Abstract

The probe-sample optical interaction in apertureless near-field optical microscopy is studied at 633 nm and 808 nm excitation wavelengths using gold nanodisks as model systems. The near-field distributions of the dipolar and quadrupolar surface plasmon modes have been mapped successfully using metal coated probes with different polarization combinations of excitation and detection except when the incident and the scattered light polarizations are chosen to be parallel to the probe axis. For the parallel polarization of the incident and the scattered light, the pattern of the near-field distribution differs from the inherent plasmon mode structures of the sample, depending sensitively on the sample size and excitation energy. For a given excitation energy, the near-field amplitude shifts from one pole to the other as the sample size increases, having nearly equal amplitude at the two poles when the plasmon resonance peak spectrally overlaps with the excitation energy.

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2013

2012

D. S. Kim and Z. H. Kim, “Role of in-plane polarizability of the tip in scattering near-field microscopy of a plasmonic nanoparticle,” Opt. Express20(8), 8689–8699 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(13), 131102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Jiang, E. T. Foley, J. M. Klingsporn, M. D. Sonntag, N. A. Valley, J. A. Dieringer, T. Seideman, G. C. Schatz, M. C. Hersam, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Observation of multiple vibrational modes in ultrahigh vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with molecular-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5061–5067 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. Habteyes, S. Dhuey, E. Wood, D. Gargas, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, A. P. Alivisatos, and S. R. Leone, “Metallic adhesion layer induced plasmon damping and molecular linker as a nondamping alternative,” ACS Nano6(6), 5702–5709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Esslinger and R. Vogelgesang, “Reciprocity theory of apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy with point-dipole probes,” ACS Nano6(9), 8173–8182 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. H. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale infrared absorption spectroscopy of individual nanoparticles enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano5(8), 6494–6499 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Deutsch, R. Hillenbrand, and L. Novotny, “Visualizing the optical interaction tensor of a gold nanoparticle pair,” Nano Lett.10(2), 652–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

D. S. Kim, J. Heo, S. H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. García-Etxarri, I. Romero, F. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and J. Aizpurua, “Influence of the tip in near-field imaging of nanoparticle plasmonic modes: Weak and strong coupling regimes,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steidtner and B. Pettinger, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy on single dye molecules with 15 nm resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(23), 236101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. H. Kim and S. R. Leone, “Polarization-selective mapping of near-field intensity and phase around gold nanoparticles using apertureless near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express16(3), 1733–1741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenz, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express16(25), 20295–20305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

W. H. Zhang, B. S. Yeo, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Single molecule tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with silver tips,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(4), 1733–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Kim, S. H. Ahn, B. Liu, and S. R. Leone, “Nanometer-scale dielectric imaging of semiconductor nanoparticles: Size-dependent dipolar coupling and contrast reversal,” Nano Lett.7(8), 2258–2262 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “Infrared spectroscopic mapping of single nanoparticles and viruses at nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett.6(7), 1307–1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Z. H. Kim, B. Liu, and S. R. Leone, “Nanometer-scale optical imaging of epitaxially grown GaN and InN islands using apertureless near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(17), 8503–8508 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, and J. Aizpurua, “Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 368–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Raschke and C. Lienau, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: Tip-sample coupling in elastic light scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 5089–5091 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, and L. Novotny, “High-resolution near-field Raman microscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(9), 095503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature418(6894), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, “Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy, ” J. Microsc.202, 77–83 (2001).

2000

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun.182(4-6), 321–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Stöckle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.318(1-3), 131–136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. J. Sànchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Aigouy, A. Lahrech, S. Grãsillon, H. Cory, A. C. Boccara, and J. C. Rivoal, “Polarization effects in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: An experimental study,” Opt. Lett.24(4), 187–189 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

O. J. F. Martin and C. Girard, “Controlling and tuning strong optical field gradients at a local probe microscope tip apex,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(6), 705–707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, “Theory of nanometric optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(4), 645–648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

F. Zenhausern, M. P. Oboyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(13), 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, “Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett.19(3), 159–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abate, Y.

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(13), 131102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale infrared absorption spectroscopy of individual nanoparticles enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano5(8), 6494–6499 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, S. H.

D. S. Kim, J. Heo, S. H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. H. Kim, S. H. Ahn, B. Liu, and S. R. Leone, “Nanometer-scale dielectric imaging of semiconductor nanoparticles: Size-dependent dipolar coupling and contrast reversal,” Nano Lett.7(8), 2258–2262 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aigouy, L.

