Abstract

The presence of lipids in atherosclerotic coronary lesions is an important determinant of their potential to trigger acute coronary events. Spectroscopic intravascular photoacoustic imaging (sIVPA) has the potential to automatically detect lipids in atherosclerotic lesions. For real-time in vivo imaging, limiting the number of excitation wavelengths is crucial. We explored methods for plaque lipid detection using sIVPA, with the aim to minimize the number of laser pulses per image line. A combined intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and photoacoustic imaging system was used to image a vessel phantom and human coronary arteries ex vivo. We acquired co-registered cross-sectional images at several wavelengths near 1200 nm, a lipid-specific absorption band. Correlating the photoacoustic spectra at 6 or 3 wavelengths from 1185 to 1235 nm with the absorption spectrum of cholesterol and peri-adventitial tissue, we could detect and differentiate the lipids in the atherosclerotic plaque and peri-adventitial lipids, respectively. With two wavelengths, both plaque and peri-adventitial lipids were detected but could not be distinguished.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control.,” (World Health Organization, Geneva, 2011).
  2. E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, “Coronary Plaque Disruption,” Circulation92(3), 657–671 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J.25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, “Lessons from sudden coronary death: A comprehensive morphological classification scheme for atherosclerotic lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.20(5), 1262–1275 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. D. Richardson, M. J. Davies, and G. V. Born, “Influence of plaque configuration and stress distribution on fissuring of coronary atherosclerotic plaques,” Lancet334(8669), 941–944 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, “Relation of Plaque Lipid Composition and Morphology to the Stability of Human Aortic Plaques,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.17(7), 1337–1345 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. L. Korte, A. F. W. Steen, E. I. Cépedes, G. Pasterkamp, S. G. Carlier, F. Mastik, A. H. Schoneveld, P. W. Serruys, and N. Bom, “Characterization of plaque components and vulnerability with intravascular ultrasound elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1465–1475 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Nair, B. D. Kuban, E. M. Tuzcu, P. Schoenhagen, S. E. Nissen, and D. G. Vince, “Coronary plaque classification with intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency data analysis,” Circulation106(17), 2200–2206 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Thim, M. K. Hagensen, D. Wallace-Bradley, J. F. Granada, G. L. Kaluza, L. Drouet, W. P. Paaske, H. E. Bøtker, and E. Falk, “Unreliable assessment of necrotic core by Virtual Histology intravascular ultrasound in porcine coronary artery disease,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging3(4), 384–391 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. F. Granada, D. Wallace-Bradley, H. K. Win, C. L. Alviar, A. Builes, E. I. Lev, R. Barrios, D. G. Schulz, A. E. Raizner, and G. L. Kaluza, “In vivo plaque characterization using intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology in a porcine model of complex coronary lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.27(2), 387–393 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. S. Shin, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, J. M. Ligthart, K. Witberg, C. Schultz, A. F. van der Steen, and P. W. Serruys, “In vivo findings of tissue characteristics using iMap™ IVUS and Virtual Histology™ IVUS,” EuroIntervention6(8), 1017–1019 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. M. Gardner, J. Lisauskas, E. L. Hull, H. Tan, S. Sum, T. Meese, C. Jiang, S. Madden, J. Caplan, and J. E. Muller, “A catheter-based near-infrared scanning spectroscopy system for imaging lipid-rich plaques in human coronary arteries in vivo,” Proc. SPIE67650, 67650G, 67650G-8 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, “First use in patients of a combined near infra-red spectroscopy and intra-vascular ultrasound catheter to identify composition and structure of coronary plaque,” EuroIntervention5(6), 755–756 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Razansky, C. Vinegoni, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral photoacoustic imaging of fluorochromes in small animals,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2891–2893 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol.52(1), 141–168 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. Jansen, A. F. W. van der Steen, H. M. M. van Beusekom, J. W. Oosterhuis, and G. van Soest, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerosis,” Opt. Lett.36(5), 597–599 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. J. Allen, A. Hall, A. P. Dhillon, J. S. Owen, and P. C. Beard, “Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipid-rich plaques in the human aorta in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 061209–061210 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(23), 238106 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. Jansen, G. Springeling, C. Lancee, R. Beurskens, F. Mastik, A. F. W. van der Steen, and G. van Soest, “An intravascular photoacoustic imaging catheter,” in International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), 2010 IEEE, 2010), 378–381.
  22. Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(3), 668–675 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, “Near-infrared absorption property of biological soft tissue constituents,” J. Med. Biol. Eng.21, 7–14 (2001).
  24. B. Lundberg, “Chemical composition and physical state of lipid deposits in atherosclerosis,” Atherosclerosis56(1), 93–110 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet4(3), 232–242 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. Wang, P. Wang, H.-W. Wang, and J.-X. Cheng, “Mapping lipid and collagen by multispectral photoacoustic imaging of chemical bond vibration,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(9), 096010 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. Glatz, N. C. Deliolanis, A. Buehler, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, “Blind source unmixing in multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography,” Opt. Express19(4), 3175–3184 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Allen, A. Hall, A. P. Dhillon, J. S. Owen, and P. C. Beard, “Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipid-rich plaques in the human aorta in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 061209–061210 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wang, P. Wang, H.-W. Wang, and J.-X. Cheng, “Mapping lipid and collagen by multispectral photoacoustic imaging of chemical bond vibration,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(9), 096010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

