Abstract

Polarization-diversity couplers, which are designed to couple the unknown polarization state of an optical fiber into the TE-polarized modes of integrated waveguides, are important for the development of practical all-optical circuits. We describe the use of a full 3D finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculation campaign to rigorously optimize the 2D photonic crystal grating that couples a single-mode telecom fiber to the silicon waveguides of a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) platform. With this approach we identify the unique optimum combination of etch-depth, hole-radius, and grating-pitch of the photonic crystal array for best performance at 1550 nm. The mean (polarization-averaged) coupling efficiency of 48% (−3.2dB) exceeds reported efficiencies of analogous couplers, and has only a marginal dependence on the polarization state of the input fiber (48 ± 3%). In addition, 3D-FDTD calculations are used to characterize the propagation direction, mode-profile, and polarization of light coupled from the fiber into the SOI slab. Such information is crucial for component design and goes beyond previously available results from existing approximations and simulations of 2D-grating coupler performance. Calculations of photonic mode dispersion in the grating coupler, by means of guided-mode expansion, indicate that the coupling is due to an optically active resonant guided mode in the photonic crystal array. This points towards a fast optimization scheme that enhances both the performance and the physical interpretation of 3D-FDTD simulations.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency grating coupler between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and perfectly vertical optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.32(11), 1495–1497 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Van Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP–InGaAsP waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(6), 396–398 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett.29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Antelius, K. B. Gylfason, and H. Sohlström, “An apodized SOI waveguide-to-fiber surface grating coupler for single lithography silicon photonics,” Opt. Express19(4), 3592–3598 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(13), 131101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “High-efficiency, large-bandwidth silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a fully-etched photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051126 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Polarization-independent grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36(6), 796–798 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Yongbo, D. Daoxin, and H. Sailing, “Proposal for a grating waveguide serving as both a polarization splitter and an efficient coupler for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(4), 242–244 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, D. Taillaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Efficient polarization diversity grating couplers in bonded InP-membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 318–320 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Nanophotonic Polarization Diversity Demultiplexer Chip,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(4), 417–425 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, “A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express15(4), 1567–1578 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. Van Laere, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focusing polarization diversity grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(5), 612–618 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Compact SOI-based polarization diversity wavelength de-multiplexer circuit using two symmetric AWGs,” Opt. Express20(26), B493–B500 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, “Photonic crystal slabs with a triangular lattice of triangular holes investigated using a guided mode expansion method,” Phys. Rev. B73(23), 235114 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of Photonic Mode Dispersion and Linewidths in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Crystal Slabs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.23(7), 1402–1410 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “High-efficiency, large-bandwidth silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a fully-etched photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(13), 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, D. Taillaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Efficient polarization diversity grating couplers in bonded InP-membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 318–320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, “Photonic crystal slabs with a triangular lattice of triangular holes investigated using a guided mode expansion method,” Phys. Rev. B73(23), 235114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of Photonic Mode Dispersion and Linewidths in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Crystal Slabs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.23(7), 1402–1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Agio, M.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of Photonic Mode Dispersion and Linewidths in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Crystal Slabs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.23(7), 1402–1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, “Photonic crystal slabs with a triangular lattice of triangular holes investigated using a guided mode expansion method,” Phys. Rev. B73(23), 235114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of Photonic Mode Dispersion and Linewidths in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Crystal Slabs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.23(7), 1402–1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Antelius, M.

Ayre, M.

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Nanophotonic Polarization Diversity Demultiplexer Chip,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(4), 417–425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Nanophotonic Polarization Diversity Demultiplexer Chip,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(4), 417–425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focusing polarization diversity grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(5), 612–618 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, D. Taillaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Efficient polarization diversity grating couplers in bonded InP-membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 318–320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(13), 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency grating coupler between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and perfectly vertical optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.32(11), 1495–1497 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP–InGaAsP waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(6), 396–398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, “A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express15(4), 1567–1578 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett.29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bajoni, D.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of Photonic Mode Dispersion and Linewidths in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Crystal Slabs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.23(7), 1402–1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Belotti, M.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of Photonic Mode Dispersion and Linewidths in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Crystal Slabs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.23(7), 1402–1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett.29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Compact SOI-based polarization diversity wavelength de-multiplexer circuit using two symmetric AWGs,” Opt. Express20(26), B493–B500 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focusing polarization diversity grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(5), 612–618 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, “A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express15(4), 1567–1578 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brenot, R.

