Abstract

The multielectron dynamics in nonsequential triple ionization (NSTI) of neon atoms driven by mid-infrared (MIR) laser pulses is investigated with the three-dimensional classical ensemble model. In consistent with the experimental result, our numerical result shows that in the MIR regime, the triply charged ion longitudinal momentum spectrum exhibits a pronounced double-hump structure at low laser intensity. Back analysis reveals that as the intensity increases, the responsible triple ionization channels transform from direct (e, 3e) channel to the various mixed channels. This transformation of the NSTI channels leads to the results that the shape of ion momentum spectra becomes narrow and the distinct maxima shift towards low momenta with the increase of the laser intensity. By tracing the triply ionized trajectories, the various ionization channels at different laser intensities are clearly identified and these results provide an insight into the complex dynamics of the correlated three electrons in NSTI.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sublasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys.10, 025007 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013

E. Lötstedt and K. Midorikawa, “Effect of the laser magnetic field on nonsequential double ionization of He, Li+, and Be2+,” Phys. Rev. A87, 013426 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Huang, Y. Zhou, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Contribution of recollision ionization to the cross-shaped structure in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express21, 11382–11390 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, C. I. Blaga, U. B. Szafruga, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Inelastic scattering of broadband electron wave packets driven by an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 033002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 053004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton Rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.14, 013001 (2012)
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Complex sub-laser-cycle electron dynamics in strong-field nonsequential triple ionizaion,” Opt. Express18, 16025–16034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A82, 053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. B42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Doumy, J. Wheeler, C. Roedig, R. Chirla, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Attosecond synchronization of high-order harmonics from midinfrared drivers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 093002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Emmanouilidou and A. Staudte, “Intensity dependence of strong-field double-ionization mechanisms: from field-assisted recollision ionization to recollision-assisted field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A80, 053415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and F. Dimauro, “Srong-field photoionization revisited,” Nature Physics5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a midinfrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nature Physics4386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “Atoms in high intensity mid-infrared pulses,” Contemporary Physics49, 179–197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sublasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys.10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and Z. Y. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B41, 125601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “From non-sequential to sequential strong-field multiple ionization: identification of pure and mixed reaction channels,” J. Phys. B41, 081006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Emmanouilidou, “Recoil collisions as a portal to field-assisted ionization at near-uv frequencies in the strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A78, 023411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

X. Liu, C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, W. Becker, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond electron thermalization by laser-driven electron recollision in atoms,” J. Phys. B39, L305–L311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B39, S371–S380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 133001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phay J. Ho and J. H. Eberly, “In-plane theory of nonsequential triple ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 083001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

S. Palaniyappan, A. DiChiara, E. Chowdhury, A. Falkowski, G. Ongadi, E. L. Huskins, and B. C. Walker, “Ultrastrong field ionization of Nen+(n≤ 8): rescattering and the role of the magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 243003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D.M. Rayner, D.M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. L. Chaloupka, J. Rudati, R. Lafon, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Observation of a transition in the dynamics Of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 033002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sublaser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature(London)417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86, 2762–2765 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sacha and B. Eckhardt, “Nonsequential triple ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.64, 053401 (2001).

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London)405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, J. Liu, L. B. Fu, and W. M. Zheng, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laserin-duced nonsequential double ionization by semiclassical rescattering model,” Phys. Rev. A63,011404(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distributions within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B33, L823–L830 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, and J. Ullrich, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “S-matrix analysis of ionization yields of noble gas atoms at the focus of Ti:sapphire laser pulses,” J. Phys. B32, L335–L343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A52, R917 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “High-harmonic generation and correlated two-electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A50, R3585 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionizaiton of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

A. I’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorb in rare gases at 0.53 mm,” Phys. Rev. A27, 2503–2512 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Achtelik, A.

O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sublasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys.10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, C. I. Blaga, U. B. Szafruga, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Inelastic scattering of broadband electron wave packets driven by an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 033002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and F. Dimauro, “Srong-field photoionization revisited,” Nature Physics5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Doumy, J. Wheeler, C. Roedig, R. Chirla, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Attosecond synchronization of high-order harmonics from midinfrared drivers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 093002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “Atoms in high intensity mid-infrared pulses,” Contemporary Physics49, 179–197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nature Physics4386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Chaloupka, J. Rudati, R. Lafon, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Observation of a transition in the dynamics Of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 033002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86, 2762–2765 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionizaiton of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augst, S.

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A52, R917 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sublaser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature(London)417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beaudoin, Y.

