Abstract

We report on a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) system with a very high temporal resolution, using femtosecond and picosecond pulse laser excitation of pure aluminum (Al). By using a 140 fs Ti:Sapphire laser in an ultrafast optical Kerr gate (OKG), we demonstrate LIBS sampling with a sub-ps time resolution (0.8 ± 0.08 ps) in a 14 ns window. The width of the gating window in this system was as narrow as 0.8 ps, owing to the inclusion of a carbon disulfide (CS2) cell, which has a fast response and a large nonlinear coefficient. Furthermore, when using a 100 ps pulsed Nd:YAG laser and a fast photomultiplier tube (PMT) we demonstrate a LIBS system with a nanosecond time resolution (2.20 ± 0.08 ns) in a microsecond window. With this sort of temporal resolution, a non-continuous decay in the Al signal could be observed. After 50 ns decay of the first peak, the second peak at 230 ns is started to perform. Experimental results with such short temporal windows in LIBS, in both nanosecond and microsecond ranges, are important for fast temporal evolution measurements and observations of early continuum emission in materials.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. J. D. Winefordner, I. B. Gornushkin, D. Pappas, O. I. Matveev, and B. W. Smith, “Novel uses of lasers in atomic spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.15(9), 1161–1189 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. H. Evans, J. A. Day, C. D. Palmer, W. J. Price, C. M. M. Smith, and J. F. Tyson, “Atomic spectrometry update. Advances in atomic emission, absorption and fluorescence spectrometry, and related techniques,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.20(6), 562–590 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. E. Naes, S. Umpierrez, S. Ryland, C. Barnett, and J. R. Almirall, “A comparison of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of automotive glass,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.63(10), 1145–1150 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, J. Miragliotta, R. Osiander, J. Burnett, Y. Dikmelik, C. McEnnis, and J. B. Spicer, “Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel)10(5), 4342–4372 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. J. Fortes, J. Cuñat, L. M. Cabalín, and J. J. Laserna, “In situ analytical assessment and chemical imaging of historical buildings using a man-portable laser system,” Appl. Spectrosc.61(5), 558–564 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Wu, Y. Zou, X. Zhan, S. Chen, G. Lu, and F. Lai, “Survey of heavy metal pollution in four chinese crude drugs and their cultivated soils,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.81(6), 571–573 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. W. Hahn and N. Omenetto, “Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Part I: Review of Basic Diagnostics and Plasma-Particle Interactions: Still-Challenging Issues Within the Analytical Plasma Community,” Appl. Spectrosc.64(12), 335–366 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Hermann, J. S. Bruneau, and M. Sentis, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser-induced gas breakdown,” Thin Solid Films453–454, 377–382 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.56(6), 987–1002 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, P. J. Dagdigian, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, M. J. Nusca, and A. W. Miziolek, “Kinetic modeling study of the laser-induced plasma plume of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX),” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.62(12), 1321–1328 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, J. Miragliotta, R. Osiander, J. Burnett, Y. Dikmelik, C. McEnnis, and J. B. Spicer, “Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel)10(5), 4342–4372 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Hahn and N. Omenetto, “Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Part I: Review of Basic Diagnostics and Plasma-Particle Interactions: Still-Challenging Issues Within the Analytical Plasma Community,” Appl. Spectrosc.64(12), 335–366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

C. Aragón and J. Aguilera, “Characterization of laser induced plasmas by optical emission spectroscopy: A review of experiments and methods,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B63(9), 893–916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, Y. Zou, X. Zhan, S. Chen, G. Lu, and F. Lai, “Survey of heavy metal pollution in four chinese crude drugs and their cultivated soils,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.81(6), 571–573 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Naes, S. Umpierrez, S. Ryland, C. Barnett, and J. R. Almirall, “A comparison of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of automotive glass,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.63(10), 1145–1150 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dikmelik, C. McEnnis, and J. B. Spicer, “Femtosecond and nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of trinitrotoluene,” Opt. Express16(8), 5332–5337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

F. J. Fortes, J. Cuñat, L. M. Cabalín, and J. J. Laserna, “In situ analytical assessment and chemical imaging of historical buildings using a man-portable laser system,” Appl. Spectrosc.61(5), 558–564 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, P. J. Dagdigian, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, M. J. Nusca, and A. W. Miziolek, “Kinetic modeling study of the laser-induced plasma plume of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX),” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.62(12), 1321–1328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Gurevich and R. Hergenröder, “Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: physics, applications, and perspectives,” Appl. Spectrosc.61(10), 233–242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

