Abstract

GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) with patterned composite SiO2/Al2O3 passivation layers and TiO2/Al2O3 distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) backside reflector have been proposed and fabricated. Highly passivated Al2O3 layer deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) layer with excellent uniformity and quality has been achieved with atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. With a 60 mA current injection, an enhancement of 21.6%, 59.7%, and 63.4% in the light output power (LOP) at 460 nm wavelength was realized for the LED with the patterned composite SiO2/Al2O3 passivation layers, the LED with the patterned composite SiO2/Al2O3 passivation layers and Ag mirror + 3-pair TiO2/SiO2 DBR backside reflector, and the LED with the patterned composite SiO2/Al2O3 passivation layer and Ag mirror + 3-pair ALD-grown TiO2/Al2O3 DBR backside reflector as compared with the conventional LED only with a single SiO2 passivation layer, respectively.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012

2011

W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of vertical-structured GaN-based light-Emitting Diodes with TiO2/SiO2 Reflector and roughened GaOx surface film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(4), 04DG06 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep.498(4–5), 189–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Li, S. You, M. W. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. T. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. F. Yin, L. Y. Su, and J. J. Huang, “GaN-based LEDs surrounded with a two-dimensional nanohole photonic crystal structure for effective laterally guided mode coupling,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1611–1613 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Lin, S. C. Shei, and S. J. Chang, “Nitride-based LEDs with high-reflectance and wide-angle Ag mirror +SiO2/TiO2 DBR backside reflector,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(7), 1033–1038 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Cho, K. J. Byeon, and H. Lee, “Forming the graded-refractive-index antireflection layers on light-emitting diodes to enhance the light extraction,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3203–3205 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. H. Lee, D. Y. Lee, B. W. Oh, and J. H. Lee, “Comparison of InGaN-Based LEDs Grown on Conventional Sapphire and Cone-Shape-Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 157–163 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, and E. K. Suh, “Characteristics of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on circular convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.6(2), 589–592 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Altoukhov, J. Levrat, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, A. Castiglia, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “High reflectivity air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors realized by wet etching of AlInN sacrificial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(19), 191102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Kim, K. K. Choi, K. K. Kim, J. Cho, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. W. Ng, K. M. Lau, Z. P. Yang, A. Chang, and S. Y. Lin, “Study of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on chemical wet-etching-patterned sapphire substrate with V-shaped pits roughening surfaces,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1455–1463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, M. H. Hsieh, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, W. S. Chen, and S. C. Shei, “Nitride-based LEDs with a hybrid Al mirror+TiO2/SiO2 DBR backside reflector,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(17), 3131–3136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/ InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251110 (2008).

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(17), 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1193–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. So and C. B. Park, “Improvement of brightness with Al2O3 passivation layers on the surface of InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diode chips,” Thin Solid Films516(8), 2031–2034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “High-performance GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 omnidirectional reflector and n-GaN roughness,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(8), 565–567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Shen, X. L. Da, X. Guo, Y. X. Zhu, and N. H. Niu, “Effects of the passivation layer deposition temperature on the electrical and optical properties of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin.127(2), 441–445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Lu, T. T. Kao, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, K. F. Yeh, L. F. Lin, Y. C. Peng, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “GaN-based high-Q vertical-cavity light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.28(10), 884–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, Y. S. Choi, C. F. Wang, A. David, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Gallium-nitride-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(21), 211108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

X. L. Da, X. Guo, L. M. Dong, Y. P. Song, W. W. Ai, and G. D. Shen, “The silicon oxynitride layer deposited at low temperature for high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.50(3), 508–510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. F. Lai, T. S. Ko, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, Y. Y. Hung, K. M. Leung, C. C. Yu, R. J. Tsai, C. K. Lee, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement of InGaN-GaN indium-tin-oxide flip-chip light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 multilayer stack omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2050–2052 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, J. Xu, Q. Ren, C. L. Jin, Z. J. Yang, Q. Wang, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, G. Y. Zhang, D. P. Yu, and B. P. Zhang, “Effects of the artificial Ga-nitride/air periodic nanostructures on current injected GaN-based light emitters,” Phys. Status Solidi C2(7), 2858–2861 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Byrne, F. Natali, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Blue resonant cavity light emitting diodes with a high-Al-content GaN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 12B), L1509–L1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Su, H. C. Wang, C. L. Lin, W. B. Chen, and S. M. Chen, “Improvement of AlGaInP light emitting diode by sulfide passivation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(10), 1345–1347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Shibata, T. Uemura, H. Yamaguchi, and T. Yasukawa, “Fabrication of LED based on III-V nitride and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.200(1), 58–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. M. Chang, C. C. Lang, and C. C. Cheng, “The silicon nitride film formed by ECR-CVD for GaN-based LED passivation,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.188(1), 175–178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Fernández, F. B. Naranjo, F. Calle, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, P. Vennegues, A. Trampert, and K. H. Ploog, “High-quality distributed Bragg reflectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN multilayers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(14), 2136 (2001).

