Abstract

We consider nanopatterning of dielectric substrates by harmonics of single powerful femtosecond pulses from a Ti:Sapphire laser. The nanopatterning is mediated by closely packed monolayers of polystyrene microspheres that act as microlenses at the surface. Observed modification of the material proceeds via ionization. By our theory, the second harmonic is more effective in multi-photon ionization and is better focused than the fundamental frequency which is effective in multiplying of the amount of free electrons via impact ionization. Experiments show that conversion of a part of the pulse energy into the second harmonic decreases the modification threshold and improves the localization of the structures. Optimization of the time offset between the harmonics could further improve the efficiency and quality of nanostructuring.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. S. Luk’Yanchuk, Z. B. Wang, W. D. Song, and M. H. Hong, “Particle on surface: 3D-effects in dry laser cleaning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4-6), 747–751 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012

2011

A. Khan, Z. B. Wang, M. A. Sheikh, D. J. Whitehead, and L. Li, “Laser micro/nano patterning of hydrophobic surface by contact particle lens array,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(2), 774–779 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

T. C. Chong, M. H. Hong, and L. P. Shi, “Laser precision engineering: from microfabrication to nanoprocessing,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(1), 123–143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, V. A. Mironov, E. V. Suvorov, D. A. Fadeev, and B. V. Shishkin, “Generation of terahertz radiation by the optical breakdown induced by a bichromatic laser pulse,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.109(3), 370–378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Bityurin, “Model for laser swelling of a polymer film,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(24), 9851–9855 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Z. B. Wang, W. Guo, B. Luk'yanchuk, D. J. Whitehead, L. Li, and Z. Liu, “Optical near-field interaction between neighbouring micro/nano-particles,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoengin.3, 14–18 (2008).

N. Arnold, “Influence of the substrate, metal overlayer and lattice neighbors on the focusing properties of colloidal microspheres,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.92(4), 1005–1012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Englert, B. Rethfeld, L. Haag, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Control of ionization processes in high band gap materials via tailored femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express15(26), 17855–17862 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, G. Langer, D. Brodoceanu, and D. Bäuerle, “Hexagonal structures on metal-coated two-dimensional microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(19), 191106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Langer, D. Brodoceanu, and D. Bäuerle, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of apertures on two-dimensional microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(26), 261104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

B. S. Luk’Yanchuk, Z. B. Wang, W. D. Song, and M. H. Hong, “Particle on surface: 3D-effects in dry laser cleaning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4-6), 747–751 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

N. Bityurin and A. Kuznetsov, “Use of harmonics for femtosecond micromashining in pure dielectrics,” J. Appl. Phys.93(3), 1567–1576 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Hasegawa, T. Ikawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, and Y. Kawata, “Topographical nanostructure patterning on the surface of a thin film of polyurethane containing azobezene moiety using the optical near field around polystyrene spheres,” Macromolecules34(21), 7471–7476 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Münzer, M. Mosbacher, M. Bertsch, J. Zimmermann, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Local field enhancement effects for nanostructuring of surfaces,” J. Microsc.202(1), 129–135 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song, Y. W. Zheng, and B. S. Luk’yanchuk, “Laser writing of a subwavelength structure on silicon (100) surfaces with particle-enhanced optical irradiation,” JETP Lett.72(9), 457–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1965

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Afanasiev, A.

Agareva, N.

Akhmedzhanov, R. A.

R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, V. A. Mironov, E. V. Suvorov, D. A. Fadeev, and B. V. Shishkin, “Generation of terahertz radiation by the optical breakdown induced by a bichromatic laser pulse,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.109(3), 370–378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrov, A. P.

Arnold, N.

N. Arnold, “Influence of the substrate, metal overlayer and lattice neighbors on the focusing properties of colloidal microspheres,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.92(4), 1005–1012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Audouard, E.

Bäuerle, D.