Aizpurua, J.

P. Alonso-González, P. Albella, F. Golmar, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Visualizing the near-field coupling and interference of bonding and anti-bonding modes in infrared dimer nanoantennas,” Opt. Express21(1), 1270–1280 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. García-Etxarri, I. Romero, F. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and J. Aizpurua, “Influence of the tip in near-field imaging of nanoparticle plasmonic modes: Weak and strong coupling regimes,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, and J. Aizpurua, “Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 368–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Albella, P.

P. Alonso-González, P. Albella, F. Golmar, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Visualizing the near-field coupling and interference of bonding and anti-bonding modes in infrared dimer nanoantennas,” Opt. Express21(1), 1270–1280 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. H. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

T. G. Habteyes, S. Dhuey, E. Wood, D. Gargas, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, A. P. Alivisatos, and S. R. Leone, “Metallic adhesion layer induced plasmon damping and molecular linker as a nondamping alternative,” ACS Nano6(6), 5702–5709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alkorta, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alonso-Gonzalez, P.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. H. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alonso-González, P.

Arju, N.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. H. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arzubiaga, L.

P. Alonso-González, P. Albella, F. Golmar, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Visualizing the near-field coupling and interference of bonding and anti-bonding modes in infrared dimer nanoantennas,” Opt. Express21(1), 1270–1280 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. H. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashby, P.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bian, R. X.

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, “Theory of nanometric optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(4), 645–648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

Bokor, J.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boreman, G. D.

Brehm, M.

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “Infrared spectroscopic mapping of single nanoparticles and viruses at nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett.6(7), 1307–1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrini, S.

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P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
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A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
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Cross, G. B.

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(13), 131102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale infrared absorption spectroscopy of individual nanoparticles enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano5(8), 6494–6499 (2011).
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T. G. Habteyes, S. Dhuey, E. Wood, D. Gargas, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, A. P. Alivisatos, and S. R. Leone, “Metallic adhesion layer induced plasmon damping and molecular linker as a nondamping alternative,” ACS Nano6(6), 5702–5709 (2012).
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S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(13), 131102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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N. Jiang, E. T. Foley, J. M. Klingsporn, M. D. Sonntag, N. A. Valley, J. A. Dieringer, T. Seideman, G. C. Schatz, M. C. Hersam, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Observation of multiple vibrational modes in ultrahigh vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with molecular-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5061–5067 (2012).
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R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3155–3159 (2008).
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N. Jiang, E. T. Foley, J. M. Klingsporn, M. D. Sonntag, N. A. Valley, J. A. Dieringer, T. Seideman, G. C. Schatz, M. C. Hersam, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Observation of multiple vibrational modes in ultrahigh vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with molecular-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5061–5067 (2012).
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A. García-Etxarri, I. Romero, F. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and J. Aizpurua, “Influence of the tip in near-field imaging of nanoparticle plasmonic modes: Weak and strong coupling regimes,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
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García-Etxarri, A.

A. García-Etxarri, I. Romero, F. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and J. Aizpurua, “Influence of the tip in near-field imaging of nanoparticle plasmonic modes: Weak and strong coupling regimes,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gargas, D.

T. G. Habteyes, S. Dhuey, E. Wood, D. Gargas, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, A. P. Alivisatos, and S. R. Leone, “Metallic adhesion layer induced plasmon damping and molecular linker as a nondamping alternative,” ACS Nano6(6), 5702–5709 (2012).
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Girard, C.

O. J. F. Martin and C. Girard, “Controlling and tuning strong optical field gradients at a local probe microscope tip apex,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(6), 705–707 (1997).
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Golmar, F.

P. Alonso-González, P. Albella, F. Golmar, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Visualizing the near-field coupling and interference of bonding and anti-bonding modes in infrared dimer nanoantennas,” Opt. Express21(1), 1270–1280 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. H. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, R.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grãsillon, S.

Grefe, S. E.

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(13), 131102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Habteyes, T. G.

T. G. Habteyes, S. Dhuey, E. Wood, D. Gargas, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, A. P. Alivisatos, and S. R. Leone, “Metallic adhesion layer induced plasmon damping and molecular linker as a nondamping alternative,” ACS Nano6(6), 5702–5709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S. W.

D. S. Kim, J. Heo, S. H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanarp, P.

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, and J. Aizpurua, “Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 368–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hartschuh, A.