Ai, W. W.

X. L. Da, X. Guo, L. M. Dong, Y. P. Song, W. W. Ai, and G. D. Shen, “The silicon oxynitride layer deposited at low temperature for high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.50(3), 508–510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Altoukhov, A.

A. Altoukhov, J. Levrat, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, A. Castiglia, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “High reflectivity air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors realized by wet etching of AlInN sacrificial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(19), 191102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bang, J.

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Butté, R.

A. Altoukhov, J. Levrat, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, A. Castiglia, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “High reflectivity air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors realized by wet etching of AlInN sacrificial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(19), 191102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, K. J.

Byrne, D.

D. Byrne, F. Natali, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Blue resonant cavity light emitting diodes with a high-Al-content GaN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 12B), L1509–L1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Calle, F.

S. Fernández, F. B. Naranjo, F. Calle, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, P. Vennegues, A. Trampert, and K. H. Ploog, “High-quality distributed Bragg reflectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN multilayers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(14), 2136 (2001).

Calleja, E.

S. Fernández, F. B. Naranjo, F. Calle, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, P. Vennegues, A. Trampert, and K. H. Ploog, “High-quality distributed Bragg reflectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN multilayers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(14), 2136 (2001).

Carlin, J.-F.

A. Altoukhov, J. Levrat, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, A. Castiglia, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “High reflectivity air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors realized by wet etching of AlInN sacrificial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(19), 191102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Castiglia, A.

A. Altoukhov, J. Levrat, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, A. Castiglia, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “High reflectivity air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors realized by wet etching of AlInN sacrificial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(19), 191102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, A.

Chang, K. M.

K. M. Chang, C. C. Lang, and C. C. Cheng, “The silicon nitride film formed by ECR-CVD for GaN-based LED passivation,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.188(1), 175–178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

Chen, J. J.

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1193–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. M.

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1193–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Su, H. C. Wang, C. L. Lin, W. B. Chen, and S. M. Chen, “Improvement of AlGaInP light emitting diode by sulfide passivation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(10), 1345–1347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. M.

W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of vertical-structured GaN-based light-Emitting Diodes with TiO2/SiO2 Reflector and roughened GaOx surface film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(4), 04DG06 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. B.

Y. K. Su, H. C. Wang, C. L. Lin, W. B. Chen, and S. M. Chen, “Improvement of AlGaInP light emitting diode by sulfide passivation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(10), 1345–1347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. H.

B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, J. Xu, Q. Ren, C. L. Jin, Z. J. Yang, Q. Wang, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, G. Y. Zhang, D. P. Yu, and B. P. Zhang, “Effects of the artificial Ga-nitride/air periodic nanostructures on current injected GaN-based light emitters,” Phys. Status Solidi C2(7), 2858–2861 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. S.

Cheng, C. C.

K. M. Chang, C. C. Lang, and C. C. Cheng, “The silicon nitride film formed by ECR-CVD for GaN-based LED passivation,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.188(1), 175–178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. W.

Chiu, C. W.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “High-performance GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 omnidirectional reflector and n-GaN roughness,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(8), 565–567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

Cho, J. Y.

Choi, D. G.

Choi, J.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(17), 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. K.

Choi, Y. S.

R. Sharma, Y. S. Choi, C. F. Wang, A. David, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Gallium-nitride-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(21), 211108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. T.

T. C. Lu, T. T. Kao, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, K. F. Yeh, L. F. Lin, Y. C. Peng, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “GaN-based high-Q vertical-cavity light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.28(10), 884–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Da, X. L.