A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, G. Langer, D. Brodoceanu, and D. Bäuerle, “Hexagonal structures on metal-coated two-dimensional microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(19), 191106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Langer, D. Brodoceanu, and D. Bäuerle, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of apertures on two-dimensional microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(26), 261104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baumert, T.

L. Englert, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe, D. Otto, and T. Baumert, “Morphology of nanoscale structures on fused silica surfaces from interaction with temporally tailored femtosecond pulses,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Englert, B. Rethfeld, L. Haag, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Control of ionization processes in high band gap materials via tailored femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express15(26), 17855–17862 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bertsch, M.

H. J. Münzer, M. Mosbacher, M. Bertsch, J. Zimmermann, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Local field enhancement effects for nanostructuring of surfaces,” J. Microsc.202(1), 129–135 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bityurin, N.

A. Pikulin, A. Afanasiev, N. Agareva, A. P. Alexandrov, V. Bredikhin, and N. Bityurin, “Effects of spherical mode coupling on near-field focusing by clusters of dielectric microspheres,” Opt. Express20(8), 9052–9057 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Bityurin, “Model for laser swelling of a polymer film,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(24), 9851–9855 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, G. Langer, D. Brodoceanu, and D. Bäuerle, “Hexagonal structures on metal-coated two-dimensional microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(19), 191106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Bityurin and A. Kuznetsov, “Use of harmonics for femtosecond micromashining in pure dielectrics,” J. Appl. Phys.93(3), 1567–1576 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boneberg, J.

H. J. Münzer, M. Mosbacher, M. Bertsch, J. Zimmermann, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Local field enhancement effects for nanostructuring of surfaces,” J. Microsc.202(1), 129–135 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bredikhin, V.

Brodoceanu, D.

A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, G. Langer, D. Brodoceanu, and D. Bäuerle, “Hexagonal structures on metal-coated two-dimensional microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(19), 191106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Langer, D. Brodoceanu, and D. Bäuerle, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of apertures on two-dimensional microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(26), 261104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, G.

Chong, T. C.

T. C. Chong, M. H. Hong, and L. P. Shi, “Laser precision engineering: from microfabrication to nanoprocessing,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(1), 123–143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colombier, J. P.

Englert, L.

L. Englert, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe, D. Otto, and T. Baumert, “Morphology of nanoscale structures on fused silica surfaces from interaction with temporally tailored femtosecond pulses,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Englert, B. Rethfeld, L. Haag, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Control of ionization processes in high band gap materials via tailored femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express15(26), 17855–17862 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fadeev, D. A.

R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, V. A. Mironov, E. V. Suvorov, D. A. Fadeev, and B. V. Shishkin, “Generation of terahertz radiation by the optical breakdown induced by a bichromatic laser pulse,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.109(3), 370–378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, W.

Z. B. Wang, W. Guo, B. Luk'yanchuk, D. J. Whitehead, L. Li, and Z. Liu, “Optical near-field interaction between neighbouring micro/nano-particles,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoengin.3, 14–18 (2008).

Haag, L.

Hasegawa, H.

H. Hasegawa, T. Ikawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, and Y. Kawata, “Topographical nanostructure patterning on the surface of a thin film of polyurethane containing azobezene moiety using the optical near field around polystyrene spheres,” Macromolecules34(21), 7471–7476 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M. H.

T. C. Chong, M. H. Hong, and L. P. Shi, “Laser precision engineering: from microfabrication to nanoprocessing,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(1), 123–143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Luk’Yanchuk, Z. B. Wang, W. D. Song, and M. H. Hong, “Particle on surface: 3D-effects in dry laser cleaning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4-6), 747–751 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ikawa, T.

H. Hasegawa, T. Ikawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, and Y. Kawata, “Topographical nanostructure patterning on the surface of a thin film of polyurethane containing azobezene moiety using the optical near field around polystyrene spheres,” Macromolecules34(21), 7471–7476 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ilyakov, I. E.

R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, V. A. Mironov, E. V. Suvorov, D. A. Fadeev, and B. V. Shishkin, “Generation of terahertz radiation by the optical breakdown induced by a bichromatic laser pulse,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.109(3), 370–378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Katsnelson, A.