A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, and L. Novotny, “High-resolution near-field Raman microscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(9), 095503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heo, J.

D. S. Kim, J. Heo, S. H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hersam, M. C.

N. Jiang, E. T. Foley, J. M. Klingsporn, M. D. Sonntag, N. A. Valley, J. A. Dieringer, T. Seideman, G. C. Schatz, M. C. Hersam, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Observation of multiple vibrational modes in ultrahigh vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with molecular-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5061–5067 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, R.

P. Alonso-González, P. Albella, F. Golmar, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Visualizing the near-field coupling and interference of bonding and anti-bonding modes in infrared dimer nanoantennas,” Opt. Express21(1), 1270–1280 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. H. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale infrared absorption spectroscopy of individual nanoparticles enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano5(8), 6494–6499 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Deutsch, R. Hillenbrand, and L. Novotny, “Visualizing the optical interaction tensor of a gold nanoparticle pair,” Nano Lett.10(2), 652–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. García-Etxarri, I. Romero, F. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and J. Aizpurua, “Influence of the tip in near-field imaging of nanoparticle plasmonic modes: Weak and strong coupling regimes,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “Infrared spectroscopic mapping of single nanoparticles and viruses at nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett.6(7), 1307–1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, and J. Aizpurua, “Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 368–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature418(6894), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, “Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy, ” J. Microsc.202, 77–83 (2001).

Huber, A.

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A. J.

J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale infrared absorption spectroscopy of individual nanoparticles enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano5(8), 6494–6499 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hueso, L. E.

P. Alonso-González, P. Albella, F. Golmar, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Visualizing the near-field coupling and interference of bonding and anti-bonding modes in infrared dimer nanoantennas,” Opt. Express21(1), 1270–1280 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. H. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inouye, Y.

Ismach, A.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, N.

N. Jiang, E. T. Foley, J. M. Klingsporn, M. D. Sonntag, N. A. Valley, J. A. Dieringer, T. Seideman, G. C. Schatz, M. C. Hersam, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Observation of multiple vibrational modes in ultrahigh vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with molecular-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5061–5067 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jones, A. C.

R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenz, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express16(25), 20295–20305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

Keilmann, F.

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “Infrared spectroscopic mapping of single nanoparticles and viruses at nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett.6(7), 1307–1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, and J. Aizpurua, “Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 368–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature418(6894), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, “Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy, ” J. Microsc.202, 77–83 (2001).

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun.182(4-6), 321–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kern, K.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khanikaev, A.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. H. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. S.

D. S. Kim and Z. H. Kim, “Role of in-plane polarizability of the tip in scattering near-field microscopy of a plasmonic nanoparticle,” Opt. Express20(8), 8689–8699 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kim, J. Heo, S. H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Z. H.

D. S. Kim and Z. H. Kim, “Role of in-plane polarizability of the tip in scattering near-field microscopy of a plasmonic nanoparticle,” Opt. Express20(8), 8689–8699 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kim, J. Heo, S. H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. H. Kim and S. R. Leone, “Polarization-selective mapping of near-field intensity and phase around gold nanoparticles using apertureless near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express16(3), 1733–1741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. H. Kim, S. H. Ahn, B. Liu, and S. R. Leone, “Nanometer-scale dielectric imaging of semiconductor nanoparticles: Size-dependent dipolar coupling and contrast reversal,” Nano Lett.7(8), 2258–2262 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. H. Kim, B. Liu, and S. R. Leone, “Nanometer-scale optical imaging of epitaxially grown GaN and InN islands using apertureless near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(17), 8503–8508 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klingsporn, J. M.

N. Jiang, E. T. Foley, J. M. Klingsporn, M. D. Sonntag, N. A. Valley, J. A. Dieringer, T. Seideman, G. C. Schatz, M. C. Hersam, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Observation of multiple vibrational modes in ultrahigh vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with molecular-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5061–5067 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knoll, B.

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, “Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy, ” J. Microsc.202, 77–83 (2001).

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun.182(4-6), 321–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krenz, P. M.

Lahrech, A.

Leone, S. R.

