Abstract

Time stretch transformation of wideband waveforms boosts the performance of analog-to-digital converters and digital signal processors by slowing down analog electrical signals before digitization. The transform is based on dispersive Fourier transformation implemented in the optical domain. A coherent receiver would be ideal for capturing the time-stretched optical signal. Coherent receivers offer improved sensitivity, allow for digital cancellation of dispersion-induced impairments and optical nonlinearities, and enable decoding of phase-modulated optical data formats. Because time-stretch uses a chirped broadband (>1 THz) optical carrier, a new coherent detection technique is required. In this paper, we introduce and demonstrate coherent time stretch transformation; a technique that combines dispersive Fourier transform with optically broadband coherent detection.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (2)

A. M. Fard, S. Gupta, and B. Jalali, “Photonic time-stretch digitizer and its extension to real-time spectroscopy and imaging,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(2), 207–263 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics7(2), 102–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

A. M. Fard, B. Buckley, S. Zlatanovic, C. S. Bres, S. Radic, and B. Jalali, “All-optical time-stretch digitizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 051113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, “High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Theory of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation,” Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.80(4), 043821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Sinsky and P. J. Winzer, “100-Gb/s optical communications: a microwave engineer's perspective,” IEEE Microw. Mag.10(2), 44–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, X. Zhou, M. D. Feuer, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, M. O. Sullivan, and P. D. Magill, “Performance of a 46-Gbps dual-polarization QPSK transceiver with real-time coherent equalization over high PMD fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(3), 158–167 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2007 (1)

J. Chou, O. Boyraz, D. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Femtosecond real-time single-shot digitizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

Y. Han, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, “Ultrawide-band photonic time-stretch A/D converter employing phase diversity,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.53(4), 1404–1408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. G. Taylor, “Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(2), 674–676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (3)

J. M. Fuster, D. Novak, A. Nirmalathas, and J. Marti, “Single-sideband modulation in photonic time-stretch analogue-to-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett.37(1), 67–68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawanishi, K. Kogo, S. Oikawa, and M. Izutsu, “Direct measurement of chirp parameters of high-speed Mach-Zehnder-type optical modulators,” Opt. Commun.195(5–6), 399–404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Kurosawa, H. Kobayashi, K. Maruyama, H. Sugawara, and K. Kobayashi, “Explicit analysis of channel mismatch effects in time-interleaved ADC systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Fundam. Theory Appl48(3), 261–271 (2001).

1999 (2)

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.17(4), 539–550 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Kelkar, F. Coppinger, A. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Time-domain optical sensing,” Electron. Lett.35(19), 1661–1662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Time-stretched analague-to-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett.34(11), 1081–1083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. Schmuck, “Comparison of optical millimeter-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion,” Electron. Lett.31(21), 1848–1849 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1987 (1)

T. Okoshi, “Recent advances in coherent optical fiber communication-systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.5(1), 44–52 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Adamiecki, A.

Ayazi, A.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, “High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barros, D. J. F.

Basch, B.

Bhushan, A.

P. Kelkar, F. Coppinger, A. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Time-domain optical sensing,” Electron. Lett.35(19), 1661–1662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bhushan, A. S.

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Time-stretched analague-to-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett.34(11), 1081–1083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boyraz, O.

J. Chou, O. Boyraz, D. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Femtosecond real-time single-shot digitizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, “Ultrawide-band photonic time-stretch A/D converter employing phase diversity,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.53(4), 1404–1408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bres, C. S.

A. M. Fard, B. Buckley, S. Zlatanovic, C. S. Bres, S. Radic, and B. Jalali, “All-optical time-stretch digitizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 051113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, B.

A. M. Fard, B. Buckley, S. Zlatanovic, C. S. Bres, S. Radic, and B. Jalali, “All-optical time-stretch digitizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 051113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chou, J.

J. Chou, O. Boyraz, D. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Femtosecond real-time single-shot digitizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coppinger, F.

P. Kelkar, F. Coppinger, A. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Time-domain optical sensing,” Electron. Lett.35(19), 1661–1662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Time-stretched analague-to-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett.34(11), 1081–1083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Corteselli, S.

Doerr, C. R.

Essiambre, R. J.

Fard, A.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, “High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fard, A. M.

A. M. Fard, S. Gupta, and B. Jalali, “Photonic time-stretch digitizer and its extension to real-time spectroscopy and imaging,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(2), 207–263 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fard, B. Buckley, S. Zlatanovic, C. S. Bres, S. Radic, and B. Jalali, “All-optical time-stretch digitizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 051113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feuer, M. D.

Fishman, D. A.

Foo, S.

Fuster, J. M.

J. M. Fuster, D. Novak, A. Nirmalathas, and J. Marti, “Single-sideband modulation in photonic time-stretch analogue-to-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett.37(1), 67–68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Goda, K.

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics7(2), 102–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, “High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Theory of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation,” Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.80(4), 043821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

A. M. Fard, S. Gupta, and B. Jalali, “Photonic time-stretch digitizer and its extension to real-time spectroscopy and imaging,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(2), 207–263 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Gupta and B. Jalali, “Time-warp correction and calibration in photonic time-stretch analog-to-digital converter,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2674–2676 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Y.

Y. Han, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, “Ultrawide-band photonic time-stretch A/D converter employing phase diversity,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.53(4), 1404–1408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han and B. Jalali, “Photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter: Fundamental concepts and practical considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol.21(12), 3085–3103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han and B. Jalali, “Differential photonic time-stretch analog-to-digital converter,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE Cat. No.CH37419-TBR), (2003), p. CWH2.

Hanson, D.