E. H. Evans, J. A. Day, C. D. Palmer, W. J. Price, C. M. M. Smith, and J. F. Tyson, “Atomic spectrometry update. Advances in atomic emission, absorption and fluorescence spectrometry, and related techniques,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.20(6), 562–590 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Barthélemy, J. Margot, S. Laville, F. Vidal, M. Chaker, B. Le Drogoff, T. W. Johnston, and M. Sabsabi, “Investigation of the state of local thermodynamic equilibrium of a laser-produced aluminum plasma,” Appl. Spectrosc.59(4), 529–536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. Hermann, J. S. Bruneau, and M. Sentis, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser-induced gas breakdown,” Thin Solid Films453–454, 377–382 (2004).

2001 (2)

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.56(6), 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Eland, D. N. Stratis, D. M. Gold, S. R. Goode, and S. M. Angel, “Energy dependence of emission intensity and temperature in a LIBS plasma using femtosecond excitation,” Appl. Spectrosc.55(3), 286–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. D. Winefordner, I. B. Gornushkin, D. Pappas, O. I. Matveev, and B. W. Smith, “Novel uses of lasers in atomic spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.15(9), 1161–1189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

Aguilera, J.

C. Aragón and J. Aguilera, “Characterization of laser induced plasmas by optical emission spectroscopy: A review of experiments and methods,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B63(9), 893–916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Almirall, J. R.

B. E. Naes, S. Umpierrez, S. Ryland, C. Barnett, and J. R. Almirall, “A comparison of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of automotive glass,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.63(10), 1145–1150 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Angel, S. M.

Aragón, C.

C. Aragón and J. Aguilera, “Characterization of laser induced plasmas by optical emission spectroscopy: A review of experiments and methods,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B63(9), 893–916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Babushok, V. I.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, P. J. Dagdigian, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, M. J. Nusca, and A. W. Miziolek, “Kinetic modeling study of the laser-induced plasma plume of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX),” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.62(12), 1321–1328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, C.

B. E. Naes, S. Umpierrez, S. Ryland, C. Barnett, and J. R. Almirall, “A comparison of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of automotive glass,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.63(10), 1145–1150 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barthélemy, O.

O. Barthélemy, J. Margot, S. Laville, F. Vidal, M. Chaker, B. Le Drogoff, T. W. Johnston, and M. Sabsabi, “Investigation of the state of local thermodynamic equilibrium of a laser-produced aluminum plasma,” Appl. Spectrosc.59(4), 529–536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.56(6), 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bruneau, J. S.

C. Hermann, J. S. Bruneau, and M. Sentis, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser-induced gas breakdown,” Thin Solid Films453–454, 377–382 (2004).

Burnett, J.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, J. Miragliotta, R. Osiander, J. Burnett, Y. Dikmelik, C. McEnnis, and J. B. Spicer, “Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel)10(5), 4342–4372 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabalín, L. M.

Chaker, M.

O. Barthélemy, J. Margot, S. Laville, F. Vidal, M. Chaker, B. Le Drogoff, T. W. Johnston, and M. Sabsabi, “Investigation of the state of local thermodynamic equilibrium of a laser-produced aluminum plasma,” Appl. Spectrosc.59(4), 529–536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.56(6), 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

J. Wu, Y. Zou, X. Zhan, S. Chen, G. Lu, and F. Lai, “Survey of heavy metal pollution in four chinese crude drugs and their cultivated soils,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.81(6), 571–573 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuñat, J.

Dagdigian, P. J.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, P. J. Dagdigian, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, M. J. Nusca, and A. W. Miziolek, “Kinetic modeling study of the laser-induced plasma plume of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX),” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.62(12), 1321–1328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Day, J. A.