J. Glatz, N. C. Deliolanis, A. Buehler, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, “Blind source unmixing in multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography,” Opt. Express19(4), 3175–3184 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jansen, A. F. W. van der Steen, H. M. M. van Beusekom, J. W. Oosterhuis, and G. van Soest, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerosis,” Opt. Lett.36(5), 597–599 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(23), 238106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Shin, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, J. M. Ligthart, K. Witberg, C. Schultz, A. F. van der Steen, and P. W. Serruys, “In vivo findings of tissue characteristics using iMap™ IVUS and Virtual Histology™ IVUS,” EuroIntervention6(8), 1017–1019 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, “First use in patients of a combined near infra-red spectroscopy and intra-vascular ultrasound catheter to identify composition and structure of coronary plaque,” EuroIntervention5(6), 755–756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Thim, M. K. Hagensen, D. Wallace-Bradley, J. F. Granada, G. L. Kaluza, L. Drouet, W. P. Paaske, H. E. Bøtker, and E. Falk, “Unreliable assessment of necrotic core by Virtual Histology intravascular ultrasound in porcine coronary artery disease,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging3(4), 384–391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

D. Razansky, C. Vinegoni, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral photoacoustic imaging of fluorochromes in small animals,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2891–2893 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol.52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Gardner, J. Lisauskas, E. L. Hull, H. Tan, S. Sum, T. Meese, C. Jiang, S. Madden, J. Caplan, and J. E. Muller, “A catheter-based near-infrared scanning spectroscopy system for imaging lipid-rich plaques in human coronary arteries in vivo,” Proc. SPIE67650, 67650G, 67650G-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. F. Granada, D. Wallace-Bradley, H. K. Win, C. L. Alviar, A. Builes, E. I. Lev, R. Barrios, D. G. Schulz, A. E. Raizner, and G. L. Kaluza, “In vivo plaque characterization using intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology in a porcine model of complex coronary lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.27(2), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J.25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Nair, B. D. Kuban, E. M. Tuzcu, P. Schoenhagen, S. E. Nissen, and D. G. Vince, “Coronary plaque classification with intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency data analysis,” Circulation106(17), 2200–2206 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, “Near-infrared absorption property of biological soft tissue constituents,” J. Med. Biol. Eng.21, 7–14 (2001).

2000 (2)

C. L. Korte, A. F. W. Steen, E. I. Cépedes, G. Pasterkamp, S. G. Carlier, F. Mastik, A. H. Schoneveld, P. W. Serruys, and N. Bom, “Characterization of plaque components and vulnerability with intravascular ultrasound elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1465–1475 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, “Lessons from sudden coronary death: A comprehensive morphological classification scheme for atherosclerotic lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.20(5), 1262–1275 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, “Relation of Plaque Lipid Composition and Morphology to the Stability of Human Aortic Plaques,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.17(7), 1337–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, “Coronary Plaque Disruption,” Circulation92(3), 657–671 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

P. D. Richardson, M. J. Davies, and G. V. Born, “Influence of plaque configuration and stress distribution on fissuring of coronary atherosclerotic plaques,” Lancet334(8669), 941–944 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

B. Lundberg, “Chemical composition and physical state of lipid deposits in atherosclerosis,” Atherosclerosis56(1), 93–110 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, M.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, T. J.

T. J. Allen, A. Hall, A. P. Dhillon, J. S. Owen, and P. C. Beard, “Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipid-rich plaques in the human aorta in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 061209–061210 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alviar, C. L.

J. F. Granada, D. Wallace-Bradley, H. K. Win, C. L. Alviar, A. Builes, E. I. Lev, R. Barrios, D. G. Schulz, A. E. Raizner, and G. L. Kaluza, “In vivo plaque characterization using intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology in a porcine model of complex coronary lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.27(2), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ameri, H.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amirian, J.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, R.

J. F. Granada, D. Wallace-Bradley, H. K. Win, C. L. Alviar, A. Builes, E. I. Lev, R. Barrios, D. G. Schulz, A. E. Raizner, and G. L. Kaluza, “In vivo plaque characterization using intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology in a porcine model of complex coronary lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.27(2), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumert, M.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beard, P.

J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol.52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beard, P. C.

T. J. Allen, A. Hall, A. P. Dhillon, J. S. Owen, and P. C. Beard, “Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipid-rich plaques in the human aorta in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 061209–061210 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bom, N.

C. L. Korte, A. F. W. Steen, E. I. Cépedes, G. Pasterkamp, S. G. Carlier, F. Mastik, A. H. Schoneveld, P. W. Serruys, and N. Bom, “Characterization of plaque components and vulnerability with intravascular ultrasound elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1465–1475 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, G. V.

P. D. Richardson, M. J. Davies, and G. V. Born, “Influence of plaque configuration and stress distribution on fissuring of coronary atherosclerotic plaques,” Lancet334(8669), 941–944 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bøtker, H. E.