T. G. Habteyes, S. Dhuey, E. Wood, D. Gargas, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, A. P. Alivisatos, and S. R. Leone, “Metallic adhesion layer induced plasmon damping and molecular linker as a nondamping alternative,” ACS Nano6(6), 5702–5709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale infrared absorption spectroscopy of individual nanoparticles enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano5(8), 6494–6499 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. H. Kim and S. R. Leone, “Polarization-selective mapping of near-field intensity and phase around gold nanoparticles using apertureless near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express16(3), 1733–1741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. H. Kim, S. H. Ahn, B. Liu, and S. R. Leone, “Nanometer-scale dielectric imaging of semiconductor nanoparticles: Size-dependent dipolar coupling and contrast reversal,” Nano Lett.7(8), 2258–2262 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. H. Kim, B. Liu, and S. R. Leone, “Nanometer-scale optical imaging of epitaxially grown GaN and InN islands using apertureless near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(17), 8503–8508 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
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M. B. Raschke and C. Lienau, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: Tip-sample coupling in elastic light scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 5089–5091 (2003).
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Liu, B.

Z. H. Kim, S. H. Ahn, B. Liu, and S. R. Leone, “Nanometer-scale dielectric imaging of semiconductor nanoparticles: Size-dependent dipolar coupling and contrast reversal,” Nano Lett.7(8), 2258–2262 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. H. Kim, B. Liu, and S. R. Leone, “Nanometer-scale optical imaging of epitaxially grown GaN and InN islands using apertureless near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(17), 8503–8508 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

O. J. F. Martin and C. Girard, “Controlling and tuning strong optical field gradients at a local probe microscope tip apex,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(6), 705–707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mastel, S.

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(13), 131102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. H. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

B. Deutsch, R. Hillenbrand, and L. Novotny, “Visualizing the optical interaction tensor of a gold nanoparticle pair,” Nano Lett.10(2), 652–656 (2010).
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A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, and L. Novotny, “High-resolution near-field Raman microscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(9), 095503 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

Ocelic, N.

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ogletree, D. F.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olmon, R. L.

Pang, Y. J.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pettinger, B.

J. Steidtner and B. Pettinger, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy on single dye molecules with 15 nm resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(23), 236101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rang, M.

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raschke, M. B.

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenz, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express16(25), 20295–20305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Raschke and C. Lienau, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: Tip-sample coupling in elastic light scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 5089–5091 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rivoal, J. C.

Rockstuhl, C.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romanyuk, Y. E.

J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale infrared absorption spectroscopy of individual nanoparticles enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano5(8), 6494–6499 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romero, I.

A. García-Etxarri, I. Romero, F. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and J. Aizpurua, “Influence of the tip in near-field imaging of nanoparticle plasmonic modes: Weak and strong coupling regimes,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salmeron, M. B.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sánchez, E. J.

A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, and L. Novotny, “High-resolution near-field Raman microscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(9), 095503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sànchez, E. J.

E. J. Sànchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarriugarte, P.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. H. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

N. Jiang, E. T. Foley, J. M. Klingsporn, M. D. Sonntag, N. A. Valley, J. A. Dieringer, T. Seideman, G. C. Schatz, M. C. Hersam, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Observation of multiple vibrational modes in ultrahigh vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with molecular-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5061–5067 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, T.

W. H. Zhang, B. S. Yeo, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Single molecule tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with silver tips,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(4), 1733–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schnell, M.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. H. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuck, P. J.

T. G. Habteyes, S. Dhuey, E. Wood, D. Gargas, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, A. P. Alivisatos, and S. R. Leone, “Metallic adhesion layer induced plasmon damping and molecular linker as a nondamping alternative,” ACS Nano6(6), 5702–5709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(13), 131102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartzberg, A.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seideman, T.

N. Jiang, E. T. Foley, J. M. Klingsporn, M. D. Sonntag, N. A. Valley, J. A. Dieringer, T. Seideman, G. C. Schatz, M. C. Hersam, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Observation of multiple vibrational modes in ultrahigh vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with molecular-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5061–5067 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. H. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sobhani, H.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. H. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonntag, M. D.

N. Jiang, E. T. Foley, J. M. Klingsporn, M. D. Sonntag, N. A. Valley, J. A. Dieringer, T. Seideman, G. C. Schatz, M. C. Hersam, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Observation of multiple vibrational modes in ultrahigh vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with molecular-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5061–5067 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steidtner, J.

J. Steidtner and B. Pettinger, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy on single dye molecules with 15 nm resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(23), 236101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stiegler, J. M.

J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale infrared absorption spectroscopy of individual nanoparticles enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano5(8), 6494–6499 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stöckle, R. M.