E. H. Evans, J. A. Day, C. D. Palmer, W. J. Price, C. M. M. Smith, and J. F. Tyson, “Atomic spectrometry update. Advances in atomic emission, absorption and fluorescence spectrometry, and related techniques,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.20(6), 562–590 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DeLucia, F. C.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, P. J. Dagdigian, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, M. J. Nusca, and A. W. Miziolek, “Kinetic modeling study of the laser-induced plasma plume of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX),” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.62(12), 1321–1328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dikmelik, Y.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, J. Miragliotta, R. Osiander, J. Burnett, Y. Dikmelik, C. McEnnis, and J. B. Spicer, “Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel)10(5), 4342–4372 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dikmelik, C. McEnnis, and J. B. Spicer, “Femtosecond and nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of trinitrotoluene,” Opt. Express16(8), 5332–5337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eland, K. L.

Evans, E. H.

E. H. Evans, J. A. Day, C. D. Palmer, W. J. Price, C. M. M. Smith, and J. F. Tyson, “Atomic spectrometry update. Advances in atomic emission, absorption and fluorescence spectrometry, and related techniques,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.20(6), 562–590 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fortes, F. J.

Gold, D. M.

Goode, S. R.

Gornushkin, I. B.

J. D. Winefordner, I. B. Gornushkin, D. Pappas, O. I. Matveev, and B. W. Smith, “Novel uses of lasers in atomic spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.15(9), 1161–1189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gottfried, J. L.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, P. J. Dagdigian, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, M. J. Nusca, and A. W. Miziolek, “Kinetic modeling study of the laser-induced plasma plume of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX),” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.62(12), 1321–1328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gurevich, E. L.

E. L. Gurevich and R. Hergenröder, “Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: physics, applications, and perspectives,” Appl. Spectrosc.61(10), 233–242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, D. W.

D. W. Hahn and N. Omenetto, “Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Part I: Review of Basic Diagnostics and Plasma-Particle Interactions: Still-Challenging Issues Within the Analytical Plasma Community,” Appl. Spectrosc.64(12), 335–366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hein, J.

Helbig, M.

Hergenröder, R.

E. L. Gurevich and R. Hergenröder, “Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: physics, applications, and perspectives,” Appl. Spectrosc.61(10), 233–242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, C.

C. Hermann, J. S. Bruneau, and M. Sentis, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser-induced gas breakdown,” Thin Solid Films453–454, 377–382 (2004).

Johnston, T. W.

O. Barthélemy, J. Margot, S. Laville, F. Vidal, M. Chaker, B. Le Drogoff, T. W. Johnston, and M. Sabsabi, “Investigation of the state of local thermodynamic equilibrium of a laser-produced aluminum plasma,” Appl. Spectrosc.59(4), 529–536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.56(6), 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lai, F.

J. Wu, Y. Zou, X. Zhan, S. Chen, G. Lu, and F. Lai, “Survey of heavy metal pollution in four chinese crude drugs and their cultivated soils,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.81(6), 571–573 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laserna, J. J.

Laville, S.

O. Barthélemy, J. Margot, S. Laville, F. Vidal, M. Chaker, B. Le Drogoff, T. W. Johnston, and M. Sabsabi, “Investigation of the state of local thermodynamic equilibrium of a laser-produced aluminum plasma,” Appl. Spectrosc.59(4), 529–536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.56(6), 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Le Drogoff, B.

O. Barthélemy, J. Margot, S. Laville, F. Vidal, M. Chaker, B. Le Drogoff, T. W. Johnston, and M. Sabsabi, “Investigation of the state of local thermodynamic equilibrium of a laser-produced aluminum plasma,” Appl. Spectrosc.59(4), 529–536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.56(6), 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leahy-Hoppa, M. R.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, J. Miragliotta, R. Osiander, J. Burnett, Y. Dikmelik, C. McEnnis, and J. B. Spicer, “Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel)10(5), 4342–4372 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, G.

J. Wu, Y. Zou, X. Zhan, S. Chen, G. Lu, and F. Lai, “Survey of heavy metal pollution in four chinese crude drugs and their cultivated soils,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.81(6), 571–573 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margot, J.

O. Barthélemy, J. Margot, S. Laville, F. Vidal, M. Chaker, B. Le Drogoff, T. W. Johnston, and M. Sabsabi, “Investigation of the state of local thermodynamic equilibrium of a laser-produced aluminum plasma,” Appl. Spectrosc.59(4), 529–536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.56(6), 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matousek, P.

Matveev, O. I.