Higuma, K.

Ip, E.

Izutsu, M.

T. Kawanishi, K. Kogo, S. Oikawa, and M. Izutsu, “Direct measurement of chirp parameters of high-speed Mach-Zehnder-type optical modulators,” Opt. Commun.195(5–6), 399–404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

A. M. Fard, S. Gupta, and B. Jalali, “Photonic time-stretch digitizer and its extension to real-time spectroscopy and imaging,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(2), 207–263 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics7(2), 102–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fard, B. Buckley, S. Zlatanovic, C. S. Bres, S. Radic, and B. Jalali, “All-optical time-stretch digitizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 051113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, “High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Theory of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation,” Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.80(4), 043821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Gupta and B. Jalali, “Time-warp correction and calibration in photonic time-stretch analog-to-digital converter,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2674–2676 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chou, O. Boyraz, D. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Femtosecond real-time single-shot digitizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, “Ultrawide-band photonic time-stretch A/D converter employing phase diversity,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.53(4), 1404–1408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han and B. Jalali, “Photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter: Fundamental concepts and practical considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol.21(12), 3085–3103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Kelkar, F. Coppinger, A. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Time-domain optical sensing,” Electron. Lett.35(19), 1661–1662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Time-stretched analague-to-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett.34(11), 1081–1083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han and B. Jalali, “Differential photonic time-stretch analog-to-digital converter,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE Cat. No.CH37419-TBR), (2003), p. CWH2.

Kahn, J. M.

Kawanishi, T.

Kelkar, P.

P. Kelkar, F. Coppinger, A. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Time-domain optical sensing,” Electron. Lett.35(19), 1661–1662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, “High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, H.

N. Kurosawa, H. Kobayashi, K. Maruyama, H. Sugawara, and K. Kobayashi, “Explicit analysis of channel mismatch effects in time-interleaved ADC systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Fundam. Theory Appl48(3), 261–271 (2001).

Kobayashi, K.

N. Kurosawa, H. Kobayashi, K. Maruyama, H. Sugawara, and K. Kobayashi, “Explicit analysis of channel mismatch effects in time-interleaved ADC systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Fundam. Theory Appl48(3), 261–271 (2001).

Kobayashi, T.

Kogo, K.

T. Kawanishi, K. Kogo, S. Oikawa, and M. Izutsu, “Direct measurement of chirp parameters of high-speed Mach-Zehnder-type optical modulators,” Opt. Commun.195(5–6), 399–404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kurosawa, N.

N. Kurosawa, H. Kobayashi, K. Maruyama, H. Sugawara, and K. Kobayashi, “Explicit analysis of channel mismatch effects in time-interleaved ADC systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Fundam. Theory Appl48(3), 261–271 (2001).

Lau, A. P. T.

Lee, W.

Magill, P. D.

Mahjoubfar, A.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, “High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

J. M. Fuster, D. Novak, A. Nirmalathas, and J. Marti, “Single-sideband modulation in photonic time-stretch analogue-to-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett.37(1), 67–68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, K.

N. Kurosawa, H. Kobayashi, K. Maruyama, H. Sugawara, and K. Kobayashi, “Explicit analysis of channel mismatch effects in time-interleaved ADC systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Fundam. Theory Appl48(3), 261–271 (2001).

McGhan, D.

Moyer, M.

Nelson, L. E.

Nirmalathas, A.

J. M. Fuster, D. Novak, A. Nirmalathas, and J. Marti, “Single-sideband modulation in photonic time-stretch analogue-to-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett.37(1), 67–68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

J. M. Fuster, D. Novak, A. Nirmalathas, and J. Marti, “Single-sideband modulation in photonic time-stretch analogue-to-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett.37(1), 67–68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, S.

T. Kawanishi, K. Kogo, S. Oikawa, and M. Izutsu, “Direct measurement of chirp parameters of high-speed Mach-Zehnder-type optical modulators,” Opt. Commun.195(5–6), 399–404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, “Recent advances in coherent optical fiber communication-systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.5(1), 44–52 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Painchaud, Y.

Radic, S.

A. M. Fard, B. Buckley, S. Zlatanovic, C. S. Bres, S. Radic, and B. Jalali, “All-optical time-stretch digitizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 051113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

Schmuck, H.

H. Schmuck, “Comparison of optical millimeter-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion,” Electron. Lett.31(21), 1848–1849 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sinsky, J. H.

J. H. Sinsky and P. J. Winzer, “100-Gb/s optical communications: a microwave engineer's perspective,” IEEE Microw. Mag.10(2), 44–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Solli, D.

J. Chou, O. Boyraz, D. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Femtosecond real-time single-shot digitizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solli, D. R.

K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Theory of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation,” Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.80(4), 043821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, H.

Sugawara, H.

N. Kurosawa, H. Kobayashi, K. Maruyama, H. Sugawara, and K. Kobayashi, “Explicit analysis of channel mismatch effects in time-interleaved ADC systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Fundam. Theory Appl48(3), 261–271 (2001).

Sullivan, M. O.

Sun, H.

Taylor, M. G.

M. G. Taylor, “Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(2), 674–676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Terasaki, A.

Tokunaga, E.

Tsia, K. K.

K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Theory of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation,” Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.80(4), 043821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walden, R. H.

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.17(4), 539–550 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wellbrock, G.

Winzer, P. J.

Woodward, S. L.

Xia, T. J.

Zhou, X.

Zlatanovic, S.

A. M. Fard, B. Buckley, S. Zlatanovic, C. S. Bres, S. Radic, and B. Jalali, “All-optical time-stretch digitizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 051113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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