Abstract

In this paper we discuss the limits of attenuation of silica hollow core negative curvature fibers in the wavelength range from 800 nm up to 4.5 µm. Both numerical and experimental results are presented and show good agreement. A minimum attenuation of 24.4 dB/km was measured at around 2400 nm wavelength, while 85dB/km was measured at 4000 nm.

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  1. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express12(4), 717–723 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, B. J. Mangan, S. Renshaw, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Delivery of high energy Er:YAG pulsed laser light at 2.94 µm through a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Express20(6), 6677–6684 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, F. Yu, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Flexible delivery of Er:YAG radiation at 2.94 µm with negative curvature silica glass fibers: a new solution for minimally invasive surgical procedures,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(2), 193–205 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. J. Mosley, W. C. Huang, M. G. Welch, B. J. Mangan, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Ultrashort pulse compression and delivery in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber at 540 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35(21), 3589–3591 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Harrington, “A review of IR transmitting, hollow waveguides,” Fiber Integr. Opt.19(3), 211–227 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Vincetti and V. Setti, “Waveguiding mechanism in tube lattice fibers,” Opt. Express18(22), 23133–23146 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, A. F. Kosolapov, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of a waveguide regime for a silica hollow-core microstructured optical fiber with a negative curvature of the core boundary in the spectral region > 3.5 μm,” Opt. Express19(2), 1441–1448 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Low loss silica hollow core fibers for 3-4 μm spectral region,” Opt. Express20(10), 11153–11158 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Anthony, R. Leonhardt, S. G. Leon-Saval, and A. Argyros, “THz propagation in kagome hollow-core microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express19(19), 18470–18478 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. N. Kolyadin, A. F. Kosolapov, A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. M. Dianov, “Light transmission in negative curvature hollow core fiber in extremely high material loss region,” Opt. Express21(8), 9514–9519 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2004) pp.33.
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    [CrossRef]
  21. O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids203, 19–26 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. Harrington, “A review of IR transmitting, hollow waveguides,” Fiber Integr. Opt.19(3), 211–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. S. Rothman, R. L. Hawkins, R. B. Wattson, and R. R. Gamache, “Energy levels, intensities, and linewidths of atmospheric carbon dioxide bands,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.48(5-6), 537–566 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anthony, J.

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Argyros, A.

Astapovich, M. S.

Auguste, J. L.

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biriukov, A. S.

Birks, T. A.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blondy, J. M.

Bouwmans, G.

Churbanov, M. F.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dianov, E. M.

Fabian, H.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. L. Hawkins, R. B. Wattson, and R. R. Gamache, “Energy levels, intensities, and linewidths of atmospheric carbon dioxide bands,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.48(5-6), 537–566 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gérôme, F.

Grzesik, U.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haken, U.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

Harrington, J.

J. Harrington, “A review of IR transmitting, hollow waveguides,” Fiber Integr. Opt.19(3), 211–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, R. L.

L. S. Rothman, R. L. Hawkins, R. B. Wattson, and R. R. Gamache, “Energy levels, intensities, and linewidths of atmospheric carbon dioxide bands,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.48(5-6), 537–566 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, W.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. C.

Humbach, O.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Humbert, G.

Jamier, R.

Jonasz, M.

Jones, J. D. C.

Kitamura, R.

Knight, J. C.

A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, F. Yu, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Flexible delivery of Er:YAG radiation at 2.94 µm with negative curvature silica glass fibers: a new solution for minimally invasive surgical procedures,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(2), 193–205 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Low loss silica hollow core fibers for 3-4 μm spectral region,” Opt. Express20(10), 11153–11158 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, B. J. Mangan, S. Renshaw, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Delivery of high energy Er:YAG pulsed laser light at 2.94 µm through a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Express20(6), 6677–6684 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Mosley, W. C. Huang, M. G. Welch, B. J. Mangan, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Ultrashort pulse compression and delivery in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber at 540 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35(21), 3589–3591 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express12(4), 717–723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolyadin, A. N.