Brision, S.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(13), 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cambournac, C.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of Photonic Mode Dispersion and Linewidths in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Crystal Slabs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.23(7), 1402–1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Daoxin, D.

T. Yongbo, D. Daoxin, and H. Sailing, “Proposal for a grating waveguide serving as both a polarization splitter and an efficient coupler for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(4), 242–244 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Fédéli, J.-M.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(13), 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L. H.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Galli, M.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of Photonic Mode Dispersion and Linewidths in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Crystal Slabs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.23(7), 1402–1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, P.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(13), 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gerace, D.

L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, “Photonic crystal slabs with a triangular lattice of triangular holes investigated using a guided mode expansion method,” Phys. Rev. B73(23), 235114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of Photonic Mode Dispersion and Linewidths in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Crystal Slabs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.23(7), 1402–1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guizzetti, G.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of Photonic Mode Dispersion and Linewidths in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Crystal Slabs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.23(7), 1402–1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gylfason, K. B.

Hvam, J. M.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “High-efficiency, large-bandwidth silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a fully-etched photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kotlyar, M. V.

F. Van Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP–InGaAsP waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(6), 396–398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Nanophotonic Polarization Diversity Demultiplexer Chip,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(4), 417–425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, D. Taillaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Efficient polarization diversity grating couplers in bonded InP-membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 318–320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP–InGaAsP waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(6), 396–398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “High-efficiency, large-bandwidth silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a fully-etched photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lyan, P.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(13), 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paleari, F.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of Photonic Mode Dispersion and Linewidths in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Crystal Slabs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.23(7), 1402–1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pathak, S.

Patrini, M.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of Photonic Mode Dispersion and Linewidths in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Crystal Slabs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.23(7), 1402–1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peyrade, D.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of Photonic Mode Dispersion and Linewidths in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Crystal Slabs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.23(7), 1402–1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pluk, E.

Pu, M.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “High-efficiency, large-bandwidth silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a fully-etched photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Nanophotonic Polarization Diversity Demultiplexer Chip,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(4), 417–425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focusing polarization diversity grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(5), 612–618 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, D. Taillaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Efficient polarization diversity grating couplers in bonded InP-membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 318–320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(13), 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency grating coupler between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and perfectly vertical optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.32(11), 1495–1497 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sailing, H.

T. Yongbo, D. Daoxin, and H. Sailing, “Proposal for a grating waveguide serving as both a polarization splitter and an efficient coupler for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(4), 242–244 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sohlström, H.

Stomeo, T.

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Nanophotonic Polarization Diversity Demultiplexer Chip,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(4), 417–425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, D. Taillaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Efficient polarization diversity grating couplers in bonded InP-membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 318–320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, D. Taillaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Efficient polarization diversity grating couplers in bonded InP-membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 318–320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, “A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express15(4), 1567–1578 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP–InGaAsP waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(6), 396–398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett.29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

Van Daele, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Laere, F.

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Nanophotonic Polarization Diversity Demultiplexer Chip,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(4), 417–425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focusing polarization diversity grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(5), 612–618 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, D. Taillaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Efficient polarization diversity grating couplers in bonded InP-membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 318–320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP–InGaAsP waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(6), 396–398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Compact SOI-based polarization diversity wavelength de-multiplexer circuit using two symmetric AWGs,” Opt. Express20(26), B493–B500 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focusing polarization diversity grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(5), 612–618 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Nanophotonic Polarization Diversity Demultiplexer Chip,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(4), 417–425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, D. Taillaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Efficient polarization diversity grating couplers in bonded InP-membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 318–320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(13), 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency grating coupler between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and perfectly vertical optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.32(11), 1495–1497 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP–InGaAsP waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(6), 396–398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, “A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express15(4), 1567–1578 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vanslembrouck, M.

Vermeulen, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(13), 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yongbo, T.