W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, Y.

H. Hasegawa, T. Ikawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, and Y. Kawata, “Topographical nanostructure patterning on the surface of a thin film of polyurethane containing azobezene moiety using the optical near field around polystyrene spheres,” Macromolecules34(21), 7471–7476 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Khan, A.

A. Khan, Z. B. Wang, M. A. Sheikh, D. J. Whitehead, and L. Li, “Laser micro/nano patterning of hydrophobic surface by contact particle lens array,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(2), 774–779 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, A.

N. Bityurin and A. Kuznetsov, “Use of harmonics for femtosecond micromashining in pure dielectrics,” J. Appl. Phys.93(3), 1567–1576 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Langer, G.

A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, G. Langer, D. Brodoceanu, and D. Bäuerle, “Hexagonal structures on metal-coated two-dimensional microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(19), 191106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Langer, D. Brodoceanu, and D. Bäuerle, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of apertures on two-dimensional microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(26), 261104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leiderer, P.

H. J. Münzer, M. Mosbacher, M. Bertsch, J. Zimmermann, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Local field enhancement effects for nanostructuring of surfaces,” J. Microsc.202(1), 129–135 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

A. Khan, Z. B. Wang, M. A. Sheikh, D. J. Whitehead, and L. Li, “Laser micro/nano patterning of hydrophobic surface by contact particle lens array,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(2), 774–779 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Wang, W. Guo, B. Luk'yanchuk, D. J. Whitehead, L. Li, and Z. Liu, “Optical near-field interaction between neighbouring micro/nano-particles,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoengin.3, 14–18 (2008).

Liu, Z.

Z. B. Wang, W. Guo, B. Luk'yanchuk, D. J. Whitehead, L. Li, and Z. Liu, “Optical near-field interaction between neighbouring micro/nano-particles,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoengin.3, 14–18 (2008).

Lu, Y. F.

Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song, Y. W. Zheng, and B. S. Luk’yanchuk, “Laser writing of a subwavelength structure on silicon (100) surfaces with particle-enhanced optical irradiation,” JETP Lett.72(9), 457–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luk’Yanchuk, B. S.

B. S. Luk’Yanchuk, Z. B. Wang, W. D. Song, and M. H. Hong, “Particle on surface: 3D-effects in dry laser cleaning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4-6), 747–751 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song, Y. W. Zheng, and B. S. Luk’yanchuk, “Laser writing of a subwavelength structure on silicon (100) surfaces with particle-enhanced optical irradiation,” JETP Lett.72(9), 457–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luk'yanchuk, B.

Z. B. Wang, W. Guo, B. Luk'yanchuk, D. J. Whitehead, L. Li, and Z. Liu, “Optical near-field interaction between neighbouring micro/nano-particles,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoengin.3, 14–18 (2008).

Mauclair, C.

Memis, O. G.

W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mironov, V. A.

R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, V. A. Mironov, E. V. Suvorov, D. A. Fadeev, and B. V. Shishkin, “Generation of terahertz radiation by the optical breakdown induced by a bichromatic laser pulse,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.109(3), 370–378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mishchik, K.

Mohseni, H.

W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mosbacher, M.

H. J. Münzer, M. Mosbacher, M. Bertsch, J. Zimmermann, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Local field enhancement effects for nanostructuring of surfaces,” J. Microsc.202(1), 129–135 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Münzer, H. J.

H. J. Münzer, M. Mosbacher, M. Bertsch, J. Zimmermann, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Local field enhancement effects for nanostructuring of surfaces,” J. Microsc.202(1), 129–135 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Otto, D.

L. Englert, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe, D. Otto, and T. Baumert, “Morphology of nanoscale structures on fused silica surfaces from interaction with temporally tailored femtosecond pulses,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pikulin, A.

