Abstract

Photonic modulators are one of the most important elements of integrated photonics. We have designed, fabricated, and characterized a tunable photonic modulator consisting of two 180°-dephased output waveguide channels, driven by a surface acoustic wave in the GHz frequency range built on (Al,Ga)As. Odd multiples of the fundamental driven frequency are enabled by adjusting the applied acoustic power. A good agreement between theory and experimental results is achieved. The device can be used as a building block for more complex integrated functionalities and can be implemented in several material platforms.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012

J. F. Capmany, P. M. Muñoz, M. M. de Lima, and P. V. Santos, “Tuneable AWG device for multiplexing and demultiplexing signals and method for tuning said device,” Patent Application WO 2012/152977 A1 (2012).

A. D. Barros, P. D. Batista, A. Tahraoui, J. A. Diniz, and P. V. Santos, “Ambipolar acoustic transport in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 013714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

D. A. Fuhrmann, S. M. Thon, H. Kim, D. Bouwmeester, P. M. Petroff, A. Wixforth, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic modulation of photonic crystal nanocavities using gigahertz acoustic phonons,” Nat. Photonics5, 605–609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

B. Qi, P. Yu, Y. Li, Y. Hao, Q. Zhou, X. Jiang, and J. Yang, “Ultracompact electrooptic Silicon modulator with horizontal photonic crystal slotted slab,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.22, 724–726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. C. S. Barretto and J. M. Hvam, “Photonic integrated single-sideband modulator / frequency shifter based on surface acoustic waves,” P. Soc. Photo-opt. Inst.7719, 771920 (2010).

2009

2008

Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, W. F. Andress, D. Ham, F. Capasso, and M. Yamanishi, “Gigahertz surface acoustic wave generation on ZnO thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on III–V semiconductor substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26, 1848–1851 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, M. M. de Lima, and P. V. Santos, “Acousto-optical multiple interference devices,” J. Appl. Phys.103, 014505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Beck, M. M. de Lima, E. Wiebicke, W. Seidel, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Acousto-optical multiple interference switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 061118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 121104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. M. de Lima and P. V. Santos, “Modulation of photonic structures by surface acoustic waves,” Rep. Prog. Phys.68, 1639–1701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length Silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438, 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

M. M. de Lima, F. Alsina, W. Seidel, and P. V. Santos, “Focusing of surface-acoustic-wave fields on (100) GaAs surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 7848–7855 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1985

S. Adachi, “GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1−x As: material parameters for use in research and device applications,” J. Appl. Phys.58, R1–R29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

S. Adachi, “GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1−x As: material parameters for use in research and device applications,” J. Appl. Phys.58, R1–R29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Alsina, F.

M. M. de Lima, F. Alsina, W. Seidel, and P. V. Santos, “Focusing of surface-acoustic-wave fields on (100) GaAs surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 7848–7855 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andress, W. F.

Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, W. F. Andress, D. Ham, F. Capasso, and M. Yamanishi, “Gigahertz surface acoustic wave generation on ZnO thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on III–V semiconductor substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26, 1848–1851 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barretto, E. C. S.

E. C. S. Barretto and J. M. Hvam, “Photonic integrated single-sideband modulator / frequency shifter based on surface acoustic waves,” P. Soc. Photo-opt. Inst.7719, 771920 (2010).

Barros, A. D.

A. D. Barros, P. D. Batista, A. Tahraoui, J. A. Diniz, and P. V. Santos, “Ambipolar acoustic transport in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 013714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Batista, P. D.

A. D. Barros, P. D. Batista, A. Tahraoui, J. A. Diniz, and P. V. Santos, “Ambipolar acoustic transport in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 013714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

M. Beck, M. M. de Lima, and P. V. Santos, “Acousto-optical multiple interference devices,” J. Appl. Phys.103, 014505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, M. M. de Lima, E. Wiebicke, W. Seidel, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Acousto-optical multiple interference switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 061118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 121104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benchabane, S.

Bouwmeester, D.

D. A. Fuhrmann, S. M. Thon, H. Kim, D. Bouwmeester, P. M. Petroff, A. Wixforth, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic modulation of photonic crystal nanocavities using gigahertz acoustic phonons,” Nat. Photonics5, 605–609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Camargo, E.

Capasso, F.

Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, W. F. Andress, D. Ham, F. Capasso, and M. Yamanishi, “Gigahertz surface acoustic wave generation on ZnO thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on III–V semiconductor substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26, 1848–1851 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J. F.

J. F. Capmany, P. M. Muñoz, M. M. de Lima, and P. V. Santos, “Tuneable AWG device for multiplexing and demultiplexing signals and method for tuning said device,” Patent Application WO 2012/152977 A1 (2012).

Chen, R. T.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length Silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length Silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H.

De La Rue, R.

de Lima, M. M.

