics5(11), 655–663 (2011).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
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Quéré, F.

A. Borot, A. Malvache, X. Chen, A. Jullien, J.-P. Geindre, P. Audebert, G. Mourou, F. Quéré, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Attosecond control of collective electron motion in plasmas,” Nat. Phys.8(5), 416–421 (2012).
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J. A. Wheeler, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, A. Ricci, A. Malvache, R. Lopez-Martens, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses from plasma mirrors,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 829–833 (2012).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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Ricci, A.

J. A. Wheeler, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, A. Ricci, A. Malvache, R. Lopez-Martens, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses from plasma mirrors,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 829–833 (2012).
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Ruchon, T.

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R. Hörlein, Y. Nomura, P. Tzallas, S. G. Rykovanov, B. Dromey, J. Osterhoff, Zs. Major, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, D. Charalambidis, F. Krausz, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Temporal characterization of attosecond pulses emitted from solid-density plasmas,” New J. Phys.12(4), 043020 (2010).
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Salashchenko, N. N.

N. N. Salashchenko and E. A. Shamov, “Short-period X-ray multilayers based on Cr/Sc,” Opt. Commun.134(1-6), 7–10 (1997).
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R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-G. Wahlström, and A. L’huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(3), 033001 (2005).
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Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
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Salmassi, F.

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photonics5(11), 655–663 (2011).
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G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
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G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
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Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
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S. A. Yulin, F. Schaefers, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “High-performance Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft X-ray range,” Proc. SPIE5193, 172–176 (2004).
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R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-G. Wahlström, and A. L’huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(3), 033001 (2005).
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F. Schäfers, “Multilayers for the EUV/soft X-ray range,” Physica B283(1-3), 119–124 (2000).
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P. Heissler, R. Hörlein, J. M. Mikhailova, L. Waldecker, P. Tzallas, A. Buck, K. Schmid, C. M. S. Sears, F. Krausz, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Few-Cycle Driven Relativistically Oscillating Plasma Mirrors: A Source of Intense Isolated Attosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(23), 235003 (2012).
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Schnürer, M.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
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Schultze, M.

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” New J. Phys.9(7), 242 (2007).
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Sears, C. M. S.

P. Heissler, R. Hörlein, J. M. Mikhailova, L. Waldecker, P. Tzallas, A. Buck, K. Schmid, C. M. S. Sears, F. Krausz, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Few-Cycle Driven Relativistically Oscillating Plasma Mirrors: A Source of Intense Isolated Attosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(23), 235003 (2012).
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Shamov, E. A.

N. N. Salashchenko and E. A. Shamov, “Short-period X-ray multilayers based on Cr/Sc,” Opt. Commun.134(1-6), 7–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Siu, W.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
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Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
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Staier, F.

Stephens, M.

Suman, M.

Svanberg, S.

R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-G. Wahlström, and A. L’huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(3), 033001 (2005).
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Swoboda, M.

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F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, Ph. Troussel, and B. Villette, “Design and fabrication of X-ray non-periodic multilayer mirrors: Apodization and shaping of their spectral response,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods680, 69–74 (2012).
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Tsakiris, G. D.