G. D. Shen, X. L. Da, X. Guo, Y. X. Zhu, and N. H. Niu, “Effects of the passivation layer deposition temperature on the electrical and optical properties of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin.127(2), 441–445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Da, X. Guo, L. M. Dong, Y. P. Song, W. W. Ai, and G. D. Shen, “The silicon oxynitride layer deposited at low temperature for high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.50(3), 508–510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Damilano, B.

D. Byrne, F. Natali, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Blue resonant cavity light emitting diodes with a high-Al-content GaN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 12B), L1509–L1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, Y. S. Choi, C. F. Wang, A. David, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Gallium-nitride-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(21), 211108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

Y. F. Li, S. You, M. W. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. T. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L. M.

X. L. Da, X. Guo, L. M. Dong, Y. P. Song, W. W. Ai, and G. D. Shen, “The silicon oxynitride layer deposited at low temperature for high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.50(3), 508–510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dussaigne, A.

D. Byrne, F. Natali, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Blue resonant cavity light emitting diodes with a high-Al-content GaN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 12B), L1509–L1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eddy, C. R.

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. S.

Feltin, E.

A. Altoukhov, J. Levrat, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, A. Castiglia, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “High reflectivity air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors realized by wet etching of AlInN sacrificial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(19), 191102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, S.

S. Fernández, F. B. Naranjo, F. Calle, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, P. Vennegues, A. Trampert, and K. H. Ploog, “High-quality distributed Bragg reflectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN multilayers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(14), 2136 (2001).

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y. H.

H. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Hou, D. Liu, and Y. H. Gao, “Enhanced light extraction in AlInGaN UV light-emitting diodes by an embedded AlN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflector,” Chin. Phys. Lett.29(10), 108501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grandjean, N.

A. Altoukhov, J. Levrat, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, A. Castiglia, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “High reflectivity air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors realized by wet etching of AlInN sacrificial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(19), 191102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Byrne, F. Natali, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Blue resonant cavity light emitting diodes with a high-Al-content GaN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 12B), L1509–L1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

G. D. Shen, X. L. Da, X. Guo, Y. X. Zhu, and N. H. Niu, “Effects of the passivation layer deposition temperature on the electrical and optical properties of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin.127(2), 441–445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Da, X. Guo, L. M. Dong, Y. P. Song, W. W. Ai, and G. D. Shen, “The silicon oxynitride layer deposited at low temperature for high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.50(3), 508–510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haberer, E. D.

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, M.

Han, N.

Hite, J. K.

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. H.

Hou, J.

H. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Hou, D. Liu, and Y. H. Gao, “Enhanced light extraction in AlInGaN UV light-emitting diodes by an embedded AlN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflector,” Chin. Phys. Lett.29(10), 108501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W. T.

Y. F. Li, S. You, M. W. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. T. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, M. H.

Hu, E. L.

R. Sharma, Y. S. Choi, C. F. Wang, A. David, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Gallium-nitride-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(21), 211108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X. D.

B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, J. Xu, Q. Ren, C. L. Jin, Z. J. Yang, Q. Wang, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, G. Y. Zhang, D. P. Yu, and B. P. Zhang, “Effects of the artificial Ga-nitride/air periodic nanostructures on current injected GaN-based light emitters,” Phys. Status Solidi C2(7), 2858–2861 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “High-performance GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 omnidirectional reflector and n-GaN roughness,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(8), 565–567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Lu, T. T. Kao, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, K. F. Yeh, L. F. Lin, Y. C. Peng, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “GaN-based high-Q vertical-cavity light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.28(10), 884–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. F. Lai, T. S. Ko, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, Y. Y. Hung, K. M. Leung, C. C. Yu, R. J. Tsai, C. K. Lee, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement of InGaN-GaN indium-tin-oxide flip-chip light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 multilayer stack omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2050–2052 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. J.

Hung, Y. Y.

C. H. Lin, C. F. Lai, T. S. Ko, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, Y. Y. Hung, K. M. Leung, C. C. Yu, R. J. Tsai, C. K. Lee, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement of InGaN-GaN indium-tin-oxide flip-chip light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 multilayer stack omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2050–2052 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S. C.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(17), 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H.

T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, and E. K. Suh, “Characteristics of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on circular convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.6(2), 589–592 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J. H.

Jeong, J. R.

Jin, C. L.

