Abstract

A new implementation of microwave-photonic filters (MPFs) based on tunable optical delay lines is proposed and demonstrated. The variable delay is based on mapping of the spectral components of an incoming waveform onto the time domain, the application of linearly-varying temporal phase offsets, and an inverse mapping back to the frequency domain. The linear phase correction is equivalent to a frequency offset, and realized though suppressed-carrier single-sideband modulation by a radio-frequency sine wave. The variable delay element, controlled by the selected frequency, is used in one arm of a two-tap MPF. In a proof-of-concept experiment, the free spectral range (FSR) of the MPF was varied by over a factor of four: between 1.2 GHz and 5.3 GHz.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

S. Chin, L. Thévenaz, J. Sancho, S. Sales, J. Capmany, P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, and D. Dolfi, “Broadband true time delay for microwave signal processing, using slow light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express18(21), 22599–22613 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sancho, S. Chin, M. Sagues, A. Loayssa, J. Lloret, I. Gasulla, S. Sales, L. Thévenaz, and J. Capmany, “Dynamic microwave photonic filter using separate carrier tuning based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(23), 1753–1755 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Yaron, R. Rothman, S. Zach, and M. Tur, “Photonic beamformer receiver with multiple beam capabilities,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(23), 1723–1725 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Jamshidi, A. Wiatrek, C. Bersch, G. Onishchukov, G. Leuchs, and T. Schneider, “Widely tunable optical delay generator,” Opt. Lett.35(21), 3592–3594 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

A. Zadok, O. Raz, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, “Optically controlled low-distortion delay of GHz-wide radio-frequency signals using slow light in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(7), 462–464 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 201–229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Wang, F. Zeng, and J. Yao, “All-optical microwave bandpass filters implemented in a radio-over-fiber link,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett.17(8), 1737–1739 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, “Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(2), 702–723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1997 (1)

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett.33(7), 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond optical pulse shaping and processing,” Prog. Quantum Electron.19(3), 161–237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Akbari, M.

A. Mokhtari and M. Akbari, “Two building blocks of microwave photonics filters in the presence of group delay ripple: a comparative survey,” J. Opt. Quantum Electron.44(8-9), 403–414 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Mokhtari, S. Preußler, K. Jamshidi, M. Akbari, and T. Schneider, “Fully-tunable microwave photonic filter with complex coefficients using tunable delay lines based on frequency-time conversions,” Opt. Express20(20), 22728–22734 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andres, M.

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett.33(7), 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Antman, Y.

Arain, M. A.

Berger, P.

Bersch, C.

Bourderionnet, J.

Capmany, J.

Chan, S. C.

Chiang, K. S.

Chin, S.

Corral, J.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett.33(7), 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

den Besten, F. M.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, D.

Dong, L.

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett.33(7), 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Enard, A.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Estebe, E.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eyal, A.

A. Zadok, O. Raz, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, “Optically controlled low-distortion delay of GHz-wide radio-frequency signals using slow light in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(7), 462–464 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Galière, J.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García Olcina, R.

Gasulla, I.

J. Sancho, S. Chin, M. Sagues, A. Loayssa, J. Lloret, I. Gasulla, S. Sales, L. Thévenaz, and J. Capmany, “Dynamic microwave photonic filter using separate carrier tuning based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(23), 1753–1755 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gimeno, B.

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett.33(7), 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grosskopf, G.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herrera, J.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jamshidi, K.

Khan, S. A.

Leuchs, G.

Liu, Q.

Lloret, J.

J. Sancho, S. Chin, M. Sagues, A. Loayssa, J. Lloret, I. Gasulla, S. Sales, L. Thévenaz, and J. Capmany, “Dynamic microwave photonic filter using separate carrier tuning based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(23), 1753–1755 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loayssa, A.

J. Sancho, S. Chin, M. Sagues, A. Loayssa, J. Lloret, I. Gasulla, S. Sales, L. Thévenaz, and J. Capmany, “Dynamic microwave photonic filter using separate carrier tuning based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(23), 1753–1755 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Sagues, R. García Olcina, A. Loayssa, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Multi-tap complex-coefficient incoherent microwave photonic filters based on optical single-sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering,” Opt. Express16(1), 295–303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez, J.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marceaux, A.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martínez, J. M.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mokhtari, A.

A. Mokhtari and M. Akbari, “Two building blocks of microwave photonics filters in the presence of group delay ripple: a comparative survey,” J. Opt. Quantum Electron.44(8-9), 403–414 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Mokhtari, S. Preußler, K. Jamshidi, M. Akbari, and T. Schneider, “Fully-tunable microwave photonic filter with complex coefficients using tunable delay lines based on frequency-time conversions,” Opt. Express20(20), 22728–22734 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon-Soon Choi, J. H.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Onishchukov, G.

Ortega, B.

Parillaud, O.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pastor, D.

Piqueras, M. A.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polo, V.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Preußler, S.

Primerov, N.

Raz, O.

A. Zadok, O. Raz, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, “Optically controlled low-distortion delay of GHz-wide radio-frequency signals using slow light in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(7), 462–464 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

Rothman, R.

L. Yaron, R. Rothman, S. Zach, and M. Tur, “Photonic beamformer receiver with multiple beam capabilities,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(23), 1723–1725 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sagues, M.

J. Sancho, S. Chin, M. Sagues, A. Loayssa, J. Lloret, I. Gasulla, S. Sales, L. Thévenaz, and J. Capmany, “Dynamic microwave photonic filter using separate carrier tuning based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(23), 1753–1755 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Sagues, R. García Olcina, A. Loayssa, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Multi-tap complex-coefficient incoherent microwave photonic filters based on optical single-sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering,” Opt. Express16(1), 295–303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sales, S.

Sanchis, P.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sancho, J.

Schneider, T.

Smit,

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soares, M. K.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thévenaz, L.

Tur, M.

L. Yaron, R. Rothman, S. Zach, and M. Tur, “Photonic beamformer receiver with multiple beam capabilities,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(23), 1723–1725 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Zadok, O. Raz, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, “Optically controlled low-distortion delay of GHz-wide radio-frequency signals using slow light in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(7), 462–464 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Valard, J.-L.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic sketch of the tunable optical delay line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The implemented setup for a 2-tap tunable MPF. The green box (Tunable Delay Line) corresponds to the setup of Fig. 1 (b): FSR of a two-tap MPF as a function of the relative delay or advancement in one of the arms; predicted FSR value (blue dashed line) are compared against measured ones (red circles).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated (dashed) and experimental (solid) results for the MPF transfer function for several different FSR adjustments. (a) Ω = 22 GHz, red:{FSR = 1.462 GHz, FSR change = −27% for delay} and blue:{FSR = 3.105 GHz, FSR change = + 51% for advancement}, (b) Ω = 38 GHz, brown:{FSR = 1.218 GHz, FSR change = −39% for delay} and green:{FSR = 5.291 GHz, FSR change = + 164% for advancement}, The black trace shows the MPF transfer function without either delay or advancement { FSR = 2 GHz }.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of an N-tap Microwave-Photonic filter.

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