Abstract

Compensation of nonlinear distortion of polarization-multiplexed (PolMux) signals in optical fiber is evaluated experimentally using all-optical signal pre-distortion and fiber loop phase-conjugation at the transmitter. An improved bit error rate is shown for high baud rate, 80 Gb/s RZ-DPSK PolMux signals before transmission in a 728 km long dispersion-managed fiber link employing a direct detection receiver. The partial compensation of nonlinear distortion for both single channel and 3 × 80 Gb/s WDM PolMux signals is observed, despite the impact from the inter-polarization nonlinearity and the associated polarization scattering. Evidence of the limited compensation of inter-polarization nonlinearity is shown.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013

M. D.  Pelusi, “WDM signal all-optical precompensation of Kerr nonlinearity in dispersion-managed fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 71–74 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

2009

2006

S. L.  Jansen, D.  van den Borne, P. M.  Krummrich, S.  Spälter, G.-D.  Khoe, H.  de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R.  Khosravani, Y. W.  Song, Y.  Xie, L.-S.  Yan, A. E.  Willner, C. R.  Menyuk, “Bit-pattern-dependent polarization rotation in first-order PMD-compensated WDM systems,” Opt. Commun. 257(1), 191–196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2000

B. C.  Collings, L.  Boivin, “Nonlinear polarization evolution induced by cross-phase modulation and its impact on transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(11), 1582–1584 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C.  Vinegoni, M.  Wegmuller, B.  Huttner, N.  Gisin, “Measurement of nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly birefringent optical fibre using a Faraday mirror,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2(4), 314–318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

S.  Watanabe, S.  Kaneko, T.  Chikama, “Long-haul fiber transmission using optical phase conjugation,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2(2), 169–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1989

F.  Curti, B.  Daino, Q.  Mao, F.  Matera, C. G.  Someda, “Concatenation of polarisation dispersion in single-mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 25(4), 290–292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M.  Martinelli, “A universal compensator for polarization changes induced by birefringence on a retracing beam,” Opt. Commun. 72(6), 341–344 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adamiecki, A.

Boffi, P.

Boivin, L.

B. C.  Collings, L.  Boivin, “Nonlinear polarization evolution induced by cross-phase modulation and its impact on transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(11), 1582–1584 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chikama, T.

S.  Watanabe, S.  Kaneko, T.  Chikama, “Long-haul fiber transmission using optical phase conjugation,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2(2), 169–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, A.

Collings, B. C.

B. C.  Collings, L.  Boivin, “Nonlinear polarization evolution induced by cross-phase modulation and its impact on transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(11), 1582–1584 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

Curti, F.

F.  Curti, B.  Daino, Q.  Mao, F.  Matera, C. G.  Someda, “Concatenation of polarisation dispersion in single-mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 25(4), 290–292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Daino, B.

F.  Curti, B.  Daino, Q.  Mao, F.  Matera, C. G.  Someda, “Concatenation of polarisation dispersion in single-mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 25(4), 290–292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

S. L.  Jansen, D.  van den Borne, P. M.  Krummrich, S.  Spälter, G.-D.  Khoe, H.  de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

Doerr, C. R.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Fejer, M. M.

Ferrario, M.

Gavioli, G.

S. J.  Savory, G.  Gavioli, E.  Torrengo, P.  Poggiolini, “Impact of interchannel nonlinearities on a split-step intrachannel nonlinear equalizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 673–675 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

C.  Vinegoni, M.  Wegmuller, B.  Huttner, N.  Gisin, “Measurement of nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly birefringent optical fibre using a Faraday mirror,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2(4), 314–318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

Heismann, F.

Huttner, B.

C.  Vinegoni, M.  Wegmuller, B.  Huttner, N.  Gisin, “Measurement of nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly birefringent optical fibre using a Faraday mirror,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2(4), 314–318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, S. L.

S. L.  Jansen, D.  van den Borne, P. M.  Krummrich, S.  Spälter, G.-D.  Khoe, H.  de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, S.

S.  Watanabe, S.  Kaneko, T.  Chikama, “Long-haul fiber transmission using optical phase conjugation,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2(2), 169–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G.-D.

S. L.  Jansen, D.  van den Borne, P. M.  Krummrich, S.  Spälter, G.-D.  Khoe, H.  de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khosravani, R.

R.  Khosravani, Y. W.  Song, Y.  Xie, L.-S.  Yan, A. E.  Willner, C. R.  Menyuk, “Bit-pattern-dependent polarization rotation in first-order PMD-compensated WDM systems,” Opt. Commun. 257(1), 191–196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krummrich, P. M.

S. L.  Jansen, D.  van den Borne, P. M.  Krummrich, S.  Spälter, G.-D.  Khoe, H.  de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

Leuthold, J.

Mao, Q.