A. Pikulin, A. Afanasiev, N. Agareva, A. P. Alexandrov, V. Bredikhin, and N. Bityurin, “Effects of spherical mode coupling on near-field focusing by clusters of dielectric microspheres,” Opt. Express20(8), 9052–9057 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, G. Langer, D. Brodoceanu, and D. Bäuerle, “Hexagonal structures on metal-coated two-dimensional microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(19), 191106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rethfeld, B.

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sarpe, C.

L. Englert, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe, D. Otto, and T. Baumert, “Morphology of nanoscale structures on fused silica surfaces from interaction with temporally tailored femtosecond pulses,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sarpe-Tudoran, C.

Sheikh, M. A.

A. Khan, Z. B. Wang, M. A. Sheikh, D. J. Whitehead, and L. Li, “Laser micro/nano patterning of hydrophobic surface by contact particle lens array,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(2), 774–779 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L. P.

T. C. Chong, M. H. Hong, and L. P. Shi, “Laser precision engineering: from microfabrication to nanoprocessing,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(1), 123–143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shishkin, B. V.

R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, V. A. Mironov, E. V. Suvorov, D. A. Fadeev, and B. V. Shishkin, “Generation of terahertz radiation by the optical breakdown induced by a bichromatic laser pulse,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.109(3), 370–378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, W. D.

B. S. Luk’Yanchuk, Z. B. Wang, W. D. Song, and M. H. Hong, “Particle on surface: 3D-effects in dry laser cleaning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4-6), 747–751 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song, Y. W. Zheng, and B. S. Luk’yanchuk, “Laser writing of a subwavelength structure on silicon (100) surfaces with particle-enhanced optical irradiation,” JETP Lett.72(9), 457–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

Suvorov, E. V.

R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, V. A. Mironov, E. V. Suvorov, D. A. Fadeev, and B. V. Shishkin, “Generation of terahertz radiation by the optical breakdown induced by a bichromatic laser pulse,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.109(3), 370–378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchimori, M.

H. Hasegawa, T. Ikawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, and Y. Kawata, “Topographical nanostructure patterning on the surface of a thin film of polyurethane containing azobezene moiety using the optical near field around polystyrene spheres,” Macromolecules34(21), 7471–7476 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. B.

A. Khan, Z. B. Wang, M. A. Sheikh, D. J. Whitehead, and L. Li, “Laser micro/nano patterning of hydrophobic surface by contact particle lens array,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(2), 774–779 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Wang, W. Guo, B. Luk'yanchuk, D. J. Whitehead, L. Li, and Z. Liu, “Optical near-field interaction between neighbouring micro/nano-particles,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoengin.3, 14–18 (2008).

B. S. Luk’Yanchuk, Z. B. Wang, W. D. Song, and M. H. Hong, “Particle on surface: 3D-effects in dry laser cleaning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4-6), 747–751 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, O.

H. Hasegawa, T. Ikawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, and Y. Kawata, “Topographical nanostructure patterning on the surface of a thin film of polyurethane containing azobezene moiety using the optical near field around polystyrene spheres,” Macromolecules34(21), 7471–7476 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, D. J.

A. Khan, Z. B. Wang, M. A. Sheikh, D. J. Whitehead, and L. Li, “Laser micro/nano patterning of hydrophobic surface by contact particle lens array,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(2), 774–779 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Wang, W. Guo, B. Luk'yanchuk, D. J. Whitehead, L. Li, and Z. Liu, “Optical near-field interaction between neighbouring micro/nano-particles,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoengin.3, 14–18 (2008).

Wollenhaupt, M.

L. Englert, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe, D. Otto, and T. Baumert, “Morphology of nanoscale structures on fused silica surfaces from interaction with temporally tailored femtosecond pulses,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Englert, B. Rethfeld, L. Haag, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Control of ionization processes in high band gap materials via tailored femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express15(26), 17855–17862 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, W.

W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zamfirescu, M.

Zheng, Y. W.

Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song, Y. W. Zheng, and B. S. Luk’yanchuk, “Laser writing of a subwavelength structure on silicon (100) surfaces with particle-enhanced optical irradiation,” JETP Lett.72(9), 457–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, J.