T. Thim, M. K. Hagensen, D. Wallace-Bradley, J. F. Granada, G. L. Kaluza, L. Drouet, W. P. Paaske, H. E. Bøtker, and E. Falk, “Unreliable assessment of necrotic core by Virtual Histology intravascular ultrasound in porcine coronary artery disease,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging3(4), 384–391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buehler, A.

Builes, A.

J. F. Granada, D. Wallace-Bradley, H. K. Win, C. L. Alviar, A. Builes, E. I. Lev, R. Barrios, D. G. Schulz, A. E. Raizner, and G. L. Kaluza, “In vivo plaque characterization using intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology in a porcine model of complex coronary lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.27(2), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burke, A. P.

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, “Lessons from sudden coronary death: A comprehensive morphological classification scheme for atherosclerotic lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.20(5), 1262–1275 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cannata, J. M.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caplan, J.

C. M. Gardner, J. Lisauskas, E. L. Hull, H. Tan, S. Sum, T. Meese, C. Jiang, S. Madden, J. Caplan, and J. E. Muller, “A catheter-based near-infrared scanning spectroscopy system for imaging lipid-rich plaques in human coronary arteries in vivo,” Proc. SPIE67650, 67650G, 67650G-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carlier, S. G.

C. L. Korte, A. F. W. Steen, E. I. Cépedes, G. Pasterkamp, S. G. Carlier, F. Mastik, A. H. Schoneveld, P. W. Serruys, and N. Bom, “Characterization of plaque components and vulnerability with intravascular ultrasound elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1465–1475 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cépedes, E. I.

C. L. Korte, A. F. W. Steen, E. I. Cépedes, G. Pasterkamp, S. G. Carlier, F. Mastik, A. H. Schoneveld, P. W. Serruys, and N. Bom, “Characterization of plaque components and vulnerability with intravascular ultrasound elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1465–1475 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chai, N.

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(23), 238106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. C.

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, “Near-infrared absorption property of biological soft tissue constituents,” J. Med. Biol. Eng.21, 7–14 (2001).

Cheng, J. X.

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(23), 238106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.-X.

P. Wang, P. Wang, H.-W. Wang, and J.-X. Cheng, “Mapping lipid and collagen by multispectral photoacoustic imaging of chemical bond vibration,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(9), 096010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombo, A.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J.25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crook, D.

C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, “Relation of Plaque Lipid Composition and Morphology to the Stability of Human Aortic Plaques,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.17(7), 1337–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, A. H.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, M. J.

C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, “Relation of Plaque Lipid Composition and Morphology to the Stability of Human Aortic Plaques,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.17(7), 1337–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Richardson, M. J. Davies, and G. V. Born, “Influence of plaque configuration and stress distribution on fissuring of coronary atherosclerotic plaques,” Lancet334(8669), 941–944 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deliolanis, N. C.

Delpy, D.

J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol.52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhillon, A. P.

T. J. Allen, A. Hall, A. P. Dhillon, J. S. Owen, and P. C. Beard, “Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipid-rich plaques in the human aorta in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 061209–061210 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Didangelos, A.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dou, W.

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(23), 238106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drouet, L.

T. Thim, M. K. Hagensen, D. Wallace-Bradley, J. F. Granada, G. L. Kaluza, L. Drouet, W. P. Paaske, H. E. Bøtker, and E. Falk, “Unreliable assessment of necrotic core by Virtual Histology intravascular ultrasound in porcine coronary artery disease,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging3(4), 384–391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drozdov, I.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elwell, C.

J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol.52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falk, E.

T. Thim, M. K. Hagensen, D. Wallace-Bradley, J. F. Granada, G. L. Kaluza, L. Drouet, W. P. Paaske, H. E. Bøtker, and E. Falk, “Unreliable assessment of necrotic core by Virtual Histology intravascular ultrasound in porcine coronary artery disease,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging3(4), 384–391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J.25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, “Coronary Plaque Disruption,” Circulation92(3), 657–671 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farb, A.

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, “Lessons from sudden coronary death: A comprehensive morphological classification scheme for atherosclerotic lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.20(5), 1262–1275 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Felton, C. V.

C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, “Relation of Plaque Lipid Composition and Morphology to the Stability of Human Aortic Plaques,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.17(7), 1337–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuster, V.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J.25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, “Coronary Plaque Disruption,” Circulation92(3), 657–671 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Garcia, H. M.

E. S. Shin, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, J. M. Ligthart, K. Witberg, C. Schultz, A. F. van der Steen, and P. W. Serruys, “In vivo findings of tissue characteristics using iMap™ IVUS and Virtual Histology™ IVUS,” EuroIntervention6(8), 1017–1019 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardner, C. M.

C. M. Gardner, J. Lisauskas, E. L. Hull, H. Tan, S. Sum, T. Meese, C. Jiang, S. Madden, J. Caplan, and J. E. Muller, “A catheter-based near-infrared scanning spectroscopy system for imaging lipid-rich plaques in human coronary arteries in vivo,” Proc. SPIE67650, 67650G, 67650G-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garg, S.

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, “First use in patients of a combined near infra-red spectroscopy and intra-vascular ultrasound catheter to identify composition and structure of coronary plaque,” EuroIntervention5(6), 755–756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glatz, J.

