Abstract

We demonstrate the use of a THz penetration-enhancing agent (THz-PEA) to enhance the terahertz (THz) wave penetration depth in tissues. The THz-PEA is a biocompatible material having absorption lower than that of water, and it is easily absorbed into tissues. When using glycerol as a THz-PEA, the peak value of the THz signal which was transmitted through the fresh tissue and reflected by a metal target, was almost doubled compared to that of tissue without glycerol. THz time-of-flight imaging (B-scan) was used to display the sequential glycerol delivery images. Enhancement of the penetration depth was confirmed after an artificial tumor was located below fresh skin. We thus concluded that the THz-PEA technique can potentially be employed to enhance the image contrast of the abnormal lesions below the skin.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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  1. J.-H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102033 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(2), 424–432 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oh, J. Choi, I. Maeng, J. Y. Park, K. Lee, Y.-M. Huh, J.-S. Suh, S. Haam, and J.-H. Son, “Molecular imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Express19(5), 4009–4016 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (6)

S. J. Oh, J. Kang, I. Maeng, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, and J.-H. Son, “Nanoparticle-enabled terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis,” Opt. Express17(5), 3469–3475 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Ji, E. S. Lee, S. H. Kim, J.-H. Son, and T.-I. Jeon, “A miniaturized fiber-coupled terahertz endoscope system,” Opt. Express17(19), 17082–17087 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hoshina, A. Hayashi, N. Miyoshi, F. Miyamaru, and C. Otani, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of frozen biological tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(12), 123901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, B. M. Fischer, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Effects of formalin fixing on the terahertz properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 064017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

X. Xu and R. K. Wang, “The role of water desorption on optical clearing of biotissue: Studied with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys.30(6), 1246–1253 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. Ronne and S. R. Keiding, “Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Liq.101(1–3), 199–218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

B. Ferguson and D. Abbott, “De-noising techniques for terahertz responses of biological samples,” Microelectronics Journal (Elsevier)32(12), 943–953 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

B. Ferguson and D. Abbott, “De-noising techniques for terahertz responses of biological samples,” Microelectronics Journal (Elsevier)32(12), 943–953 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, K.-M.

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bui, A. K.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Cho, K.-S.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H. J.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

Choi, Y.

Cicchi, R.

Cluff, J.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deibel, J.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and D. Abbott, “De-noising techniques for terahertz responses of biological samples,” Microelectronics Journal (Elsevier)32(12), 943–953 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

Y. Sun, B. M. Fischer, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Effects of formalin fixing on the terahertz properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 064017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flanagan, N.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haam, S.

Han, J. K.

Han, J.-H.

Hayashi, A.

H. Hoshina, A. Hayashi, N. Miyoshi, F. Miyamaru, and C. Otani, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of frozen biological tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(12), 123901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirshburg, J.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoshina, H.

H. Hoshina, A. Hayashi, N. Miyoshi, F. Miyamaru, and C. Otani, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of frozen biological tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(12), 123901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

Huh, Y.-M.

Jeon, T.-I.

Ji, Y. B.

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J.

Keiding, S. R.

C. Ronne and S. R. Keiding, “Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Liq.101(1–3), 199–218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Kim, K. W.

Kim, K.-R.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-S.

Kim, S. H.

Kim, Y. I.

Lee, E. S.

Lee, K.

Lee, S. H.

Maeng, I.

Massi, D.

McClure, R. A.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyamaru, F.

H. Hoshina, A. Hayashi, N. Miyoshi, F. Miyamaru, and C. Otani, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of frozen biological tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(12), 123901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miyoshi, N.

H. Hoshina, A. Hayashi, N. Miyoshi, F. Miyamaru, and C. Otani, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of frozen biological tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(12), 123901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. J.

Otani, C.

H. Hoshina, A. Hayashi, N. Miyoshi, F. Miyamaru, and C. Otani, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of frozen biological tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(12), 123901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, C.

Park, J.

Park, J. Y.

Park, J.-H.

Pavone, F.

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

Y. Chen, S. Huang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Frequency-wavelet domain deconvolution for terahertz reflection imaging and spectroscopy,” Opt. Express18(2), 1177–1190 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, B. M. Fischer, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Effects of formalin fixing on the terahertz properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 064017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purushotham, A. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pye, R.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ronne, C.

C. Ronne and S. R. Keiding, “Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Liq.101(1–3), 199–218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D.

Seok, S.-H.

Shankar, S.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sim, Y. C.

Son, J.-H.

Stoianovici, C.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, J.-S.

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, B. M. Fischer, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Effects of formalin fixing on the terahertz properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 064017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, V. P.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

X. Xu and R. K. Wang, “The role of water desorption on optical clearing of biotissue: Studied with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys.30(6), 1246–1253 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

X. Xu and R. K. Wang, “The role of water desorption on optical clearing of biotissue: Studied with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys.30(6), 1246–1253 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, A. T.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Hoshina, A. Hayashi, N. Miyoshi, F. Miyamaru, and C. Otani, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of frozen biological tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(12), 123901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J.-H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Y. Sun, B. M. Fischer, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Effects of formalin fixing on the terahertz properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 064017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mol. Liq. (1)

C. Ronne and S. R. Keiding, “Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Liq.101(1–3), 199–218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

X. Xu and R. K. Wang, “The role of water desorption on optical clearing of biotissue: Studied with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys.30(6), 1246–1253 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microelectronics Journal (Elsevier) (1)

B. Ferguson and D. Abbott, “De-noising techniques for terahertz responses of biological samples,” Microelectronics Journal (Elsevier)32(12), 943–953 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

J.-H. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology24(21), 214001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Radiology (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental scheme.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

THz spectrum of water, ethanol, petroleum jelly, and glycerol. (a) shows absorption coefficients and (b) shows the refractive indices.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Visual and THz images of a knife below a tissue without and a tissue with glycerol. (a) shows the visual image of a knife below the tissues. (b) shows THz image from (a) using peak-to-peak values of the whole range of the THz time-domain waveforms in (e). (c) shows the THz image from (a) using peak-to-peak values of time-domain waveforms from 7.5 ps to end in (e). (d) shows the experimental scheme. (e) shows THz time-domain waveforms of asterisks from (a), with the blue and red line indicating the waveforms in *1 and *2, respectively. The size of THz image was 5 × 3 cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sequential THz waveforms in the tissue with glycerol. (a) shows time-dependent THz time-domain waveforms in the tissue after applying glycerol. (b) shows the frequency-domain waveforms from (a). The glycerol drop was placed on the tissue that was on the quartz window. The THz waveforms were reflected from the surface between the tissue and the quartz window.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time-dependent THz two-dimension and B-scan images of the tissue after application of glycerol. (a) shows the top view photograph of the tissue with glycerol. (b) shows the scheme of the side view of tissue from (a). (c) shows THz images from the surface of the tissues. (d) shows the THz B scan images of the dotted line from (c).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

THz image of artificial tumors on tissues without and with glycerol. (a) shows a top view visible image of the tissues and the artificial tumor. (b) & (c) shows a THz image of the tissues with the artificial tumor when the peak-to-peak values of the whole-time domain signal was used and when the main peak-to-peak range was cut off, respectively. The size of the THz image was 5 × 3 cm2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

THz B-scan image of artificial tumors on the tissues without and with glycerol. (a) shows a THz image of a tissue with an artificial tumor. (b) shows THz B scan images of the red dotted line from (a). The green arrows indicate the 2nd pulses occurring between the tissue and the artificial tumor, while the red arrow indicates the post-pulses due to air.

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