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A52, R917 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “S-matrix analysis of ionization yields of noble gas atoms at the focus of Ti:sapphire laser pulses,” J. Phys. B32, L335–L343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

X. Liu, C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, W. Becker, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond electron thermalization by laser-driven electron recollision in atoms,” J. Phys. B39, L305–L311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D.M. Rayner, D.M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blaga, C. I.

A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, C. I. Blaga, U. B. Szafruga, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Inelastic scattering of broadband electron wave packets driven by an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 033002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and F. Dimauro, “Srong-field photoionization revisited,” Nature Physics5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nature Physics4386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 133001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolton, P. R.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breen, L.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, N. H.

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “High-harmonic generation and correlated two-electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A50, R3585 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catoire, F.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and F. Dimauro, “Srong-field photoionization revisited,” Nature Physics5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nature Physics4386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chaker, M.

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A52, R917 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaloupka, J. L.

J. L. Chaloupka, J. Rudati, R. Lafon, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Observation of a transition in the dynamics Of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 033002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86, 2762–2765 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, B.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a midinfrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, J. Liu, L. B. Fu, and W. M. Zheng, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laserin-duced nonsequential double ionization by semiclassical rescattering model,” Phys. Rev. A63,011404(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. G.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a midinfrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a midinfrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A52, R917 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chirla, R.

G. Doumy, J. Wheeler, C. Roedig, R. Chirla, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Attosecond synchronization of high-order harmonics from midinfrared drivers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 093002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nature Physics4386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, E.

S. Palaniyappan, A. DiChiara, E. Chowdhury, A. Falkowski, G. Ongadi, E. L. Huskins, and B. C. Walker, “Ultrastrong field ionization of Nen+(n≤ 8): rescattering and the role of the magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 243003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Colosimo, P.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and F. Dimauro, “Srong-field photoionization revisited,” Nature Physics5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nature Physics4386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

X. Liu, C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, W. Becker, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond electron thermalization by laser-driven electron recollision in atoms,” J. Phys. B39, L305–L311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D.M. Rayner, D.M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sublaser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature(London)417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “High-harmonic generation and correlated two-electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A50, R3585 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Jesus, V. L. B.

A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “From non-sequential to sequential strong-field multiple ionization: identification of pure and mixed reaction channels,” J. Phys. B41, 081006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sublasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys.10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B39, S371–S380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deipenwisch, J.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

DiChiara, A.

S. Palaniyappan, A. DiChiara, E. Chowdhury, A. Falkowski, G. Ongadi, E. L. Huskins, and B. C. Walker, “Ultrastrong field ionization of Nen+(n≤ 8): rescattering and the role of the magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 243003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DiChiara, A. D.

A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, C. I. Blaga, U. B. Szafruga, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Inelastic scattering of broadband electron wave packets driven by an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 033002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietrich, P.

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “High-harmonic generation and correlated two-electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A50, R3585 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimauro, F.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and F. Dimauro, “Srong-field photoionization revisited,” Nature Physics5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DiMauro, L. F.

A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, C. I. Blaga, U. B. Szafruga, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Inelastic scattering of broadband electron wave packets driven by an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 033002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Doumy, J. Wheeler, C. Roedig, R. Chirla, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Attosecond synchronization of high-order harmonics from midinfrared drivers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 093002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “Atoms in high intensity mid-infrared pulses,” Contemporary Physics49, 179–197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nature Physics4386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 133001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Chaloupka, J. Rudati, R. Lafon, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Observation of a transition in the dynamics Of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 033002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86, 2762–2765 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionizaiton of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doherty, B. J. S.

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 133001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorn, A.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, and J. Ullrich, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D.M. Rayner, D.M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London)405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Doumy, G.

G. Doumy, J. Wheeler, C. Roedig, R. Chirla, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Attosecond synchronization of high-order harmonics from midinfrared drivers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 093002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nature Physics4386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phay J. Ho and J. H. Eberly, “In-plane theory of nonsequential triple ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 083001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckhardt, B.

K. Sacha and B. Eckhardt, “Nonsequential triple ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.64, 053401 (2001).

Emmamouilidou, A.

A. Emmamouilidou, J. S. Parker, L. R. Moore, and K. T. Taylor, “Direct versus delayed pathways in strong-field non-sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.13, 043001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Emmanouilidou, A.

A. Emmanouilidou and A. Staudte, “Intensity dependence of strong-field double-ionization mechanisms: from field-assisted recollision ionization to recollision-assisted field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A80, 053415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Emmanouilidou, “Recoil collisions as a portal to field-assisted ionization at near-uv frequencies in the strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A78, 023411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Engel, V.