Goderie, T.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalo, N.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gottlieb, E. J.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Granada, J. F.

T. Thim, M. K. Hagensen, D. Wallace-Bradley, J. F. Granada, G. L. Kaluza, L. Drouet, W. P. Paaske, H. E. Bøtker, and E. Falk, “Unreliable assessment of necrotic core by Virtual Histology intravascular ultrasound in porcine coronary artery disease,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging3(4), 384–391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Granada, D. Wallace-Bradley, H. K. Win, C. L. Alviar, A. Builes, E. I. Lev, R. Barrios, D. G. Schulz, A. E. Raizner, and G. L. Kaluza, “In vivo plaque characterization using intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology in a porcine model of complex coronary lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.27(2), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagensen, M. K.

T. Thim, M. K. Hagensen, D. Wallace-Bradley, J. F. Granada, G. L. Kaluza, L. Drouet, W. P. Paaske, H. E. Bøtker, and E. Falk, “Unreliable assessment of necrotic core by Virtual Histology intravascular ultrasound in porcine coronary artery disease,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging3(4), 384–391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, A.

T. J. Allen, A. Hall, A. P. Dhillon, J. S. Owen, and P. C. Beard, “Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipid-rich plaques in the human aorta in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 061209–061210 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, P.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(23), 238106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hull, E. L.

C. M. Gardner, J. Lisauskas, E. L. Hull, H. Tan, S. Sum, T. Meese, C. Jiang, S. Madden, J. Caplan, and J. E. Muller, “A catheter-based near-infrared scanning spectroscopy system for imaging lipid-rich plaques in human coronary arteries in vivo,” Proc. SPIE67650, 67650G, 67650G-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Humayun, M. S.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Humphries, J.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jansen, K.

Jiang, C.

C. M. Gardner, J. Lisauskas, E. L. Hull, H. Tan, S. Sum, T. Meese, C. Jiang, S. Madden, J. Caplan, and J. E. Muller, “A catheter-based near-infrared scanning spectroscopy system for imaging lipid-rich plaques in human coronary arteries in vivo,” Proc. SPIE67650, 67650G, 67650G-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaluza, G. L.

T. Thim, M. K. Hagensen, D. Wallace-Bradley, J. F. Granada, G. L. Kaluza, L. Drouet, W. P. Paaske, H. E. Bøtker, and E. Falk, “Unreliable assessment of necrotic core by Virtual Histology intravascular ultrasound in porcine coronary artery disease,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging3(4), 384–391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Granada, D. Wallace-Bradley, H. K. Win, C. L. Alviar, A. Builes, E. I. Lev, R. Barrios, D. G. Schulz, A. E. Raizner, and G. L. Kaluza, “In vivo plaque characterization using intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology in a porcine model of complex coronary lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.27(2), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karpiouk, A.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koljenovic, S.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolodgie, F. D.

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, “Lessons from sudden coronary death: A comprehensive morphological classification scheme for atherosclerotic lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.20(5), 1262–1275 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korte, C. L.

C. L. Korte, A. F. W. Steen, E. I. Cépedes, G. Pasterkamp, S. G. Carlier, F. Mastik, A. H. Schoneveld, P. W. Serruys, and N. Bom, “Characterization of plaque components and vulnerability with intravascular ultrasound elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1465–1475 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuban, B. D.

A. Nair, B. D. Kuban, E. M. Tuzcu, P. Schoenhagen, S. E. Nissen, and D. G. Vince, “Coronary plaque classification with intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency data analysis,” Circulation106(17), 2200–2206 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ladroue, C.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laufer, J.

J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol.52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lev, E. I.

J. F. Granada, D. Wallace-Bradley, H. K. Win, C. L. Alviar, A. Builes, E. I. Lev, R. Barrios, D. G. Schulz, A. E. Raizner, and G. L. Kaluza, “In vivo plaque characterization using intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology in a porcine model of complex coronary lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.27(2), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ligthart, J. M.

E. S. Shin, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, J. M. Ligthart, K. Witberg, C. Schultz, A. F. van der Steen, and P. W. Serruys, “In vivo findings of tissue characteristics using iMap™ IVUS and Virtual Histology™ IVUS,” EuroIntervention6(8), 1017–1019 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lisauskas, J.

C. M. Gardner, J. Lisauskas, E. L. Hull, H. Tan, S. Sum, T. Meese, C. Jiang, S. Madden, J. Caplan, and J. E. Muller, “A catheter-based near-infrared scanning spectroscopy system for imaging lipid-rich plaques in human coronary arteries in vivo,” Proc. SPIE67650, 67650G, 67650G-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Litovsky, S.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucht, R.

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(23), 238106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lundberg, B.

B. Lundberg, “Chemical composition and physical state of lipid deposits in atherosclerosis,” Atherosclerosis56(1), 93–110 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madden, S.

C. M. Gardner, J. Lisauskas, E. L. Hull, H. Tan, S. Sum, T. Meese, C. Jiang, S. Madden, J. Caplan, and J. E. Muller, “A catheter-based near-infrared scanning spectroscopy system for imaging lipid-rich plaques in human coronary arteries in vivo,” Proc. SPIE67650, 67650G, 67650G-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maseri, A.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J.25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mastik, F.