F.  Curti, B.  Daino, Q.  Mao, F.  Matera, C. G.  Someda, “Concatenation of polarisation dispersion in single-mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 25(4), 290–292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Marazzi, L.

Martelli, P.

Martinelli, M.

Matera, F.

Mecozzi, A.

Menyuk, C. R.

R.  Khosravani, Y. W.  Song, Y.  Xie, L.-S.  Yan, A. E.  Willner, C. R.  Menyuk, “Bit-pattern-dependent polarization rotation in first-order PMD-compensated WDM systems,” Opt. Commun. 257(1), 191–196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Minzioni, P.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Parolari, P.

Pelusi, M. D.

M. D.  Pelusi, “WDM signal all-optical precompensation of Kerr nonlinearity in dispersion-managed fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 71–74 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Poggiolini, P.

S. J.  Savory, G.  Gavioli, E.  Torrengo, P.  Poggiolini, “Impact of interchannel nonlinearities on a split-step intrachannel nonlinear equalizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 673–675 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pusino, V.

Raybon, G.

Savory, S. J.

S. J.  Savory, G.  Gavioli, E.  Torrengo, P.  Poggiolini, “Impact of interchannel nonlinearities on a split-step intrachannel nonlinear equalizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 673–675 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Settembre, M.

Siano, R.

Sinsky, J. H.

Someda, C. G.

F.  Curti, B.  Daino, Q.  Mao, F.  Matera, C. G.  Someda, “Concatenation of polarisation dispersion in single-mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 25(4), 290–292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. W.

R.  Khosravani, Y. W.  Song, Y.  Xie, L.-S.  Yan, A. E.  Willner, C. R.  Menyuk, “Bit-pattern-dependent polarization rotation in first-order PMD-compensated WDM systems,” Opt. Commun. 257(1), 191–196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spälter, S.

S. L.  Jansen, D.  van den Borne, P. M.  Krummrich, S.  Spälter, G.-D.  Khoe, H.  de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tabacchiera, M.

Torrengo, E.

S. J.  Savory, G.  Gavioli, E.  Torrengo, P.  Poggiolini, “Impact of interchannel nonlinearities on a split-step intrachannel nonlinear equalizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 673–675 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van den Borne, D.

S. L.  Jansen, D.  van den Borne, P. M.  Krummrich, S.  Spälter, G.-D.  Khoe, H.  de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vinegoni, C.

C.  Vinegoni, M.  Wegmuller, B.  Huttner, N.  Gisin, “Measurement of nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly birefringent optical fibre using a Faraday mirror,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2(4), 314–318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

S.  Watanabe, S.  Kaneko, T.  Chikama, “Long-haul fiber transmission using optical phase conjugation,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2(2), 169–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wegmuller, M.

C.  Vinegoni, M.  Wegmuller, B.  Huttner, N.  Gisin, “Measurement of nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly birefringent optical fibre using a Faraday mirror,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2(4), 314–318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

R.  Khosravani, Y. W.  Song, Y.  Xie, L.-S.  Yan, A. E.  Willner, C. R.  Menyuk, “Bit-pattern-dependent polarization rotation in first-order PMD-compensated WDM systems,” Opt. Commun. 257(1), 191–196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xia, T. J.

T. J.  Xia, “Optical channel capacity – From Mb/s to Tb/s and beyond,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17(5), 328–334 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

Xie, Y.

R.  Khosravani, Y. W.  Song, Y.  Xie, L.-S.  Yan, A. E.  Willner, C. R.  Menyuk, “Bit-pattern-dependent polarization rotation in first-order PMD-compensated WDM systems,” Opt. Commun. 257(1), 191–196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.-S.

R.  Khosravani, Y. W.  Song, Y.  Xie, L.-S.  Yan, A. E.  Willner, C. R.  Menyuk, “Bit-pattern-dependent polarization rotation in first-order PMD-compensated WDM systems,” Opt. Commun. 257(1), 191–196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

F.  Curti, B.  Daino, Q.  Mao, F.  Matera, C. G.  Someda, “Concatenation of polarisation dispersion in single-mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 25(4), 290–292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt.