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ergler, Th.

A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “From non-sequential to sequential strong-field multiple ionization: identification of pure and mixed reaction channels,” J. Phys. B41, 081006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sublasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys.10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B39, S371–S380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Faisal, F. H. M.

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “S-matrix analysis of ionization yields of noble gas atoms at the focus of Ti:sapphire laser pulses,” J. Phys. B32, L335–L343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Falkowski, A.

S. Palaniyappan, A. DiChiara, E. Chowdhury, A. Falkowski, G. Ongadi, E. L. Huskins, and B. C. Walker, “Ultrastrong field ionization of Nen+(n≤ 8): rescattering and the role of the magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 243003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feuerstein, B.

A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “From non-sequential to sequential strong-field multiple ionization: identification of pure and mixed reaction channels,” J. Phys. B41, 081006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sublasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys.10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B39, S371–S380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distributions within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B33, L823–L830 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, and J. Ullrich, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.

X. Liu, C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, W. Becker, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond electron thermalization by laser-driven electron recollision in atoms,” J. Phys. B39, L305–L311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sublasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys.10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, D.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L. B.

J. Chen, J. Liu, L. B. Fu, and W. M. Zheng, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laserin-duced nonsequential double ionization by semiclassical rescattering model,” Phys. Rev. A63,011404(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a midinfrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gademann, G.

O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sublasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys.10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London)405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a midinfrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haan, S. L.

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. B42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasbani, R.

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sublaser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature(London)417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hauri, C.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nature Physics4386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, X. T.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a midinfrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sublasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys.10, 025007 (2008).
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Phay J. Ho and J. H. Eberly, “In-plane theory of nonsequential triple ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 083001 (2006).
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B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, W.

Hong, W. Y.

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and Z. Y. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B41, 125601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

Huskins, E. L.

S. Palaniyappan, A. DiChiara, E. Chowdhury, A. Falkowski, G. Ongadi, E. L. Huskins, and B. C. Walker, “Ultrastrong field ionization of Nen+(n≤ 8): rescattering and the role of the magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 243003 (2005).
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A. I’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorb in rare gases at 0.53 mm,” Phys. Rev. A27, 2503–2512 (1983).
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P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “High-harmonic generation and correlated two-electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A50, R3585 (1994).
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M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D.M. Rayner, D.M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London)405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kammer, S.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D.M. Rayner, D.M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a midinfrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kremer, M.

O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sublasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys.10, 025007 (2008).
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J. L. Chaloupka, J. Rudati, R. Lafon, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Observation of a transition in the dynamics Of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 033002 (2003).
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J. L. Chaloupka, J. Rudati, R. Lafon, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Observation of a transition in the dynamics Of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 033002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86, 2762–2765 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Légaré, F.

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sublaser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature(London)417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lein, M.

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, Q.

Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton Rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.14, 013001 (2012)
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 053004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Huang, Y. Zhou, A. H. Tong, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “The effect of molecular alignment on correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express19, 5627–5634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, A. H. Tong, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization by orthogonal two-color laser pulses,” Opt. Express19, 2301–2308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Complex sub-laser-cycle electron dynamics in strong-field nonsequential triple ionizaion,” Opt. Express18, 16025–16034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A82, 053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and Z. Y. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B41, 125601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a midinfrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a midinfrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a midinfrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, J. Liu, L. B. Fu, and W. M. Zheng, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laserin-duced nonsequential double ionization by semiclassical rescattering model,” Phys. Rev. A63,011404(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a midinfrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 093001 (2009).
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X. Liu, C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, W. Becker, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond electron thermalization by laser-driven electron recollision in atoms,” J. Phys. B39, L305–L311 (2006).
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A. I’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorb in rare gases at 0.53 mm,” Phys. Rev. A27, 2503–2512 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lötstedt, E.

E. Lötstedt and K. Midorikawa, “Effect of the laser magnetic field on nonsequential double ionization of He, Li+, and Be2+,” Phys. Rev. A87, 013426 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

C. Huang, Y. Zhou, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Contribution of recollision ionization to the cross-shaped structure in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express21, 11382–11390 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton Rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.14, 013001 (2012)
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 053004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, A. H. Tong, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization by orthogonal two-color laser pulses,” Opt. Express19, 2301–2308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Huang, Y. Zhou, A. H. Tong, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “The effect of molecular alignment on correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express19, 5627–5634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Complex sub-laser-cycle electron dynamics in strong-field nonsequential triple ionizaion,” Opt. Express18, 16025–16034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A82, 053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P. X.

Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and Z. Y. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B41, 125601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mainfray, G.

A. I’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorb in rare gases at 0.53 mm,” Phys. Rev. A27, 2503–2512 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Manus, C.

A. I’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorb in rare gases at 0.53 mm,” Phys. Rev. A27, 2503–2512 (1983).
[CrossRef]

March, A. M.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nature Physics4386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meckel, M.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D.M. Rayner, D.M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mergel, V.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London)405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

E. Lötstedt and K. Midorikawa, “Effect of the laser magnetic field on nonsequential double ionization of He, Li+, and Be2+,” Phys. Rev. A87, 013426 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moore, L. R.

A. Emmamouilidou, J. S. Parker, L. R. Moore, and K. T. Taylor, “Direct versus delayed pathways in strong-field non-sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.13, 043001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “From non-sequential to sequential strong-field multiple ionization: identification of pure and mixed reaction channels,” J. Phys. B41, 081006 (2008).
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O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sublasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys.10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B39, S371–S380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 253001 (2004).
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A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distributions within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B33, L823–L830 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, and J. Ullrich, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and F. Dimauro, “Srong-field photoionization revisited,” Nature Physics5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nature Physics4386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neumayer, P.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Niikura, H.

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sublaser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature(London)417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ongadi, G.

S. Palaniyappan, A. DiChiara, E. Chowdhury, A. Falkowski, G. Ongadi, E. L. Huskins, and B. C. Walker, “Ultrastrong field ionization of Nen+(n≤ 8): rescattering and the role of the magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 243003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palaniyappan, S.

S. Palaniyappan, A. DiChiara, E. Chowdhury, A. Falkowski, G. Ongadi, E. L. Huskins, and B. C. Walker, “Ultrastrong field ionization of Nen+(n≤ 8): rescattering and the role of the magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 243003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parker, J. S.

A. Emmamouilidou, J. S. Parker, L. R. Moore, and K. T. Taylor, “Direct versus delayed pathways in strong-field non-sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.13, 043001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 133001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, P. M.

R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86, 2762–2765 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and F. Dimauro, “Srong-field photoionization revisited,” Nature Physics5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nature Physics4386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Plantinga, P. W.

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. B42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quan, W.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a midinfrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D.M.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D.M. Rayner, D.M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roedig, C.

G. Doumy, J. Wheeler, C. Roedig, R. Chirla, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Attosecond synchronization of high-order harmonics from midinfrared drivers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 093002 (2009).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The two-dimensional (the left column) and the longitudinal (the right column) momentum distribution of Ne3+ ions. The laser intensities are (a) and (b) 0.5PW/cm2, (c) and (d) 1.0PW/cm2, (e) and (f) 2.0PW/cm2, respectively. The distributions are plotted in units of U p. The ensemble size are 15 million (0.5PW/cm2), 10 million (1.0PW/cm2) and 6 million (2.0PW/cm2). For the two-dimensional momentum distributions, the horizonal axis denotes the longitudinal momentum (alone z axis) and the vertical axis denotes the transverse momentum (alone x axis). Dashed vertical lines indicate 2 U p, and 4 U p.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Three sample TI trajectories. The upper, middle, and bottom rows show the longitudinal coordinate z (parallel to the laser polarization), energy, and longitudinal momentum versus the time for each electron, respectively. The arrows indicate the time when recollision occurs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The longitudinal ion momentum distributions of (0–3) (red curve) and (0-2-3)(blue curve) trajectories at 0.5PW/cm2. (b) The longitudinal ion momentum distributions of (0–3) (red curve) and (0-2-3) (blue curve) trajectories at 1.0PW/cm2. (c) The longitudinal ion momentum distributions of (0–3) (red curve) and (0-1-3) (dark green curve) trajectories at 2.0PW/cm2. The distributions are plotted in units of U p.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The triple ionization phase tTI versus recollision phase tr (both in cycle) where the intensities are (a) 0.5PW/cm2, (b) 2.0PW/cm2, (c) and (d) 1.0PW/cm2, respectively. At 0.5PW/cm2 most of the TI trajectories are ionized through (0–3) channel and at 2.0PW/cm2 they are ionized through (0-1-3) channel. For 1.0PW/cm2 we have separated the TI trajectories base on whether they get ionized through (0–3) (c) or (0-2-3) (d) channels.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The contributions of the different ionization channels to the total TI yield for the three laser intensities.

Equations (1)

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d 2 r i d t 2 = E ( t ) [ V ne ( r i ) + i j V e e ( r i , r j ) ] ,

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