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, “First use in patients of a combined near infra-red spectroscopy and intra-vascular ultrasound catheter to identify composition and structure of coronary plaque,” EuroIntervention5(6), 755–756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Korte, A. F. W. Steen, E. I. Cépedes, G. Pasterkamp, S. G. Carlier, F. Mastik, A. H. Schoneveld, P. W. Serruys, and N. Bom, “Characterization of plaque components and vulnerability with intravascular ultrasound elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1465–1475 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayr, M.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meese, T.

C. M. Gardner, J. Lisauskas, E. L. Hull, H. Tan, S. Sum, T. Meese, C. Jiang, S. Madden, J. Caplan, and J. E. Muller, “A catheter-based near-infrared scanning spectroscopy system for imaging lipid-rich plaques in human coronary arteries in vivo,” Proc. SPIE67650, 67650G, 67650G-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Monaco, C.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, P. R.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J.25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, J. E.

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, “First use in patients of a combined near infra-red spectroscopy and intra-vascular ultrasound catheter to identify composition and structure of coronary plaque,” EuroIntervention5(6), 755–756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Gardner, J. Lisauskas, E. L. Hull, H. Tan, S. Sum, T. Meese, C. Jiang, S. Madden, J. Caplan, and J. E. Muller, “A catheter-based near-infrared scanning spectroscopy system for imaging lipid-rich plaques in human coronary arteries in vivo,” Proc. SPIE67650, 67650G, 67650G-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J.25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nair, A.

A. Nair, B. D. Kuban, E. M. Tuzcu, P. Schoenhagen, S. E. Nissen, and D. G. Vince, “Coronary plaque classification with intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency data analysis,” Circulation106(17), 2200–2206 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nissen, S. E.

A. Nair, B. D. Kuban, E. M. Tuzcu, P. Schoenhagen, S. E. Nissen, and D. G. Vince, “Coronary plaque classification with intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency data analysis,” Circulation106(17), 2200–2206 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

Okamura, T.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oliver, M. F.

C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, “Relation of Plaque Lipid Composition and Morphology to the Stability of Human Aortic Plaques,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.17(7), 1337–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oosterhuis, J. W.

K. Jansen, A. F. W. van der Steen, H. M. M. van Beusekom, J. W. Oosterhuis, and G. van Soest, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerosis,” Opt. Lett.36(5), 597–599 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owen, J. S.

T. J. Allen, A. Hall, A. P. Dhillon, J. S. Owen, and P. C. Beard, “Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipid-rich plaques in the human aorta in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 061209–061210 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paaske, W. P.

T. Thim, M. K. Hagensen, D. Wallace-Bradley, J. F. Granada, G. L. Kaluza, L. Drouet, W. P. Paaske, H. E. Bøtker, and E. Falk, “Unreliable assessment of necrotic core by Virtual Histology intravascular ultrasound in porcine coronary artery disease,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging3(4), 384–391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasterkamp, G.

C. L. Korte, A. F. W. Steen, E. I. Cépedes, G. Pasterkamp, S. G. Carlier, F. Mastik, A. H. Schoneveld, P. W. Serruys, and N. Bom, “Characterization of plaque components and vulnerability with intravascular ultrasound elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1465–1475 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raizner, A. E.

J. F. Granada, D. Wallace-Bradley, H. K. Win, C. L. Alviar, A. Builes, E. I. Lev, R. Barrios, D. G. Schulz, A. E. Raizner, and G. L. Kaluza, “In vivo plaque characterization using intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology in a porcine model of complex coronary lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.27(2), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Razansky, D.

Regar, E.

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, “First use in patients of a combined near infra-red spectroscopy and intra-vascular ultrasound catheter to identify composition and structure of coronary plaque,” EuroIntervention5(6), 755–756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, P. D.

P. D. Richardson, M. J. Davies, and G. V. Born, “Influence of plaque configuration and stress distribution on fissuring of coronary atherosclerotic plaques,” Lancet334(8669), 941–944 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaar, J. A.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J.25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoenhagen, P.

A. Nair, B. D. Kuban, E. M. Tuzcu, P. Schoenhagen, S. E. Nissen, and D. G. Vince, “Coronary plaque classification with intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency data analysis,” Circulation106(17), 2200–2206 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoneveld, A. H.

C. L. Korte, A. F. W. Steen, E. I. Cépedes, G. Pasterkamp, S. G. Carlier, F. Mastik, A. H. Schoneveld, P. W. Serruys, and N. Bom, “Characterization of plaque components and vulnerability with intravascular ultrasound elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1465–1475 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, C.

E. S. Shin, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, J. M. Ligthart, K. Witberg, C. Schultz, A. F. van der Steen, and P. W. Serruys, “In vivo findings of tissue characteristics using iMap™ IVUS and Virtual Histology™ IVUS,” EuroIntervention6(8), 1017–1019 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, “First use in patients of a combined near infra-red spectroscopy and intra-vascular ultrasound catheter to identify composition and structure of coronary plaque,” EuroIntervention5(6), 755–756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, D. G.