P.  Minzioni, “Nonlinearity compensation in a fiber-optic link by optical phase conjugation,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 28(3), 179–209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. D.  Pelusi, “WDM signal all-optical precompensation of Kerr nonlinearity in dispersion-managed fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 71–74 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. J.  Savory, G.  Gavioli, E.  Torrengo, P.  Poggiolini, “Impact of interchannel nonlinearities on a split-step intrachannel nonlinear equalizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 673–675 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. C.  Collings, L.  Boivin, “Nonlinear polarization evolution induced by cross-phase modulation and its impact on transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(11), 1582–1584 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. L.  Jansen, D.  van den Borne, P. M.  Krummrich, S.  Spälter, G.-D.  Khoe, H.  de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

C.  Vinegoni, M.  Wegmuller, B.  Huttner, N.  Gisin, “Measurement of nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly birefringent optical fibre using a Faraday mirror,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2(4), 314–318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M.  Martinelli, “A universal compensator for polarization changes induced by birefringence on a retracing beam,” Opt. Commun. 72(6), 341–344 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R.  Khosravani, Y. W.  Song, Y.  Xie, L.-S.  Yan, A. E.  Willner, C. R.  Menyuk, “Bit-pattern-dependent polarization rotation in first-order PMD-compensated WDM systems,” Opt. Commun. 257(1), 191–196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

T. J.  Xia, “Optical channel capacity – From Mb/s to Tb/s and beyond,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17(5), 328–334 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.  Watanabe, S.  Kaneko, T.  Chikama, “Long-haul fiber transmission using optical phase conjugation,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2(2), 169–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Low complexity digital perturbation back-propagation,” in Proc. ECOC 2011, paper Tu.3.A.2, 2011.

L. Marazzi, P. Parolari, P. Martelli, R. Siano, P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, A. Righetti, M. Martinelli, V. Pusino, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Real-time 100-Gb/s POLMUX RZ-DQPSK transmission over uncompensated 500 km of SSMF by optical phase conjugation,” in Proc OFC/NFOEC 2009, paper JWA44 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of dispersion-managed link with pre-compensation of fiber nonlinearity for PolMux signals by Tx-OPC. (b) Experimental set-up of Tx-OPC with nonlinear pre-distortion in SSMF before fiber loop OPC. (c) Optical spectra of fiber loop output for either 1 × or 3 × 80 Gb/s PolMux input signal at total applied PNL of 80 and 281 mW, respectively, and ≈1551 nm wavelength to generate phase conjugate at ≈1559 nm by FWM pumped by a CW laser. (Inset) First span input after EDFA for both with, and (blue lines) without Tx-OPC. (d) Set-ups of the 100 GHz spaced WDM 3 × 40 Gbaud RZ DPSK signal source, and the (e) direct detection receiver with a polarizer for polarization demultiplexing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission performance for 40 Gbaud RZ-DPSK signal in 10 span DM-link (solid lines, filled points) with nonlinearity compensation by Tx-OPC, and (dashed lines, empty points) without Tx-OPC. Output BER versus Pin for (colored curves) single polarization 40 Gb/s signal, and (black curves) 80 Gb/s PolMux signal for (triangle points) x and (circles) y polarization channels. The diamond and box points are PolMux 3 × 80 Gb/s WDM centre channel (Ch. 2) x and y polarization channels, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

1 × 80 Gb/s PolMux signal transmission in 10 span link with Pin = 10 mW. (a) 40 Gbaud signal eye diagrams at photoreceiver output, and optical spectra after polarization demultiplexing of x polarization channel, and (b) minimum BER versus received optical power for (solid lines, filled points) with Tx-OPC at optimum PNL, and (dashed lines, empty points) without Tx-OPC, in the case of (black lines) fiber link transmission, and (colored lines) B2B with fiber link removed, for (triangle points) x and (circle points) y polarization channels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PolMux 3 × 80 Gb/s RZ DPSK signal output from 10 span DM-link for (solid lines) with Tx-OPC at PNL = 276 mW, and (b) without Tx-OPC. (a) Optical spectra after polarization demultiplexing, and center channel (Ch. 2) 40 Gb/s eye diagrams from Rx, and (b) output BER for (triangle points) x and (circle points) y polarization channels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

1 x 80 Gb/s PolMux signal BER measured at fixed received power after 10-span DM-fiber link for PolMux input signal to either (solid lines) Tx-OPC, or (dashed lines) pre-GVD module at the Tx for (triangle points) x and (circle points) y polarization channels, showing the improved BER by Tx-OPC despite the added pre-distortion nonlinearity

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

1 × 80 Gb/s PolMux signal transmission in 10 span DM-fiber link with Tx-OPC inserted (black lines) after PolMux circuit for dual polarization channel input, or (colored lines) before PolMux circuit for single polarization channel input. (a) (solid lines, filled data points) Minimum BER versus Pin and (dashed lines, open data points) corresponding UNL for PNL normalized to (N·Pin·Leff·M*/(M·LNL), and (b) BER versus normalized PNL at fixed Pin = 10 mW. Triangle and circle points are for x and y polarization channels, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Output BER measured at fixed received power versus the product Pin × N/M for 1 × 80 Gb/s PolMux signal transmission in (black lines) 10 span and (colored lines) single span fiber link for (solid lines) with and (dashes) without Tx-OPC of PolMux input signal, showing the similar performance for comparable 〈ϕT. Triangle and circle points are for the x and y polarization channels, respectively.

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