B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, J. Xu, Q. Ren, C. L. Jin, Z. J. Yang, Q. Wang, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, G. Y. Zhang, D. P. Yu, and B. P. Zhang, “Effects of the artificial Ga-nitride/air periodic nanostructures on current injected GaN-based light emitters,” Phys. Status Solidi C2(7), 2858–2861 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y. H.

Jung, G. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/ InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251110 (2008).

Jung, H.

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J. W.

Kang, J. H.

Kao, C. C.

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1193–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Lu, T. T. Kao, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, K. F. Yeh, L. F. Lin, Y. C. Peng, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “GaN-based high-Q vertical-cavity light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.28(10), 884–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kao, T. T.

T. C. Lu, T. T. Kao, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, K. F. Yeh, L. F. Lin, Y. C. Peng, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “GaN-based high-Q vertical-cavity light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.28(10), 884–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katharria, Y. S.

Kim, B. J.

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Kim, H. K.

Kim, H. Y.

Kim, J.

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. D.

T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, and E. K. Suh, “Characteristics of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on circular convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.6(2), 589–592 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(17), 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/ InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251110 (2008).

Kim, J. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/ InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251110 (2008).

Kim, K.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(17), 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. K.

Kim, K. S.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/ InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251110 (2008).

Kim, S.

Kim, S. H.

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. M.

Kim, Y. C.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/ InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251110 (2008).

Ko, K. B.

Ko, T. K.

Ko, T. S.

C. H. Lin, C. F. Lai, T. S. Ko, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, Y. Y. Hung, K. M. Leung, C. C. Yu, R. J. Tsai, C. K. Lee, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement of InGaN-GaN indium-tin-oxide flip-chip light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 multilayer stack omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2050–2052 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. T.

Kuo, D. M.

W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of vertical-structured GaN-based light-Emitting Diodes with TiO2/SiO2 Reflector and roughened GaOx surface film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(4), 04DG06 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. W. Ng, K. M. Lau, Z. P. Yang, A. Chang, and S. Y. Lin, “Study of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on chemical wet-etching-patterned sapphire substrate with V-shaped pits roughening surfaces,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1455–1463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “High-performance GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 omnidirectional reflector and n-GaN roughness,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(8), 565–567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Lu, T. T. Kao, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, K. F. Yeh, L. F. Lin, Y. C. Peng, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “GaN-based high-Q vertical-cavity light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.28(10), 884–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. F. Lai, T. S. Ko, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, Y. Y. Hung, K. M. Leung, C. C. Yu, R. J. Tsai, C. K. Lee, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement of InGaN-GaN indium-tin-oxide flip-chip light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 multilayer stack omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2050–2052 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, J. S.

Kwon, M. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/ InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251110 (2008).

Lai, C. F.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “High-performance GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 omnidirectional reflector and n-GaN roughness,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(8), 565–567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. F. Lai, T. S. Ko, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, Y. Y. Hung, K. M. Leung, C. C. Yu, R. J. Tsai, C. K. Lee, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement of InGaN-GaN indium-tin-oxide flip-chip light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 multilayer stack omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2050–2052 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lang, C. C.

K. M. Chang, C. C. Lang, and C. C. Cheng, “The silicon nitride film formed by ECR-CVD for GaN-based LED passivation,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.188(1), 175–178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. M.

Lee, C. E.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “High-performance GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 omnidirectional reflector and n-GaN roughness,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(8), 565–567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. K.

C. H. Lin, C. F. Lai, T. S. Ko, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, Y. Y. Hung, K. M. Leung, C. C. Yu, R. J. Tsai, C. K. Lee, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement of InGaN-GaN indium-tin-oxide flip-chip light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 multilayer stack omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2050–2052 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. Y.

J. H. Lee, D. Y. Lee, B. W. Oh, and J. H. Lee, “Comparison of InGaN-Based LEDs Grown on Conventional Sapphire and Cone-Shape-Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 157–163 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

Lee, H. M.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(17), 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, D. Y. Lee, B. W. Oh, and J. H. Lee, “Comparison of InGaN-Based LEDs Grown on Conventional Sapphire and Cone-Shape-Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 157–163 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, D. Y. Lee, B. W. Oh, and J. H. Lee, “Comparison of InGaN-Based LEDs Grown on Conventional Sapphire and Cone-Shape-Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 157–163 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. N.