T. Yongbo, D. Daoxin, and H. Sailing, “Proposal for a grating waveguide serving as both a polarization splitter and an efficient coupler for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(4), 242–244 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yvind, K.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “High-efficiency, large-bandwidth silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a fully-etched photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(13), 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “High-efficiency, large-bandwidth silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a fully-etched photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of Photonic Mode Dispersion and Linewidths in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Crystal Slabs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.23(7), 1402–1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Yongbo, D. Daoxin, and H. Sailing, “Proposal for a grating waveguide serving as both a polarization splitter and an efficient coupler for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(4), 242–244 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, D. Taillaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Efficient polarization diversity grating couplers in bonded InP-membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 318–320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP–InGaAsP waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(6), 396–398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, “Photonic crystal slabs with a triangular lattice of triangular holes investigated using a guided mode expansion method,” Phys. Rev. B73(23), 235114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an input fibre mode in near-normal incidence to a 2D-grating coupler. The polarization state of the fibre mode is described by the angle of φ. The inset shows a schematic of the material cross-section, consisting of a 750nm top-oxide layer (TOX), a 220nm silicon-on-oxide (SOI) layer, a 2.0μm bottom-oxide layer (BOX), and semi-infinite substrate (SUB). The radius (R), pitch (P), and etch (E) parameters of the photonic crystal array are also indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The coupling spectra of a 2D-grating coupler with fixed radius (R) and pitch (P) and a series of different etch-depths (E). CEy(φ = 45°) is used to express the coupling efficiency, because it closely matches the average performance of the coupler over all possible input polarization states. (b) The coupling spectra of a 2D-grating coupler with fixed etch-depth and pitch and a series of different hole radii.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A series of hole-radius (R) and grating-pitch (P) pairs for a partial etch-depth (E) of 70nm that tune the coupling to 1550nm (b) Identifying the radius-pitch pair that gives highest coupling efficiency value for the 70nm etch design.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The contour plot of coupling efficiency at 1550nm for a 2D-grating coupler realized in 220nm SOI, with the given BOX and TOX thicknesses, as a function of etch-depth and the ratio of hole-radius and hole-pitch. The peak coupling efficiency in this contour map corresponds to the globally optimized coupler parameters for the system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The variation of CEx, CEy, and CET as a function of the input polarization angle of φ for the 2D-grating coupler based on the optimum PCA parameters. The trigonometric fit to determine the mean value of CET and its variation with φ is also given. Note that CEy(φ = 45°) closely matches the mean value of CET. (b) The coupling spectra of CEx, CEy, and CET for φ = 75°, fitted with Gaussian line-shapes. The inset shows the small but systematic variation of the central wavelength of CET as a function of φ. Again, the central wavelength of CEy(φ = 45°) closely matches that of the mean CET.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The propagation map of light coupled from the fibre mode into a SOI layer from a photonic crystal array based on the optimum PCA parameters. (b) A contour plot of the coupled mode at a distance of 68μm from the edge of the PCA. (c) and (d) The vertical and horizontal cross-sections of the contour plot in (b).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Energy band dispersion for the 2D grating coupler with 110 nm etch depth, 215 nm hole radius, and 616 nm lattice constant, as calculated by multi-layer guided-mode expansion. The main symmetry directions in the Brillouin zone of the square lattice are indicated. Modes are classified as even (TM, dashed lines) or odd (TE, full lines) with respect to the vertical plane of incidence, which changes with the symmetry line (see text). The light line corresponding to 90° incidence from the TOX layer is also plotted. (b-e) Close-up of the photonic mode dispersion along the Γ−M direction and close to the normal incidence for different etching depth of the holes in the SOI layer, as indicated in each panel. The 10° light line is also shown, and the crossing point with the TE-like dipole-active mode corresponding to the peak in coupling efficiency is highlighted.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) A comparison of the resonant wavelength from the crossing of the 10° light line and the GME calculated dipole-active TE mode along the Γ-M direction, and the peak coupling from 3D-FDTD calculations, as a function of etch-depth. (b) The same comparison as for (a) with fixed etch-depth and pitch, but variable hole radius. The shaded areas correspond to the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) of the 3D-FDTD peaks (see Figs. 2 and 3).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) The imaginary part of the wave-vector (proportional to coupling strength) from the GME calculations in Fig. 7(a), and an estimate of the mode-matching between the photonic crystal and the SOI waveguide, as a function of etch-depth. (b) The product of the two terms from (a) showing that the maximum effective coupling between the fibre mode and the SOI waveguide is expected for an intermediate etch-depth of the order of half the SOI layer thickness

Metrics