P. Heissler, R. Hörlein, J. M. Mikhailova, L. Waldecker, P. Tzallas, A. Buck, K. Schmid, C. M. S. Sears, F. Krausz, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Few-Cycle Driven Relativistically Oscillating Plasma Mirrors: A Source of Intense Isolated Attosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(23), 235003 (2012).
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P. Heissler, R. Hörlein, J. M. Mikhailova, L. Waldecker, P. Tzallas, A. Buck, K. Schmid, C. M. S. Sears, F. Krausz, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Few-Cycle Driven Relativistically Oscillating Plasma Mirrors: A Source of Intense Isolated Attosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(23), 235003 (2012).
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Y. Uspenskii, D. Burenkov, T. Hatano, and M. Yamamoto, “Optimal Design of Multilayer Mirrors for Water-Window Microscope Optics,” Opt. Rev.14(1), 64–73 (2007).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
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R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-G. Wahlström, and A. L’huillier, “Amplitude and Phase Control of Attosecond Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(3), 033001 (2005).
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H. Jiang, J. Zhu, J. Xu, X. Wang, Z. Wang, and M. Watanabe, “Determination of layer-thickness variation in periodic multilayer by X-ray reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys.107(10), 103523 (2010).
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J. A. Wheeler, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, A. Ricci, A. Malvache, R. Lopez-Martens, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses from plasma mirrors,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 829–833 (2012).
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H. Jiang, J. Zhu, J. Xu, X. Wang, Z. Wang, and M. Watanabe, “Determination of layer-thickness variation in periodic multilayer by X-ray reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys.107(10), 103523 (2010).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” New J. Phys.9(7), 242 (2007).
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Y. Uspenskii, D. Burenkov, T. Hatano, and M. Yamamoto, “Optimal Design of Multilayer Mirrors for Water-Window Microscope Optics,” Opt. Rev.14(1), 64–73 (2007).
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P. Heissler, R. Hörlein, J. M. Mikhailova, L. Waldecker, P. Tzallas, A. Buck, K. Schmid, C. M. S. Sears, F. Krausz, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Few-Cycle Driven Relativistically Oscillating Plasma Mirrors: A Source of Intense Isolated Attosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(23), 235003 (2012).
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R. Hörlein, Y. Nomura, P. Tzallas, S. G. Rykovanov, B. Dromey, J. Osterhoff, Zs. Major, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, D. Charalambidis, F. Krausz, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Temporal characterization of attosecond pulses emitted from solid-density plasmas,” New J. Phys.12(4), 043020 (2010).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
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F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, in Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1981).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic setup of the dual ion beam deposition system with load locked sample transfer, four target assemblies, beam shaper and rotating substrate holder.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Lateral (radial) homogeneity of the deposition rates with (red) and without shaper (blue). (b) Rate dependence on the sample height. A quadratic fit coincides quite well with the measured data, since the tapered surface is quadratic dependent on the distance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ellipsometry parameters psi (red) and delta (green) and the corresponding fitted model (dashed black). Data is taken from samples with pure 8 nm thick layers of (a) chromium and of (c) scandium, and is compared to data measured after 24h oxidation (b) Cr/Cr2O3, and of (d) Sc/Sc2O3, respectively. In (b) additional data after one year of oxidation is included, showing no measurable change and indicating that chromium is well suited as passivation layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characterization of a periodic CrSc multilayer stack, containing 400 periods, by (a) soft X-ray reflectometry and (b) hard X-ray Mo-Kα reflectometry. Simulation results are shown for comparison (blue solid lines).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Total CrSc multilayer stack thickness (same multilayer as in Fig. 4) evaluated from 24 thickness measurements by surface profilometry. Also shown are the mean value and the target stack thickness from calibrated deposition rates.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Multilayer stack designs of the aperiodic CrSc multilayers for the (a) negative and (b) positive chirp. For comparison reasons an arbitrary line with a layer thickness of d = 1.5 nm is depicted (dashed).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

XRR measurement (green) and the fit (blue) for the negative multilayer mirror in (a) and for the positive one in (b), respectively. The negative mirror has been fitted with a roughness parameter of σ = 0.22 nm whereas the positive shows a slightly lower value of σ = 0.206 nm. The noise level of the XRR measurement is on the order of approximately 3.5x10−7. Therefore the measurement data for the negative mirror is clipped at around Θ≈2.5° whereas the positive mirror extends up to Θ≈3°.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated field intensity distribution (normalized to incoming intensity) of the standing wave field inside the (a) negatively and (b) positively chirped aperiodic CrSc multilayer. Both multilayer systems have been optimized for an averaged Group Delay Dispersion of approximately ± 8000 as2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Soft X-ray reflectivity measurement (brown) and simulation (blue) for the (a) negatively and (b) positively chirped CrSc multilayer together with the corresponding simulated GDD (dashed red).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Merit function for the simulated reflectivity and the XUV measurement for different layer thickness errors. (b) Mean GDD for different layer errors.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Intensity of the mirror (blue line) together with the phase for the mirror (dashed blue), HHG (dashed black) and the sum (dashed brown). (b) Simulated temporal pulse response of a positively chirped attosecond pulse from the high harmonic plateau after compression by the negatively chirped CrSc multilayer mirror.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the evaluated total stack thickness, multilayer period d, interface roughness σ, thickness ratio γ and the period deviation from the target.

Equations (3)

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Γ= N A1s Γ 2 Γ 1 = A 1 A 2 = ( d 1 d 2 ) 2 = ( D h 1 D h 2 ) 2 ,
tanψ=| r p / r s | and Δ= φ p - φ s ,
MF= 1 N i=1 N ( R Sim,i R XUV,i ) 2 ,

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