J. F. Granada, D. Wallace-Bradley, H. K. Win, C. L. Alviar, A. Builes, E. I. Lev, R. Barrios, D. G. Schulz, A. E. Raizner, and G. L. Kaluza, “In vivo plaque characterization using intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology in a porcine model of complex coronary lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.27(2), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, S. M.

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, “Lessons from sudden coronary death: A comprehensive morphological classification scheme for atherosclerotic lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.20(5), 1262–1275 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serruys, P. W.

E. S. Shin, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, J. M. Ligthart, K. Witberg, C. Schultz, A. F. van der Steen, and P. W. Serruys, “In vivo findings of tissue characteristics using iMap™ IVUS and Virtual Histology™ IVUS,” EuroIntervention6(8), 1017–1019 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, “First use in patients of a combined near infra-red spectroscopy and intra-vascular ultrasound catheter to identify composition and structure of coronary plaque,” EuroIntervention5(6), 755–756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J.25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Korte, A. F. W. Steen, E. I. Cépedes, G. Pasterkamp, S. G. Carlier, F. Mastik, A. H. Schoneveld, P. W. Serruys, and N. Bom, “Characterization of plaque components and vulnerability with intravascular ultrasound elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1465–1475 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, P. K.

E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, “Coronary Plaque Disruption,” Circulation92(3), 657–671 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalhoub, J.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, E. S.

E. S. Shin, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, J. M. Ligthart, K. Witberg, C. Schultz, A. F. van der Steen, and P. W. Serruys, “In vivo findings of tissue characteristics using iMap™ IVUS and Virtual Histology™ IVUS,” EuroIntervention6(8), 1017–1019 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shung, K. K.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smalling, R.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, A.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steen, A. F. W.

C. L. Korte, A. F. W. Steen, E. I. Cépedes, G. Pasterkamp, S. G. Carlier, F. Mastik, A. H. Schoneveld, P. W. Serruys, and N. Bom, “Characterization of plaque components and vulnerability with intravascular ultrasound elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1465–1475 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stefanadis, C.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J.25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegemann, C.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sturek, M.

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(23), 238106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sum, S.

C. M. Gardner, J. Lisauskas, E. L. Hull, H. Tan, S. Sum, T. Meese, C. Jiang, S. Madden, J. Caplan, and J. E. Muller, “A catheter-based near-infrared scanning spectroscopy system for imaging lipid-rich plaques in human coronary arteries in vivo,” Proc. SPIE67650, 67650G, 67650G-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, H.

C. M. Gardner, J. Lisauskas, E. L. Hull, H. Tan, S. Sum, T. Meese, C. Jiang, S. Madden, J. Caplan, and J. E. Muller, “A catheter-based near-infrared scanning spectroscopy system for imaging lipid-rich plaques in human coronary arteries in vivo,” Proc. SPIE67650, 67650G, 67650G-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thim, T.

T. Thim, M. K. Hagensen, D. Wallace-Bradley, J. F. Granada, G. L. Kaluza, L. Drouet, W. P. Paaske, H. E. Bøtker, and E. Falk, “Unreliable assessment of necrotic core by Virtual Histology intravascular ultrasound in porcine coronary artery disease,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging3(4), 384–391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, C. L.

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, “Near-infrared absorption property of biological soft tissue constituents,” J. Med. Biol. Eng.21, 7–14 (2001).

Tuzcu, E. M.

A. Nair, B. D. Kuban, E. M. Tuzcu, P. Schoenhagen, S. E. Nissen, and D. G. Vince, “Coronary plaque classification with intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency data analysis,” Circulation106(17), 2200–2206 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umulis, D.

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(23), 238106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Beusekom, H. M. M.

van der Ent, M.

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, “First use in patients of a combined near infra-red spectroscopy and intra-vascular ultrasound catheter to identify composition and structure of coronary plaque,” EuroIntervention5(6), 755–756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Steen, A. F.

E. S. Shin, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, J. M. Ligthart, K. Witberg, C. Schultz, A. F. van der Steen, and P. W. Serruys, “In vivo findings of tissue characteristics using iMap™ IVUS and Virtual Histology™ IVUS,” EuroIntervention6(8), 1017–1019 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, “First use in patients of a combined near infra-red spectroscopy and intra-vascular ultrasound catheter to identify composition and structure of coronary plaque,” EuroIntervention5(6), 755–756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Steen, A. F. W.

K. Jansen, A. F. W. van der Steen, H. M. M. van Beusekom, J. W. Oosterhuis, and G. van Soest, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerosis,” Opt. Lett.36(5), 597–599 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J.25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leenders, G. L. J. H.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Noorden, S.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Soest, G.

K. Jansen, A. F. W. van der Steen, H. M. M. van Beusekom, J. W. Oosterhuis, and G. van Soest, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerosis,” Opt. Lett.36(5), 597–599 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, “First use in patients of a combined near infra-red spectroscopy and intra-vascular ultrasound catheter to identify composition and structure of coronary plaque,” EuroIntervention5(6), 755–756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vince, D. G.