R. M. Stöckle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.318(1-3), 131–136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suh, Y. D.

R. M. Stöckle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.318(1-3), 131–136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, D. S.

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, and J. Aizpurua, “Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 368–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taber, A.

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(13), 131102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Taubner, T.

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “Infrared spectroscopic mapping of single nanoparticles and viruses at nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett.6(7), 1307–1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature418(6894), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urban, J. J.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valley, N. A.

N. Jiang, E. T. Foley, J. M. Klingsporn, M. D. Sonntag, N. A. Valley, J. A. Dieringer, T. Seideman, G. C. Schatz, M. C. Hersam, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Observation of multiple vibrational modes in ultrahigh vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with molecular-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5061–5067 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

N. Jiang, E. T. Foley, J. M. Klingsporn, M. D. Sonntag, N. A. Valley, J. A. Dieringer, T. Seideman, G. C. Schatz, M. C. Hersam, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Observation of multiple vibrational modes in ultrahigh vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with molecular-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5061–5067 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogelgesang, R.

M. Esslinger and R. Vogelgesang, “Reciprocity theory of apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy with point-dipole probes,” ACS Nano6(9), 8173–8182 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber-Bargioni, A.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. Oboyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(13), 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wiley, B. J.

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, E.

T. G. Habteyes, S. Dhuey, E. Wood, D. Gargas, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, A. P. Alivisatos, and S. R. Leone, “Metallic adhesion layer induced plasmon damping and molecular linker as a nondamping alternative,” ACS Nano6(6), 5702–5709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C. H.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. H. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y. N.

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, and L. Novotny, “High-resolution near-field Raman microscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(9), 095503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Sànchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, “Theory of nanometric optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(4), 645–648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yeo, B. S.

W. H. Zhang, B. S. Yeo, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Single molecule tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with silver tips,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(4), 1733–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yun, W. S.

D. S. Kim, J. Heo, S. H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zenhausern, F.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. Oboyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(13), 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zenobi, R.

W. H. Zhang, B. S. Yeo, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Single molecule tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with silver tips,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(4), 1733–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Stöckle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.318(1-3), 131–136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. H.

W. H. Zhang, B. S. Yeo, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Single molecule tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with silver tips,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(4), 1733–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, F.

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale infrared absorption spectroscopy of individual nanoparticles enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano5(8), 6494–6499 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. Habteyes, S. Dhuey, E. Wood, D. Gargas, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, A. P. Alivisatos, and S. R. Leone, “Metallic adhesion layer induced plasmon damping and molecular linker as a nondamping alternative,” ACS Nano6(6), 5702–5709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Esslinger and R. Vogelgesang, “Reciprocity theory of apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy with point-dipole probes,” ACS Nano6(9), 8173–8182 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, and J. Aizpurua, “Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 368–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. Oboyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(13), 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(13), 131102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Raschke and C. Lienau, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: Tip-sample coupling in elastic light scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 5089–5091 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. J. F. Martin and C. Girard, “Controlling and tuning strong optical field gradients at a local probe microscope tip apex,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(6), 705–707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

R. M. Stöckle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.318(1-3), 131–136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, “Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy, ” J. Microsc.202, 77–83 (2001).

J. Phys. Chem. B

Z. H. Kim, B. Liu, and S. R. Leone, “Nanometer-scale optical imaging of epitaxially grown GaN and InN islands using apertureless near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(17), 8503–8508 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C

W. H. Zhang, B. S. Yeo, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Single molecule tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with silver tips,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(4), 1733–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jiang, E. T. Foley, J. M. Klingsporn, M. D. Sonntag, N. A. Valley, J. A. Dieringer, T. Seideman, G. C. Schatz, M. C. Hersam, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Observation of multiple vibrational modes in ultrahigh vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with molecular-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5061–5067 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Deutsch, R. Hillenbrand, and L. Novotny, “Visualizing the optical interaction tensor of a gold nanoparticle pair,” Nano Lett.10(2), 652–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. H. Kim, S. H. Ahn, B. Liu, and S. R. Leone, “Nanometer-scale dielectric imaging of semiconductor nanoparticles: Size-dependent dipolar coupling and contrast reversal,” Nano Lett.7(8), 2258–2262 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kim, J. Heo, S. H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “Infrared spectroscopic mapping of single nanoparticles and viruses at nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett.6(7), 1307–1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. H. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature418(6894), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun.182(4-6), 321–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

A. García-Etxarri, I. Romero, F. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and J. Aizpurua, “Influence of the tip in near-field imaging of nanoparticle plasmonic modes: Weak and strong coupling regimes,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Steidtner and B. Pettinger, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy on single dye molecules with 15 nm resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(23), 236101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, and L. Novotny, “High-resolution near-field Raman microscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(9), 095503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, “Theory of nanometric optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(4), 645–648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Sànchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

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D. Courjon, Near Field Microscopy and Near Field Optics (Imperial College Press, 2003).