Lee, W. C.

W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of vertical-structured GaN-based light-Emitting Diodes with TiO2/SiO2 Reflector and roughened GaOx surface film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(4), 04DG06 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. W. Ng, K. M. Lau, Z. P. Yang, A. Chang, and S. Y. Lin, “Study of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on chemical wet-etching-patterned sapphire substrate with V-shaped pits roughening surfaces,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1455–1463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, and E. K. Suh, “Characteristics of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on circular convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.6(2), 589–592 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leung, K. M.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “High-performance GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 omnidirectional reflector and n-GaN roughness,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(8), 565–567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. F. Lai, T. S. Ko, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, Y. Y. Hung, K. M. Leung, C. C. Yu, R. J. Tsai, C. K. Lee, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement of InGaN-GaN indium-tin-oxide flip-chip light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 multilayer stack omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2050–2052 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levrat, J.

A. Altoukhov, J. Levrat, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, A. Castiglia, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “High reflectivity air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors realized by wet etching of AlInN sacrificial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(19), 191102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. M.

Li, Q. Q.

Li, W. L.

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1193–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. F.

Y. F. Li, S. You, M. W. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. T. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “High-performance GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 omnidirectional reflector and n-GaN roughness,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(8), 565–567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. F. Lai, T. S. Ko, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, Y. Y. Hung, K. M. Leung, C. C. Yu, R. J. Tsai, C. K. Lee, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement of InGaN-GaN indium-tin-oxide flip-chip light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 multilayer stack omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2050–2052 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1193–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Su, H. C. Wang, C. L. Lin, W. B. Chen, and S. M. Chen, “Improvement of AlGaInP light emitting diode by sulfide passivation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(10), 1345–1347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L. F.

T. C. Lu, T. T. Kao, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, K. F. Yeh, L. F. Lin, Y. C. Peng, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “GaN-based high-Q vertical-cavity light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.28(10), 884–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, N. M.

Lin, S. Y.

Liu, D.

H. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Hou, D. Liu, and Y. H. Gao, “Enhanced light extraction in AlInGaN UV light-emitting diodes by an embedded AlN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflector,” Chin. Phys. Lett.29(10), 108501 (2012).
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Liu, H.

H. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Hou, D. Liu, and Y. H. Gao, “Enhanced light extraction in AlInGaN UV light-emitting diodes by an embedded AlN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflector,” Chin. Phys. Lett.29(10), 108501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. Q.

Lu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. W. Ng, K. M. Lau, Z. P. Yang, A. Chang, and S. Y. Lin, “Study of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on chemical wet-etching-patterned sapphire substrate with V-shaped pits roughening surfaces,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1455–1463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “High-performance GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 omnidirectional reflector and n-GaN roughness,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(8), 565–567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Lu, T. T. Kao, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, K. F. Yeh, L. F. Lin, Y. C. Peng, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “GaN-based high-Q vertical-cavity light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.28(10), 884–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. F. Lai, T. S. Ko, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, Y. Y. Hung, K. M. Leung, C. C. Yu, R. J. Tsai, C. K. Lee, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement of InGaN-GaN indium-tin-oxide flip-chip light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 multilayer stack omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2050–2052 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Massies, J.

D. Byrne, F. Natali, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Blue resonant cavity light emitting diodes with a high-Al-content GaN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 12B), L1509–L1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mastro, M. A.

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
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Meier, C.

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

R. Sharma, Y. S. Choi, C. F. Wang, A. David, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Gallium-nitride-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(21), 211108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Naranjo, F. B.

S. Fernández, F. B. Naranjo, F. Calle, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, P. Vennegues, A. Trampert, and K. H. Ploog, “High-quality distributed Bragg reflectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN multilayers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(14), 2136 (2001).

Natali, F.

D. Byrne, F. Natali, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Blue resonant cavity light emitting diodes with a high-Al-content GaN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 12B), L1509–L1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ng, K. W.

Niu, N. H.

G. D. Shen, X. L. Da, X. Guo, Y. X. Zhu, and N. H. Niu, “Effects of the passivation layer deposition temperature on the electrical and optical properties of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin.127(2), 441–445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oh, B. W.

J. H. Lee, D. Y. Lee, B. W. Oh, and J. H. Lee, “Comparison of InGaN-Based LEDs Grown on Conventional Sapphire and Cone-Shape-Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 157–163 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oh, T. S.