J. D. Winefordner, I. B. Gornushkin, D. Pappas, O. I. Matveev, and B. W. Smith, “Novel uses of lasers in atomic spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.15(9), 1161–1189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McEnnis, C.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, J. Miragliotta, R. Osiander, J. Burnett, Y. Dikmelik, C. McEnnis, and J. B. Spicer, “Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel)10(5), 4342–4372 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dikmelik, C. McEnnis, and J. B. Spicer, “Femtosecond and nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of trinitrotoluene,” Opt. Express16(8), 5332–5337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miragliotta, J.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, J. Miragliotta, R. Osiander, J. Burnett, Y. Dikmelik, C. McEnnis, and J. B. Spicer, “Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel)10(5), 4342–4372 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miziolek, A. W.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, P. J. Dagdigian, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, M. J. Nusca, and A. W. Miziolek, “Kinetic modeling study of the laser-induced plasma plume of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX),” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.62(12), 1321–1328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munson, C. A.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, P. J. Dagdigian, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, M. J. Nusca, and A. W. Miziolek, “Kinetic modeling study of the laser-induced plasma plume of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX),” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.62(12), 1321–1328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Naes, B. E.

B. E. Naes, S. Umpierrez, S. Ryland, C. Barnett, and J. R. Almirall, “A comparison of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of automotive glass,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.63(10), 1145–1150 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nusca, M. J.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, P. J. Dagdigian, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, M. J. Nusca, and A. W. Miziolek, “Kinetic modeling study of the laser-induced plasma plume of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX),” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.62(12), 1321–1328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Omenetto, N.

D. W. Hahn and N. Omenetto, “Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Part I: Review of Basic Diagnostics and Plasma-Particle Interactions: Still-Challenging Issues Within the Analytical Plasma Community,” Appl. Spectrosc.64(12), 335–366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osiander, R.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, J. Miragliotta, R. Osiander, J. Burnett, Y. Dikmelik, C. McEnnis, and J. B. Spicer, “Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel)10(5), 4342–4372 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, C. D.

E. H. Evans, J. A. Day, C. D. Palmer, W. J. Price, C. M. M. Smith, and J. F. Tyson, “Atomic spectrometry update. Advances in atomic emission, absorption and fluorescence spectrometry, and related techniques,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.20(6), 562–590 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pappas, D.

J. D. Winefordner, I. B. Gornushkin, D. Pappas, O. I. Matveev, and B. W. Smith, “Novel uses of lasers in atomic spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.15(9), 1161–1189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parker, A. W.

Price, W. J.

E. H. Evans, J. A. Day, C. D. Palmer, W. J. Price, C. M. M. Smith, and J. F. Tyson, “Atomic spectrometry update. Advances in atomic emission, absorption and fluorescence spectrometry, and related techniques,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.20(6), 562–590 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rentsch, S.

Ryland, S.

B. E. Naes, S. Umpierrez, S. Ryland, C. Barnett, and J. R. Almirall, “A comparison of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of automotive glass,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.63(10), 1145–1150 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sabsabi, M.

O. Barthélemy, J. Margot, S. Laville, F. Vidal, M. Chaker, B. Le Drogoff, T. W. Johnston, and M. Sabsabi, “Investigation of the state of local thermodynamic equilibrium of a laser-produced aluminum plasma,” Appl. Spectrosc.59(4), 529–536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.56(6), 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sentis, M.

C. Hermann, J. S. Bruneau, and M. Sentis, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser-induced gas breakdown,” Thin Solid Films453–454, 377–382 (2004).

Smith, B. W.

J. D. Winefordner, I. B. Gornushkin, D. Pappas, O. I. Matveev, and B. W. Smith, “Novel uses of lasers in atomic spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.15(9), 1161–1189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. M. M.

E. H. Evans, J. A. Day, C. D. Palmer, W. J. Price, C. M. M. Smith, and J. F. Tyson, “Atomic spectrometry update. Advances in atomic emission, absorption and fluorescence spectrometry, and related techniques,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.20(6), 562–590 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spicer, J. B.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, J. Miragliotta, R. Osiander, J. Burnett, Y. Dikmelik, C. McEnnis, and J. B. Spicer, “Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel)10(5), 4342–4372 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dikmelik, C. McEnnis, and J. B. Spicer, “Femtosecond and nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of trinitrotoluene,” Opt. Express16(8), 5332–5337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stanley, A.

Stratis, D. N.