H. J. Münzer, M. Mosbacher, M. Bertsch, J. Zimmermann, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Local field enhancement effects for nanostructuring of surfaces,” J. Microsc.202(1), 129–135 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Langer, D. Brodoceanu, and D. Bäuerle, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of apertures on two-dimensional microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(26), 261104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, G. Langer, D. Brodoceanu, and D. Bäuerle, “Hexagonal structures on metal-coated two-dimensional microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(19), 191106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

N. Arnold, “Influence of the substrate, metal overlayer and lattice neighbors on the focusing properties of colloidal microspheres,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.92(4), 1005–1012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Luk’Yanchuk, Z. B. Wang, W. D. Song, and M. H. Hong, “Particle on surface: 3D-effects in dry laser cleaning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4-6), 747–751 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

A. Khan, Z. B. Wang, M. A. Sheikh, D. J. Whitehead, and L. Li, “Laser micro/nano patterning of hydrophobic surface by contact particle lens array,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(2), 774–779 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Bityurin, “Model for laser swelling of a polymer film,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(24), 9851–9855 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

N. Bityurin and A. Kuznetsov, “Use of harmonics for femtosecond micromashining in pure dielectrics,” J. Appl. Phys.93(3), 1567–1576 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Theor. Phys.

R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, V. A. Mironov, E. V. Suvorov, D. A. Fadeev, and B. V. Shishkin, “Generation of terahertz radiation by the optical breakdown induced by a bichromatic laser pulse,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.109(3), 370–378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Appl.

L. Englert, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe, D. Otto, and T. Baumert, “Morphology of nanoscale structures on fused silica surfaces from interaction with temporally tailored femtosecond pulses,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Micro/Nanoengin.

Z. B. Wang, W. Guo, B. Luk'yanchuk, D. J. Whitehead, L. Li, and Z. Liu, “Optical near-field interaction between neighbouring micro/nano-particles,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoengin.3, 14–18 (2008).

J. Microsc.

H. J. Münzer, M. Mosbacher, M. Bertsch, J. Zimmermann, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Local field enhancement effects for nanostructuring of surfaces,” J. Microsc.202(1), 129–135 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

JETP Lett.

Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song, Y. W. Zheng, and B. S. Luk’yanchuk, “Laser writing of a subwavelength structure on silicon (100) surfaces with particle-enhanced optical irradiation,” JETP Lett.72(9), 457–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

T. C. Chong, M. H. Hong, and L. P. Shi, “Laser precision engineering: from microfabrication to nanoprocessing,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(1), 123–143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

H. Hasegawa, T. Ikawa, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, and Y. Kawata, “Topographical nanostructure patterning on the surface of a thin film of polyurethane containing azobezene moiety using the optical near field around polystyrene spheres,” Macromolecules34(21), 7471–7476 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Sov. Phys. JETP

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Other

N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov, Atoms in Strong Light Fields (Springer–Verlag, 1985).

B. Luk’anchuk, ed., Laser Cleaning (World Scientific, 2002).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical AFM picture of obtained structures on the surface of PMMA (a) and glass (b) substrate after irradiation by FF + SH.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Profiles of the ablation pits on PMMA (a) and the swelling hillocks on glass (b) after the irradiation by either FF or SH + FF. The SH + FF diagram (b) is multiplied by 10. Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the structures is indicated. Statistics (c) of FWHM of ablation craters on PMMA for the minimal sufficient energies of laser pulses. 20 surface profiles are averaged for calculating the standard deviations for each of the cases: FF, FF + SH, and SH.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized longitudinal ionization rate distribution within the substrate (glass) just below the sphere (polystyrene, d = 1μm). The blue curve shows SH (two-photon ionization) and the red curve, FF (four-photon ionization). a) The sphere is surrounded by 18 neighbors; b) single sphere.

Equations (1)

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W ω ( I ω / I a ) K ω and W 2ω ( I 2ω / I a ) K ω /2 ,

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