T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, and E. K. Suh, “Characteristics of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on circular convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.6(2), 589–592 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. B.

S. J. So and C. B. Park, “Improvement of brightness with Al2O3 passivation layers on the surface of InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diode chips,” Thin Solid Films516(8), 2031–2034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. H.

Park, I. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/ InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251110 (2008).

Park, J. B.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(17), 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/ InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251110 (2008).

Park, Y.

Park, Y. J.

Peng, Y. C.

T. C. Lu, T. T. Kao, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, K. F. Yeh, L. F. Lin, Y. C. Peng, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “GaN-based high-Q vertical-cavity light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.28(10), 884–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K. H.

S. Fernández, F. B. Naranjo, F. Calle, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, P. Vennegues, A. Trampert, and K. H. Ploog, “High-quality distributed Bragg reflectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN multilayers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(14), 2136 (2001).

Qin, Z. X.

B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, J. Xu, Q. Ren, C. L. Jin, Z. J. Yang, Q. Wang, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, G. Y. Zhang, D. P. Yu, and B. P. Zhang, “Effects of the artificial Ga-nitride/air periodic nanostructures on current injected GaN-based light emitters,” Phys. Status Solidi C2(7), 2858–2861 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Q.

B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, J. Xu, Q. Ren, C. L. Jin, Z. J. Yang, Q. Wang, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, G. Y. Zhang, D. P. Yu, and B. P. Zhang, “Effects of the artificial Ga-nitride/air periodic nanostructures on current injected GaN-based light emitters,” Phys. Status Solidi C2(7), 2858–2861 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, B. D.

Ryu, J. H.

Sánchez-García, M. A.

S. Fernández, F. B. Naranjo, F. Calle, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, P. Vennegues, A. Trampert, and K. H. Ploog, “High-quality distributed Bragg reflectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN multilayers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(14), 2136 (2001).

Seo, T. H.

T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, and E. K. Suh, “Characteristics of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on circular convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.6(2), 589–592 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seong, T. Y.

Sharma, R.

R. Sharma, Y. S. Choi, C. F. Wang, A. David, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Gallium-nitride-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(21), 211108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S. C.

Shen, C. F.

Shen, G. D.

G. D. Shen, X. L. Da, X. Guo, Y. X. Zhu, and N. H. Niu, “Effects of the passivation layer deposition temperature on the electrical and optical properties of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin.127(2), 441–445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Da, X. Guo, L. M. Dong, Y. P. Song, W. W. Ai, and G. D. Shen, “The silicon oxynitride layer deposited at low temperature for high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.50(3), 508–510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

N. Shibata, T. Uemura, H. Yamaguchi, and T. Yasukawa, “Fabrication of LED based on III-V nitride and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.200(1), 58–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

So, S. J.

S. J. So and C. B. Park, “Improvement of brightness with Al2O3 passivation layers on the surface of InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diode chips,” Thin Solid Films516(8), 2031–2034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. P.

X. L. Da, X. Guo, L. M. Dong, Y. P. Song, W. W. Ai, and G. D. Shen, “The silicon oxynitride layer deposited at low temperature for high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.50(3), 508–510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, B. J.

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, L. Y.

Su, Y. K.

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1193–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Su, H. C. Wang, C. L. Lin, W. B. Chen, and S. M. Chen, “Improvement of AlGaInP light emitting diode by sulfide passivation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(10), 1345–1347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E. K.

J. H. Ryu, H. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, J. H. Kang, Y. J. Park, M. Han, B. D. Ryu, K. B. Ko, E. K. Suh, and C. H. Hong, “High performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes by air-gap/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Opt. Express20(9), 9999–10003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, and E. K. Suh, “Characteristics of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on circular convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.6(2), 589–592 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

Tamura, N.

Y. F. Li, S. You, M. W. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. T. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

Y. F. Li, S. You, M. W. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. T. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

Y. F. Li, S. You, M. W. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. T. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trampert, A.

S. Fernández, F. B. Naranjo, F. Calle, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, P. Vennegues, A. Trampert, and K. H. Ploog, “High-quality distributed Bragg reflectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN multilayers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(14), 2136 (2001).

Tsai, R. J.