Towrie, M.

Tyson, J. F.

E. H. Evans, J. A. Day, C. D. Palmer, W. J. Price, C. M. M. Smith, and J. F. Tyson, “Atomic spectrometry update. Advances in atomic emission, absorption and fluorescence spectrometry, and related techniques,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.20(6), 562–590 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Umpierrez, S.

B. E. Naes, S. Umpierrez, S. Ryland, C. Barnett, and J. R. Almirall, “A comparison of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of automotive glass,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.63(10), 1145–1150 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, F.

O. Barthélemy, J. Margot, S. Laville, F. Vidal, M. Chaker, B. Le Drogoff, T. W. Johnston, and M. Sabsabi, “Investigation of the state of local thermodynamic equilibrium of a laser-produced aluminum plasma,” Appl. Spectrosc.59(4), 529–536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.56(6), 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Von Kaenel, Y.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.56(6), 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

J. D. Winefordner, I. B. Gornushkin, D. Pappas, O. I. Matveev, and B. W. Smith, “Novel uses of lasers in atomic spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.15(9), 1161–1189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, Y. Zou, X. Zhan, S. Chen, G. Lu, and F. Lai, “Survey of heavy metal pollution in four chinese crude drugs and their cultivated soils,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.81(6), 571–573 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhan, X.

J. Wu, Y. Zou, X. Zhan, S. Chen, G. Lu, and F. Lai, “Survey of heavy metal pollution in four chinese crude drugs and their cultivated soils,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.81(6), 571–573 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, Y.

J. Wu, Y. Zou, X. Zhan, S. Chen, G. Lu, and F. Lai, “Survey of heavy metal pollution in four chinese crude drugs and their cultivated soils,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.81(6), 571–573 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. (6)

Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1)

J. Wu, Y. Zou, X. Zhan, S. Chen, G. Lu, and F. Lai, “Survey of heavy metal pollution in four chinese crude drugs and their cultivated soils,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.81(6), 571–573 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (2)

J. D. Winefordner, I. B. Gornushkin, D. Pappas, O. I. Matveev, and B. W. Smith, “Novel uses of lasers in atomic spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.15(9), 1161–1189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Evans, J. A. Day, C. D. Palmer, W. J. Price, C. M. M. Smith, and J. F. Tyson, “Atomic spectrometry update. Advances in atomic emission, absorption and fluorescence spectrometry, and related techniques,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom.20(6), 562–590 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Sensors (Basel) (1)

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, J. Miragliotta, R. Osiander, J. Burnett, Y. Dikmelik, C. McEnnis, and J. B. Spicer, “Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel)10(5), 4342–4372 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. (3)

B. E. Naes, S. Umpierrez, S. Ryland, C. Barnett, and J. R. Almirall, “A comparison of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of automotive glass,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.63(10), 1145–1150 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.56(6), 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, P. J. Dagdigian, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, M. J. Nusca, and A. W. Miziolek, “Kinetic modeling study of the laser-induced plasma plume of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX),” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.62(12), 1321–1328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta, Part B (1)

C. Aragón and J. Aguilera, “Characterization of laser induced plasmas by optical emission spectroscopy: A review of experiments and methods,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B63(9), 893–916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

C. Hermann, J. S. Bruneau, and M. Sentis, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser-induced gas breakdown,” Thin Solid Films453–454, 377–382 (2004).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of LIBS based on OKG and a femtosecond laser. The mirror in the left corner was used while measure the instrument response function (IRF) of the system directly. Sample (Al plate) was used to replace the mirror in measurement of LIBS of Al.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emitted Al spectrum measured by a fiber optic spectrometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LIBS system using a fast PMT and picosecond laser pulses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured temporal response waveform of Ti: sapphire laser when laser was reflected from a mirror. The inset shows the waveform when the laser beam was reflected by Al sample.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Kerr gated Al Plasma at delays of 2.5 ns and 14 ns. The error bars near peaks show the standard deviations. Two Al neutral emission lines were also labeled at 394.4 nm and 396.15 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

3D view of the temporal evolution of the Al plasma for experiments using a 10 mJ 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser and fast PMT (no OKG).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal evolution of Al plasma emission at wavelengths of 396 nm and 390 nm as background.(no OKG). The inset shows the intensity ratio of these two wavelengths.

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