J. F. Capmany, P. M. Muñoz, M. M. de Lima, and P. V. Santos, “Tuneable AWG device for multiplexing and demultiplexing signals and method for tuning said device,” Patent Application WO 2012/152977 A1 (2012).

M. Beck, M. M. de Lima, and P. V. Santos, “Acousto-optical multiple interference devices,” J. Appl. Phys.103, 014505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, M. M. de Lima, E. Wiebicke, W. Seidel, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Acousto-optical multiple interference switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 061118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 121104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. M. de Lima and P. V. Santos, “Modulation of photonic structures by surface acoustic waves,” Rep. Prog. Phys.68, 1639–1701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. M. de Lima, F. Alsina, W. Seidel, and P. V. Santos, “Focusing of surface-acoustic-wave fields on (100) GaAs surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 7848–7855 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Diniz, J. A.

A. D. Barros, P. D. Batista, A. Tahraoui, J. A. Diniz, and P. V. Santos, “Ambipolar acoustic transport in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 013714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fuhrmann, D. A.

D. A. Fuhrmann, S. M. Thon, H. Kim, D. Bouwmeester, P. M. Petroff, A. Wixforth, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic modulation of photonic crystal nanocavities using gigahertz acoustic phonons,” Nat. Photonics5, 605–609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gu, L.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length Silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ham, D.

Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, W. F. Andress, D. Ham, F. Capasso, and M. Yamanishi, “Gigahertz surface acoustic wave generation on ZnO thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on III–V semiconductor substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26, 1848–1851 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438, 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, Y.

B. Qi, P. Yu, Y. Li, Y. Hao, Q. Zhou, X. Jiang, and J. Yang, “Ultracompact electrooptic Silicon modulator with horizontal photonic crystal slotted slab,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.22, 724–726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hey, R.

M. Beck, M. M. de Lima, E. Wiebicke, W. Seidel, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Acousto-optical multiple interference switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 061118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 121104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

E. C. S. Barretto and J. M. Hvam, “Photonic integrated single-sideband modulator / frequency shifter based on surface acoustic waves,” P. Soc. Photo-opt. Inst.7719, 771920 (2010).

Janner, D.

Jiang, W.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length Silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

B. Qi, P. Yu, Y. Li, Y. Hao, Q. Zhou, X. Jiang, and J. Yang, “Ultracompact electrooptic Silicon modulator with horizontal photonic crystal slotted slab,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.22, 724–726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length Silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

D. A. Fuhrmann, S. M. Thon, H. Kim, D. Bouwmeester, P. M. Petroff, A. Wixforth, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic modulation of photonic crystal nanocavities using gigahertz acoustic phonons,” Nat. Photonics5, 605–609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krenner, H. J.

D. A. Fuhrmann, S. M. Thon, H. Kim, D. Bouwmeester, P. M. Petroff, A. Wixforth, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic modulation of photonic crystal nanocavities using gigahertz acoustic phonons,” Nat. Photonics5, 605–609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

B. Qi, P. Yu, Y. Li, Y. Hao, Q. Zhou, X. Jiang, and J. Yang, “Ultracompact electrooptic Silicon modulator with horizontal photonic crystal slotted slab,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.22, 724–726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438, 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muñoz, P. M.

J. F. Capmany, P. M. Muñoz, M. M. de Lima, and P. V. Santos, “Tuneable AWG device for multiplexing and demultiplexing signals and method for tuning said device,” Patent Application WO 2012/152977 A1 (2012).

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O’Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438, 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of optical constants of solids (Academic Press).

Petroff, P. M.

D. A. Fuhrmann, S. M. Thon, H. Kim, D. Bouwmeester, P. M. Petroff, A. Wixforth, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic modulation of photonic crystal nanocavities using gigahertz acoustic phonons,” Nat. Photonics5, 605–609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pflügl, C.

Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, W. F. Andress, D. Ham, F. Capasso, and M. Yamanishi, “Gigahertz surface acoustic wave generation on ZnO thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on III–V semiconductor substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26, 1848–1851 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

Qi, B.

B. Qi, P. Yu, Y. Li, Y. Hao, Q. Zhou, X. Jiang, and J. Yang, “Ultracompact electrooptic Silicon modulator with horizontal photonic crystal slotted slab,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.22, 724–726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Santos, P. V.

J. F. Capmany, P. M. Muñoz, M. M. de Lima, and P. V. Santos, “Tuneable AWG device for multiplexing and demultiplexing signals and method for tuning said device,” Patent Application WO 2012/152977 A1 (2012).

A. D. Barros, P. D. Batista, A. Tahraoui, J. A. Diniz, and P. V. Santos, “Ambipolar acoustic transport in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 013714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, M. M. de Lima, and P. V. Santos, “Acousto-optical multiple interference devices,” J. Appl. Phys.103, 014505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, M. M. de Lima, E. Wiebicke, W. Seidel, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Acousto-optical multiple interference switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 061118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 121104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. M. de Lima and P. V. Santos, “Modulation of photonic structures by surface acoustic waves,” Rep. Prog. Phys.68, 1639–1701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. M. de Lima, F. Alsina, W. Seidel, and P. V. Santos, “Focusing of surface-acoustic-wave fields on (100) GaAs surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 7848–7855 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, W.