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-optics (Cambridge University Press, 2006).

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A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the interferometric apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope. The inset shows the calculated near-field amplitude at the tip of a platinum probe of 25 nm radius of curvature and 1 μm cone length (displayed area = 250 × 250 nm2). The calculation is performed using FDTD method introducing a Gaussian source focused at the tip where the grid size is 2 nm. The bulk dielectric constants of platinum [37] are used to model the structure. Note that there is no noticeable field enhancement for the polarization perpendicular to the probe axis (inset, right panel). The angle of incidence (θ) is 60° and hence for the vertical polarization (inset, left panel), the electric field (E) and propagation (k) vectors have projections parallel both to the sample plane (Ey, ky) and to the tip axis (Ez, kz).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematics showing arrangement of the gold nanodisks (height = 24 nm) in a unit cell of arrays of small and large diameters. The disks are labeled according to their diameters. (b) Calculated scattering cross-section of representative gold nanodisks as labeled. A total-field/scattered-field source scheme [39] is used to introduce light energy into the simulation region where the grid size is 1 nm in x, y and z directions and the bulk dielectric constants of gold [40] is used to model the structures. The dashed vertical lines indicate the wavelengths of the lasers used in the experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results on small diameter (64 – 104 nm) gold nanodisks. (a) The topographic image shows that some of the disks are displaced from the intended position during the liftoff and cleaning processes due to the poor adhesion of gold to the silica surface. (b) Near-field amplitude recorded at 4Ω. The sample is excited with in-plane (S) polarized light as indicated by the E vector on the image and the P-polarized scattered light (corresponding to the vertical component of the near-field, Ez) is selectively detected interferometrically. This polarization scheme is referred as SP on the image and in the text. (c) Calculated near-field amplitude with the same excitation conditions as in the experiment but excluding the probe (the diameter of the disks increases from left to right: 64 nm to 104 nm, 8 nm step).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results on large diameter (140 – 210 nm) gold nanodisks. (a) Topography. (b) Near-field amplitude recorded at 4Ω. The excitation and detection polarizations are the same as in Fig. 2, which is referred as SP polarization. (c) Calculated near-field amplitude with the same excitation conditions as in the experiment but excluding the probe (the diameter of the disks increases from left right: 154 nm to 210 nm, 14 nm step).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polarization and sample size dependence. The diameters of the disks in (a)-(d) and (f)-(i) are 64 nm, 72 nm and 80 nm, from left to right (scan area: 0.8 × 0. 6 μm2). The 633 nm laser is used for excitation with polarization indicated on the images. FE and NE in (d) refer to far-edge and near-edge of the disk with respect to the k vector. The amplitude images in (a)-(d), normalized to the same maximum, are recorded at 4Ω and the corresponding phase images in (f)-(i) are obtained at 3Ω (at 4Ω the contrast is poor). The amplitude images in (a)-(d) can be compared to the results of FDTD simulation presented in (e). Similarly the phase images in ((f)-(i) can be compared to the simulation results in (j). (k, l) Near-field amplitude images of larger diameter gold nanodisks (diameter 140 – 210 nm, scan area: 2.8 × 0.84 μm2) obtained at 808 nm excitation wavelength with PP (k) and SS (l) polarizations. For the SS polarization the images obtained at 4Ω and 3Ω show the same pattern but the signal is weak at 4Ω.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Analysis of the relative near-field amplitude at the near-edge (NE) and far-edge (FE) of the gold nanodisks. The line profile in (a) is a plot of the near-field amplitude across the dashed line (as shown on the inset image), which is parallel to the ky component of the laser propagation direction. (b) Calculated near-field amplitude where the tip is located 3 nm above the top surface of the disk at near-edge (left panel) and far-edge (right panel). (c) Plot of ρ = |E|NE/|E|FE as a function of disk diameter.

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