A. Nair, B. D. Kuban, E. M. Tuzcu, P. Schoenhagen, S. E. Nissen, and D. G. Vince, “Coronary plaque classification with intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency data analysis,” Circulation106(17), 2200–2206 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinegoni, C.

Virmani, R.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J.25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, “Lessons from sudden coronary death: A comprehensive morphological classification scheme for atherosclerotic lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.20(5), 1262–1275 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace-Bradley, D.

T. Thim, M. K. Hagensen, D. Wallace-Bradley, J. F. Granada, G. L. Kaluza, L. Drouet, W. P. Paaske, H. E. Bøtker, and E. Falk, “Unreliable assessment of necrotic core by Virtual Histology intravascular ultrasound in porcine coronary artery disease,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging3(4), 384–391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Granada, D. Wallace-Bradley, H. K. Win, C. L. Alviar, A. Builes, E. I. Lev, R. Barrios, D. G. Schulz, A. E. Raizner, and G. L. Kaluza, “In vivo plaque characterization using intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology in a porcine model of complex coronary lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.27(2), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. W.

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(23), 238106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.-W.

P. Wang, P. Wang, H.-W. Wang, and J.-X. Cheng, “Mapping lipid and collagen by multispectral photoacoustic imaging of chemical bond vibration,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(9), 096010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(23), 238106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, P.

P. Wang, P. Wang, H.-W. Wang, and J.-X. Cheng, “Mapping lipid and collagen by multispectral photoacoustic imaging of chemical bond vibration,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(9), 096010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wang, P. Wang, H.-W. Wang, and J.-X. Cheng, “Mapping lipid and collagen by multispectral photoacoustic imaging of chemical bond vibration,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(9), 096010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(23), 238106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W. J.

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, “Near-infrared absorption property of biological soft tissue constituents,” J. Med. Biol. Eng.21, 7–14 (2001).

Ward Casscells, S.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J.25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilder, M. A.

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, “First use in patients of a combined near infra-red spectroscopy and intra-vascular ultrasound catheter to identify composition and structure of coronary plaque,” EuroIntervention5(6), 755–756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Win, H. K.

J. F. Granada, D. Wallace-Bradley, H. K. Win, C. L. Alviar, A. Builes, E. I. Lev, R. Barrios, D. G. Schulz, A. E. Raizner, and G. L. Kaluza, “In vivo plaque characterization using intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology in a porcine model of complex coronary lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.27(2), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witberg, K.

E. S. Shin, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, J. M. Ligthart, K. Witberg, C. Schultz, A. F. van der Steen, and P. W. Serruys, “In vivo findings of tissue characteristics using iMap™ IVUS and Virtual Histology™ IVUS,” EuroIntervention6(8), 1017–1019 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeager, D.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (3)

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, “Lessons from sudden coronary death: A comprehensive morphological classification scheme for atherosclerotic lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.20(5), 1262–1275 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, “Relation of Plaque Lipid Composition and Morphology to the Stability of Human Aortic Plaques,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.17(7), 1337–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Granada, D. Wallace-Bradley, H. K. Win, C. L. Alviar, A. Builes, E. I. Lev, R. Barrios, D. G. Schulz, A. E. Raizner, and G. L. Kaluza, “In vivo plaque characterization using intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology in a porcine model of complex coronary lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.27(2), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atherosclerosis (1)

B. Lundberg, “Chemical composition and physical state of lipid deposits in atherosclerosis,” Atherosclerosis56(1), 93–110 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circ Cardiovasc Genet (1)

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging (1)

T. Thim, M. K. Hagensen, D. Wallace-Bradley, J. F. Granada, G. L. Kaluza, L. Drouet, W. P. Paaske, H. E. Bøtker, and E. Falk, “Unreliable assessment of necrotic core by Virtual Histology intravascular ultrasound in porcine coronary artery disease,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging3(4), 384–391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circulation (2)

A. Nair, B. D. Kuban, E. M. Tuzcu, P. Schoenhagen, S. E. Nissen, and D. G. Vince, “Coronary plaque classification with intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency data analysis,” Circulation106(17), 2200–2206 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, “Coronary Plaque Disruption,” Circulation92(3), 657–671 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Heart J. (1)

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J.25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

EuroIntervention (2)

E. S. Shin, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, J. M. Ligthart, K. Witberg, C. Schultz, A. F. van der Steen, and P. W. Serruys, “In vivo findings of tissue characteristics using iMap™ IVUS and Virtual Histology™ IVUS,” EuroIntervention6(8), 1017–1019 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, “First use in patients of a combined near infra-red spectroscopy and intra-vascular ultrasound catheter to identify composition and structure of coronary plaque,” EuroIntervention5(6), 755–756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

T. J. Allen, A. Hall, A. P. Dhillon, J. S. Owen, and P. C. Beard, “Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipid-rich plaques in the human aorta in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 061209–061210 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wang, P. Wang, H.-W. Wang, and J.-X. Cheng, “Mapping lipid and collagen by multispectral photoacoustic imaging of chemical bond vibration,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(9), 096010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Med. Biol. Eng. (1)

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, “Near-infrared absorption property of biological soft tissue constituents,” J. Med. Biol. Eng.21, 7–14 (2001).