M. Beck, M. M. de Lima, E. Wiebicke, W. Seidel, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Acousto-optical multiple interference switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 061118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. M. de Lima, F. Alsina, W. Seidel, and P. V. Santos, “Focusing of surface-acoustic-wave fields on (100) GaAs surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 7848–7855 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tahraoui, A.

A. D. Barros, P. D. Batista, A. Tahraoui, J. A. Diniz, and P. V. Santos, “Ambipolar acoustic transport in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 013714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, K.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thon, S. M.

D. A. Fuhrmann, S. M. Thon, H. Kim, D. Bouwmeester, P. M. Petroff, A. Wixforth, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic modulation of photonic crystal nanocavities using gigahertz acoustic phonons,” Nat. Photonics5, 605–609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, Y.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438, 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q. J.

Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, W. F. Andress, D. Ham, F. Capasso, and M. Yamanishi, “Gigahertz surface acoustic wave generation on ZnO thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on III–V semiconductor substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26, 1848–1851 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wiebicke, E.

M. Beck, M. M. de Lima, E. Wiebicke, W. Seidel, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Acousto-optical multiple interference switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 061118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wixforth, A.

D. A. Fuhrmann, S. M. Thon, H. Kim, D. Bouwmeester, P. M. Petroff, A. Wixforth, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic modulation of photonic crystal nanocavities using gigahertz acoustic phonons,” Nat. Photonics5, 605–609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamanishi, M.

Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, W. F. Andress, D. Ham, F. Capasso, and M. Yamanishi, “Gigahertz surface acoustic wave generation on ZnO thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on III–V semiconductor substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26, 1848–1851 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

B. Qi, P. Yu, Y. Li, Y. Hao, Q. Zhou, X. Jiang, and J. Yang, “Ultracompact electrooptic Silicon modulator with horizontal photonic crystal slotted slab,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.22, 724–726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

B. Qi, P. Yu, Y. Li, Y. Hao, Q. Zhou, X. Jiang, and J. Yang, “Ultracompact electrooptic Silicon modulator with horizontal photonic crystal slotted slab,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.22, 724–726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yudistira, D.

Zhou, Q.

B. Qi, P. Yu, Y. Li, Y. Hao, Q. Zhou, X. Jiang, and J. Yang, “Ultracompact electrooptic Silicon modulator with horizontal photonic crystal slotted slab,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.22, 724–726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length Silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 121104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, M. M. de Lima, E. Wiebicke, W. Seidel, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Acousto-optical multiple interference switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 061118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.

B. Qi, P. Yu, Y. Li, Y. Hao, Q. Zhou, X. Jiang, and J. Yang, “Ultracompact electrooptic Silicon modulator with horizontal photonic crystal slotted slab,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.22, 724–726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. D. Barros, P. D. Batista, A. Tahraoui, J. A. Diniz, and P. V. Santos, “Ambipolar acoustic transport in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 013714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Adachi, “GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1−x As: material parameters for use in research and device applications,” J. Appl. Phys.58, R1–R29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. M. de Lima, F. Alsina, W. Seidel, and P. V. Santos, “Focusing of surface-acoustic-wave fields on (100) GaAs surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 7848–7855 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, M. M. de Lima, and P. V. Santos, “Acousto-optical multiple interference devices,” J. Appl. Phys.103, 014505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, W. F. Andress, D. Ham, F. Capasso, and M. Yamanishi, “Gigahertz surface acoustic wave generation on ZnO thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on III–V semiconductor substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26, 1848–1851 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

D. A. Fuhrmann, S. M. Thon, H. Kim, D. Bouwmeester, P. M. Petroff, A. Wixforth, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic modulation of photonic crystal nanocavities using gigahertz acoustic phonons,” Nat. Photonics5, 605–609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438, 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

P. Soc. Photo-opt. Inst.

E. C. S. Barretto and J. M. Hvam, “Photonic integrated single-sideband modulator / frequency shifter based on surface acoustic waves,” P. Soc. Photo-opt. Inst.7719, 771920 (2010).

Rep. Prog. Phys.

M. M. de Lima and P. V. Santos, “Modulation of photonic structures by surface acoustic waves,” Rep. Prog. Phys.68, 1639–1701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. D. Palik, Handbook of optical constants of solids (Academic Press).

J. F. Capmany, P. M. Muñoz, M. M. de Lima, and P. V. Santos, “Tuneable AWG device for multiplexing and demultiplexing signals and method for tuning said device,” Patent Application WO 2012/152977 A1 (2012).

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