Kosolapov, A. F.

Leonhardt, R.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Maier, R. R. J.

Mangan, B. J.

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Mosley, P. J.

Pilon, L.

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Pryamikov, A. D.

Renshaw, S.

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. L. Hawkins, R. B. Wattson, and R. R. Gamache, “Energy levels, intensities, and linewidths of atmospheric carbon dioxide bands,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.48(5-6), 537–566 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S.

Russell, P. St. J.

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Semjonov, S. L.

Setti, V.

Shephard, J. D.

Shiryaev, V. S.

Snopatin, G. E.

Urich, A.

Vincetti, L.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, R. L. Hawkins, R. B. Wattson, and R. R. Gamache, “Energy levels, intensities, and linewidths of atmospheric carbon dioxide bands,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.48(5-6), 537–566 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Welch, M. G.

Yu, F.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

J. Harrington, “A review of IR transmitting, hollow waveguides,” Fiber Integr. Opt.19(3), 211–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, R. L. Hawkins, R. B. Wattson, and R. R. Gamache, “Energy levels, intensities, and linewidths of atmospheric carbon dioxide bands,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.48(5-6), 537–566 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

A. N. Kolyadin, A. F. Kosolapov, A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. M. Dianov, “Light transmission in negative curvature hollow core fiber in extremely high material loss region,” Opt. Express21(8), 9514–9519 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express12(4), 717–723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vincetti and V. Setti, “Waveguiding mechanism in tube lattice fibers,” Opt. Express18(22), 23133–23146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, A. F. Kosolapov, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of a waveguide regime for a silica hollow-core microstructured optical fiber with a negative curvature of the core boundary in the spectral region > 3.5 μm,” Opt. Express19(2), 1441–1448 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Anthony, R. Leonhardt, S. G. Leon-Saval, and A. Argyros, “THz propagation in kagome hollow-core microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express19(19), 18470–18478 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Kosolapov, A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, V. S. Shiryaev, M. S. Astapovich, G. E. Snopatin, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of CO2-laser power delivery through chalcogenide-glass fiber with negative-curvature hollow core,” Opt. Express19(25), 25723–25728 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, B. J. Mangan, S. Renshaw, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Delivery of high energy Er:YAG pulsed laser light at 2.94 µm through a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Express20(6), 6677–6684 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Low loss silica hollow core fibers for 3-4 μm spectral region,” Opt. Express20(10), 11153–11158 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (3)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Y. Wang, F. Couny, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in optimized core – shaped Kagome Hollow Core PCF,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Postdeadline Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2010), paper CPDB4.
[CrossRef]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2004) pp.33.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron micrographs of our typical HC-NCF with triangular cladding.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated model of HC-NCF. (b) Energy flux density distribution of fundamental mode in simulations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated normalized attenuation spectra in different condition of η. Neither material absorption nor material dispersion is considered in those simulations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured attenuation curves of the fundamental mode in the first transmission band in 9 different fibers. The absorption features between 3200 nm and 3700 nm are from HCl molecules in the fiber core [15], and between 4200 nm to 4500 nm are from CO2 molecules [20]. Gas-borne CO2 and H2O molecules and OH- in the silica material contribute to the absorption feature between 2600 nm to 2900 nm [20, 21]. Inset: Measured material absorption of F300 synthetic fused silica used as fabrication material.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scaling of minimum attenuations with wavelengths. Measured data is shown as triangles. The blue and red solid lines represent fits to selected points of attenuation = A•λx with a resulting x of −3.642 and −0.998 separately (blue curve fitting data points between 700 nm and 1300 nm; red curve fitting points between 1500 nm to 2500 nm). The orange dashed line is total attenuation based on predictions of confinement losses from Comsol and scaled absorptive loss. Inset: Simulation showing simulated variation in fiber attenuation as silica material absorption increases.

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