Lancet (1)

P. D. Richardson, M. J. Davies, and G. V. Born, “Influence of plaque configuration and stress distribution on fissuring of coronary atherosclerotic plaques,” Lancet334(8669), 941–944 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol.52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Korte, A. F. W. Steen, E. I. Cépedes, G. Pasterkamp, S. G. Carlier, F. Mastik, A. H. Schoneveld, P. W. Serruys, and N. Bom, “Characterization of plaque components and vulnerability with intravascular ultrasound elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1465–1475 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(23), 238106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. M. Gardner, J. Lisauskas, E. L. Hull, H. Tan, S. Sum, T. Meese, C. Jiang, S. Madden, J. Caplan, and J. E. Muller, “A catheter-based near-infrared scanning spectroscopy system for imaging lipid-rich plaques in human coronary arteries in vivo,” Proc. SPIE67650, 67650G, 67650G-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control.,” (World Health Organization, Geneva, 2011).

K. Jansen, G. Springeling, C. Lancee, R. Beurskens, F. Mastik, A. F. W. van der Steen, and G. van Soest, “An intravascular photoacoustic imaging catheter,” in International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), 2010 IEEE, 2010), 378–381.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Normalized reference PA spectra of cholesterol, cholesterol linoleate, cholesterol oleate, and peri-adventitial tissue, measured on the pure compounds. (b) Correlation coefficients between the 6 and 3-wavelength PA spectra of the different lipid types. (c) 5th to 95th percentile of the relative difference of 1205 nm and 1235 nm PA signal strength of cholesterol, cholesterol oleate, cholesterol linoleate and peri-adventitial lipids (672, 864, 512 and 372 spectra, respectively). The values for elastin and collagen are taken from literature [23]. c = cholesterol; cl = cholesterol linoleate; co = cholesterol oleate; pl = peri-adventitial lipids.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lipid-detection in a lipid-containing vessel phantom. (a) 1205 nm and (b) 1235 nm combined IVPA/IVUS images (IVPA 50 dB, IVUS 65 dB) of PVA phantom filled with cholesterol (bottom), cholesterol oleate (right), cholesterol linoleate (top) and peri-adventitial tissue (left). (c) Photograph of the phantom (top-view). Lipid map based on 6-wavelength correlation with the cholesterol (d) and peri-adventitial reference spectrum (e). (f) Average IVPA signal spectra in the cholesterol and peri-adventitial tissue areas indicated in (d) and (e), respectively, are highly correlated with their respective reference spectra. Lipid map based on 3-wavelength correlation with the cholesterol (g) and peri-adventitial reference spectrum (h). (i) Lipid map based on 2-wavelength relative difference. All lipid maps are shown overlaid on the corresponding IVUS image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lipid detection in an early stage atherosclerotic human coronary artery. (a) 1205 nm and (b) 1235 nm combined IVPA/IVUS images (IVPA 35 dB, IVUS 40 dB). (c) Lipid histology stain (ORO); lipids are stained red. Lipid map based on 6-wavelength correlation with the cholesterol (d) and peri-adventitial reference spectrum (e). (f) Average IVPA signal strength in the lesion and peri-adventitial areas indicated in (d) and (e), respectively, shows high correlation with the respective reference spectra. Lipid map based on 3-wavelength correlation with the cholesterol (g) and peri-adventitial reference spectrum (h). (i) Lipid map based on 2-wavelength relative difference. All lipid maps are shown overlaid on the corresponding IVUS image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lipid detection in a healthy human coronary artery. (a) Lipid map based on relative difference between PA signal at 1205 and 1235 nm, overlaid on IVUS image (40 dB). (b) Lipid histology stain (ORO). (c) 5 x magnification of a part of the healthy vessel wall and peri-adventitial lipids (area outlined in black in (b)). Both in the lipid map and the lipid stain, lipids are found in the peri-adventitial region only.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Lipid detection in a diseased coronary artery. (a) Lipid map at first imaging location, based on relative difference between PA signal at 1205 and 1235 nm after masking the noise, overlaid on IVUS image (45 dB). (b) Corresponding lipid histology stain (ORO). Lipids are found in the top and bottom plaque areas, as well as in the peri-adventitial region, in correspondence with the lipid stain. 10x magnifications of area c and d are shown in (c) and (d), respectively. (e) Lipid map, created using the same 2-wavelength method, overlaid on 45 dB IVUS image, and (f) lipid histology stain at second imaging location. The lipid map displays all locations with extracellular lipid droplets and cholesterol (areas g, h and i, shown 10x magnified in (g), (h) and (i), respectively) accurately. Peri-adventitial lipids that are located beyond the lesion are obscured.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Lipid detection in a coronary artery with an eccentric atherosclerotic lesion with lipids distributed throughout the plaque. (a) Lipid map based on relative difference between PA signal at 1205 and 1235 nm after masking the noise, overlaid on IVUS image (30 dB). (b) Lipid histology stain (ORO). (c) 10 x magnification of part of the plaque (area outlined in black in (b)). The distributed plaque lipids are displayed in the lipid map as small red marks throughout the lipid containing area.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Threshold Values Rth,x,n and δth

Metrics