C. H. Lin, C. F. Lai, T. S. Ko, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, Y. Y. Hung, K. M. Leung, C. C. Yu, R. J. Tsai, C. K. Lee, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement of InGaN-GaN indium-tin-oxide flip-chip light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 multilayer stack omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2050–2052 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uang, K. M.

W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of vertical-structured GaN-based light-Emitting Diodes with TiO2/SiO2 Reflector and roughened GaOx surface film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(4), 04DG06 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Uemura, T.

N. Shibata, T. Uemura, H. Yamaguchi, and T. Yasukawa, “Fabrication of LED based on III-V nitride and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.200(1), 58–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vennegues, P.

S. Fernández, F. B. Naranjo, F. Calle, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, P. Vennegues, A. Trampert, and K. H. Ploog, “High-quality distributed Bragg reflectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN multilayers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(14), 2136 (2001).

Wang, C. F.

R. Sharma, Y. S. Choi, C. F. Wang, A. David, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Gallium-nitride-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(21), 211108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. H.

Wang, H. C.

Y. K. Su, H. C. Wang, C. L. Lin, W. B. Chen, and S. M. Chen, “Improvement of AlGaInP light emitting diode by sulfide passivation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(10), 1345–1347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. H.

W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of vertical-structured GaN-based light-Emitting Diodes with TiO2/SiO2 Reflector and roughened GaOx surface film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(4), 04DG06 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. R.

W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of vertical-structured GaN-based light-Emitting Diodes with TiO2/SiO2 Reflector and roughened GaOx surface film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(4), 04DG06 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, J. Xu, Q. Ren, C. L. Jin, Z. J. Yang, Q. Wang, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, G. Y. Zhang, D. P. Yu, and B. P. Zhang, “Effects of the artificial Ga-nitride/air periodic nanostructures on current injected GaN-based light emitters,” Phys. Status Solidi C2(7), 2858–2861 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. F. Yin, L. Y. Su, and J. J. Huang, “GaN-based LEDs surrounded with a two-dimensional nanohole photonic crystal structure for effective laterally guided mode coupling,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1611–1613 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. W. Ng, K. M. Lau, Z. P. Yang, A. Chang, and S. Y. Lin, “Study of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on chemical wet-etching-patterned sapphire substrate with V-shaped pits roughening surfaces,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1455–1463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “High-performance GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with TiO2-SiO2 omnidirectional reflector and n-GaN roughness,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(8), 565–567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Lu, T. T. Kao, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, K. F. Yeh, L. F. Lin, Y. C. Peng, H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “GaN-based high-Q vertical-cavity light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.28(10), 884–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of LED layer structure grown on PSS with the patterned composite SiO2/Al2O3 passivation layers and TiO2/Al2O3 DBR backside reflector. (b) The cross-sectional view scanning electron microscopy (SEM), images for the fabricated LED. The domain view of the patterned composite SiO2/Al2O3 passivation layers and PSS is on the upper right, and the domain view of the DBR is on the lower right.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The cross-sectional (upper) and top view (below) SEM images for the six LED samples with different patterned composite SiO2/Al2O3 passivation layers, denoted as sample A (a), B (b), C (c), D (d), E (e), and F (f), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The microscope image for a typical GaN-based LED chip in our study with a size of 300 μm × 700 μm; (b) the microscope images for both p-electrode and n-electrode before and after wet etching.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) I-V characteristics and (b) EL spectra for the six LED samples fabricated in this study.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The LOP of the six fabricated LEDs as a function of the injection current; (b) the reverse leakage current IR as a function of reverse bias voltage for sample E, sample J, and the reference sample. Inset in (b) shows the enlarged IR curves for sample E and sample J.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The ESD pass yield mapping under −2000 V reverse bias voltage for (a) sample E and (b) sample J.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the electrical and optical performances for the LEDs with an ALD-grown Al2O3 passivation layer, an EBE-grown Al2O3 passivation layer, a PECVD-grown SiNx passivation layer, and a PECVD-grown SiO2 passivation layer, respectively.

Tables Icon

Table 2 The detailed reflow conditions and etched surface profile parameters for the patterned composite SiO2/Al2O3 passivation layers.

Tables Icon

Table 3 The electrical and optical performances of the LED samples A, B, C, D, E, F, and the reference sample only with a single SiO2 passivation layer.

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